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Hacking apple accessori...
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Who am I ?
# @GotoHack
– DAY: Pentester & Team Leader
– NIGHT: Security Researcher
# Area of expertise
– Mobility / BYOD...
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MFI Devices Invasion
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iDevices Attack surface
BootROM LLB iBoot Kernel
Apps
Bootime Runtime
USB host / Apple Accessory
iDevices
DFU Mode
IMG3
...
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iTunes Services
GOTO:...
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USBmuxd and USBmux protocol
Client side communication
# USBmuxd
– Daemon is started at system launch (on user system).
–...
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Lockdownd
# Lockdownd binary
– Responsible for several tasks
• Pairing,
• Activation,
• Unlocking FairPlay certificates,...
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iTunes’ service communication overview
iDevices Host
lockdownd Can you start afc service ?
Pairing request
AFC Service
A...
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Lockdown protocol & Pairing
Lockdownd(Device)
LockdownClient
XML Plist sent through USBmux
{Request=QueryType}
{Request=...
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libImobiledevice / pymobiledevice
# Libimobiledevice
– Cross-platform software library
– Developed by Nikias Bassen
– H...
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com.apple.mobilebackup &
com.apple.mobilebackup2
# Mobilebackup services
– Used by iTunes to backup the device
# iDevic...
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com.apple.afc
# AFC (Apple File Connection)
– Service running on all iDevices
– Handled by /usr/libexec/afcd
– Used by ...
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com.apple.mobile.house_arrest
# House_arrest
– allows accessing to AppStore applications folders and their content.
# U...
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com.apple.mobile.installation_proxy
# Installation proxy
– Manages applications on a device
• List installed applicatio...
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com.apple.mobile.diagnostics_relay
# Diagnostics relay
– Allows requesting iOS diagnostic information.
– Handles the fo...
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com.apple.mobile.file_relay
# File_Relay
– Allow paired devices to launch the following commands
• AppleSupport,
• Netw...
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Summary
# Pairing is initiated on the USB Host side
– Unlocking the device is mandatory
– This implementation may allow...
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GOTO: H[a]CK
Reversing...
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Anatomy of an Accessory
# MFI Alarm clock
– Apple dock connector
– Features :
• Compatible with all iPods
• Wake up to ...
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Opening the box…
Power supply &
Audio Amplifier
iDevice interface
Mother board
21
Mother board analysis
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R5F2126
In-System Programming
On-chip data flash (1Kbytes)
Internal ROM (32 Kbytes)
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iDevice interface
24
Reversing the circuit
GND
5V
Tx
Rx
ACDET
IPDET
IPODR
AGND
IPODL
1
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2...
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What about the Lightning connector ?
# In October 2012 Apple released the Lightning
– Apple proprietary bus and power c...
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Sniffing the communications
# Standard 8N1 serial protocol.
# Data are sent @ 19200 bauds.
27
Request/Response Structure
Play
https://nuxx.net/wiki/Apple_Accessory_Protocol
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Summary
# Hacking the firmware of the µC ?
– Not relevant regarding our goal
• We need some space to store user data…
#...
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GOTO: H[a]CK
Weapon...
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iPown Bill of materials
# 1 Raspberry pi
# 1 PodSocket
# 1 PodBreakout
# 1 USB Connector
# 1 mini USB Connector
# 1 WiF...
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Hardware Hacking
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Reversing the circuit
GND
5V
Tx
Rx
ACDET
IPDET
IPODR
AGND
IPODL
1
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5
6
7
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2...
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Enabling USB
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550K
Audio
RS232
USB
J1 i...
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Hacked MFI accessory
This dock station is now powered by
http://www.raspberrypi.org/
Cheap ARM GNU Linux board
Hardware...
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GOTO: H[a]CK
Demo
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iPown
Personal Data dumper…
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iPown
Personal Data dumper…
What if out alarm clock could silently jailbreak our device in
our sleep when we are dreami...
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iPown 2.0
Automatin...
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Public Jailbreaks
# jailbreakme.com
– Exploits by comex, Grant Paul (chpwn), Jay Freeman (saurik) & MuscleNerd
– Target...
40
evasi0n…
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Evasi0n
Initialization & Stage 1
# Evasi0n Stage 1
– Pairing with the device
– Starting com.apple.mobile.file_relay ser...
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Evasi0n
Stage 2: Overview
# Evasi0n Stage 2
– Chmod 777 /var/tmp/launchd
• Injecting symbolic link 1/2
– /var/db/timezo...
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Evasi0n
Stage 2: Remout payload
# Executing “DemoApp.app” => Executing the remount script
– Launchctl interfaces with l...
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Evasi0n
Stage 2: Remouting the file system in R/W
# launchd (runing as root) execute the remount script
– No mount poin...
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Evasi0n
Stage 3: Injecting final payload
# Evasi0n Stage 3
– Creating a directory at /var/evasi0n containing 4 files
• ...
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Reimplementing evasi0n
Modding evasi0n installer
# Hijacking Music iPhone Application instead of “DemoApp.app”
– Launch...
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Simulating user action
µC
# Original Schematic
# iPown Schematic
µC
in
in
out
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GOTO: H[a]CK
Demo
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Wake up Neo! Your phone got pwd…
Scenario
Room 1 : Victim Room 2 : Attacker
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Wake up Neo! Your phone got pwd…
Demo
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Conclusion
GOTO: H[...
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Conclusion
# Apple made the choice of user experience instead of security.
– It is possible to build up a malicious dev...
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Credits
Jan0 @planetbeing @pod2g
@MuscleNerd @pimskeks @ih8sn0w @i0n1c
@p0sixninja @saurik @Comex
Thanks to all members...
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Thank you for Liste...
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[HES2013] Hacking apple accessories to pown iDevices – Wake up Neo! Your phone got pwnd ! by Mathieu ‘GoToHack’ RENARD

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Unlike the previous jailbreakme.com exploits targeting MobileSafari that could be used against an unwitting victim, publicly available jailbreaks require USB tethering. Since iDevices refuse to communicate over USB if they are locked unless they have previously paired with the connecting device these jailbreaks have a lower security impact, and are usually only useful to the phone’s owner. Then it is legitimate to think we are safe. Nevertheless, malicious codes already running on hosting personal computers silently steal confidential information using iTunes services or leverage USB jailbreaks.

This talk will discuss about the most interesting Apple services (from the attacker point of view) and describe how they can be exploited in order to retrieve confidential information or to deploy the evasi0n jailbreak. Finally, the author will present the analysis of a Made For Apple (MFI) dock station and its weapownizing in order to allow an automated jailbreak.

Audio available here : http://2013.hackitoergosum.org/presentations/Day3-04.Hacking%20apple%20accessories%20to%20pown%20iDevices%20%e2%80%93%20Wake%20up%20Neo!%20Your%20phone%20got%20pwnd%20!%20by%20Mathieu%20GoToHack%20RENARD.mp3
More information about the conference : http://www.hackitoergosum.org

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[HES2013] Hacking apple accessories to pown iDevices – Wake up Neo! Your phone got pwnd ! by Mathieu ‘GoToHack’ RENARD

  1. 1. Cliquez pour modifier le style du titre Cliquez pour modifier le style des sous-titres du masque 1 Hacking apple accessories to pown iDevices Wake up Neo! Your phone got pown! GOTO: H[a]CK Mathieu RENARD - @GOTOHACK mathieu.renard[-at-]gotohack.org
  2. 2. 2 Who am I ? # @GotoHack – DAY: Pentester & Team Leader – NIGHT: Security Researcher # Area of expertise – Mobility / BYOD – Web application – Embedded systems – Hardware Hacking # Publications – GreHack 2012 • Practical iOS Application Hacking – HACK.lu 2012 • Hacking iOS Application
  3. 3. 3 MFI Devices Invasion
  4. 4. 4 iDevices Attack surface BootROM LLB iBoot Kernel Apps Bootime Runtime USB host / Apple Accessory iDevices DFU Mode IMG3 X509 Fake DFU IMG3 X509 Recovery mode IMG3 X509 Hardware, Driver: WiFi, Baseband MobileSafari MobileMail AppStore Deamons Accessory Protocol (Serial) iTunes services: Backup, AFC, … (USBMux)
  5. 5. Cliquez pour modifier le style du titre Cliquez pour modifier le style des sous-titres du masque 5 5 iTunes Services GOTO: H[a]CK
  6. 6. 6 USBmuxd and USBmux protocol Client side communication # USBmuxd – Daemon is started at system launch (on user system). – Creates a listening UNIX Domain Socket at /var/run/usbmuxd. – Wait for iDevice connections via USB – Allows multiplexing of TCP connection over one USB pipe USBMuxd USBMux Client Hello Hello Binary Data sent through UNIX Socket device ID TCP connect request
  7. 7. 7 Lockdownd # Lockdownd binary – Responsible for several tasks • Pairing, • Activation, • Unlocking FairPlay certificates, • Delegating communications to other services • … – Listening on port 62078 • Accessed through the usbmux protocol. • Packets – Data length : 32bits big endian word – Data : XML plist – Only available after pairing. • First pairing require the device to be unlocked
  8. 8. 8 iTunes’ service communication overview iDevices Host lockdownd Can you start afc service ? Pairing request AFC Service AFC Client USBMuxd libmobiledevicePairing OK Plist files sent over USB pipe AFC service is running on port : XXXXX AFC Commands AFC Results
  9. 9. 9 Lockdown protocol & Pairing Lockdownd(Device) LockdownClient XML Plist sent through USBmux {Request=QueryType} {Request=QueryType, Result=Success, Type=com.apple.mobile.lockdown} {PairRecord={DevicePublicKey=xxxxx, DeviceCertificate=xxxx,HostCertificate=xxxx, HostID=xxxx,RootCertificate=xxxx, SystemBUID=xxxx}, Request=Pair} {Request=GetValue, Label=xxxx} {Request=GetValue, Label=xxxx, Value={ActivationPublicKey=xxxx, DevicePublicKey=xxxx,UniqueDeviceID=xxxx, DieID=xxx,…}} {Request=Pair, EscrowBag=xxxx} {PairRecord={DevicePublicKey=xxxxx, DeviceCertificate=xxxx, HostCertificate=xxxx, HostID=xxxx,RootCertificate=xxxx, SystemBUID=xxxx}, Request=ValidatePair} {Request=ValidatePair} {HostID=xxx, Request=StartSession} {SessionID=xxx, Request=StartSession, EnableSessionSSL=True}
  10. 10. 10 libImobiledevice / pymobiledevice # Libimobiledevice – Cross-platform software library – Developed by Nikias Bassen – Handles the protocols to support iDevices. – Based on the open source implementation of usbmuxd # Pymobiledevice – Lite python implementation – Handles only most important protocols to support iDevices – Based on the open source implementation of usbmuxd # Allows other software to easily interact with the services hosted on the device.
  11. 11. 11 com.apple.mobilebackup & com.apple.mobilebackup2 # Mobilebackup services – Used by iTunes to backup the device # iDevice backup – Permit a user to restore personal data and settings – Abusing this service may allow an attacker • Retrieving personal and confidential data – SMS – Call Logs – application data – default preferences – data stored in the keychain (WiFi password, VPN Certificate Passwords). • Inject data to the device. – Can be password protected
  12. 12. 12 com.apple.afc # AFC (Apple File Connection) – Service running on all iDevices – Handled by /usr/libexec/afcd – Used by iTunes to exchange files – AFC clients can access certain files only • Files located in the Media folder
  13. 13. 13 com.apple.mobile.house_arrest # House_arrest – allows accessing to AppStore applications folders and their content. # Using an AFC client, a user/attacker can download the application resources and data (documents, photos…). – Including “default preferences” • File where credentials are sometimes stored.
  14. 14. 14 com.apple.mobile.installation_proxy # Installation proxy – Manages applications on a device • List installed applications. • Install an application on the device. • Upgrade an application on the device. • Uninstall an application from the device. • List archived applications. • Archive an application on the device – Creating a ZIP archive in the “ApplicationArchives” directory and uninstalling the application • Removes a previously archived application from the device – Used by the com.apple.mobile.house_arrest • Enumerate and dump installed applications.
  15. 15. 15 com.apple.mobile.diagnostics_relay # Diagnostics relay – Allows requesting iOS diagnostic information. – Handles the following actions: • Puts the device into deep sleep mode and disconnects from host. • Restart the device and optionally show a user notification. • Shutdown of the device and optionally show a user notification. – Used by evasi0n to update some caches by rebooting the device.
  16. 16. 16 com.apple.mobile.file_relay # File_Relay – Allow paired devices to launch the following commands • AppleSupport, • Network, • WiFi, • SystemConfiguration, • VPN, • UserDatabases, • CrashReporter, • Tmp, • Caches – All the files returned are stored in clear text in a CPIO archive – Asking for UserDatabases allow retrieving • SMS, Contacts, Calendar and Email from databases in clear text.
  17. 17. 17 Summary # Pairing is initiated on the USB Host side – Unlocking the device is mandatory – This implementation may allow malicious dock station to • Retrieve & Inject – SMS – Call Logs – application data – default preferences and data stored in the keychain (using backup)
  18. 18. Cliquez pour modifier le style du titre Cliquez pour modifier le style des sous-titres du masque 18 GOTO: H[a]CK Reversing an Apple MFI accessory
  19. 19. 19 Anatomy of an Accessory # MFI Alarm clock – Apple dock connector – Features : • Compatible with all iPods • Wake up to iPod • Full-function remote control • Charges iPod whilst connected
  20. 20. 20 Opening the box… Power supply & Audio Amplifier iDevice interface Mother board
  21. 21. 21 Mother board analysis
  22. 22. 22 R5F2126 In-System Programming On-chip data flash (1Kbytes) Internal ROM (32 Kbytes)
  23. 23. 23 iDevice interface
  24. 24. 24 Reversing the circuit GND 5V Tx Rx ACDET IPDET IPODR AGND IPODL 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 2V 550K 2,6V 49.9K 43.2K 49.9K 75K Audio RS232 Charging J1 iDevice connector J2
  25. 25. 25 What about the Lightning connector ? # In October 2012 Apple released the Lightning – Apple proprietary bus and power connector – Replace its previous proprietary 30-pin dock connector. – Using 8 pins instead of 30 – Significantly more compact than the 30-pin dock connector – Can be inserted with either face up. – Embeds an authentication chip inside the cable. • Analyzing the Lightning connector will not be so easy. # 30 pins adapters – Allows to connect 30-pin accessories to devices featuring the Lightning connector. – Successfully tested on the dock station used for our analysis
  26. 26. 26 Sniffing the communications # Standard 8N1 serial protocol. # Data are sent @ 19200 bauds.
  27. 27. 27 Request/Response Structure Play https://nuxx.net/wiki/Apple_Accessory_Protocol
  28. 28. 28 Summary # Hacking the firmware of the µC ? – Not relevant regarding our goal • We need some space to store user data… # Developing a custom dock ? – Challenging but too much time consuming regarding this study. – USB pins are not used • Allows connecting another device that share the same power supply # Hacking the dock and adding some hardware – The raspberry PI is meeting all our requirements – At least two USB ports • 1 to communicate with the connected device • 1 for a 3G / Wi-Fi adapter – 1 Ethernet port for debugging – GPIO (simulating user action on the dock) – Accepting 5V power supply.
  29. 29. Cliquez pour modifier le style du titre Cliquez pour modifier le style des sous-titres du masque 29 29 GOTO: H[a]CK Weaponizing an Apple MFI accessory
  30. 30. 30 iPown Bill of materials # 1 Raspberry pi # 1 PodSocket # 1 PodBreakout # 1 USB Connector # 1 mini USB Connector # 1 WiFi USB Key # 1 SDcard
  31. 31. 31 Hardware Hacking
  32. 32. 32 Reversing the circuit GND 5V Tx Rx ACDET IPDET IPODR AGND IPODL 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 2V 550K 2,6V 49.9K 43.2K 49.9K 75K Audio RS232 Charging J1 iDevice connector J2
  33. 33. 33 Enabling USB 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 550K Audio RS232 USB J1 iDevice connector J2 GND 5V Tx Rx ACDET IPDET IPODR AGND IPODL VCC D+ D- GND J3 USB
  34. 34. 34 Hacked MFI accessory This dock station is now powered by http://www.raspberrypi.org/ Cheap ARM GNU Linux board Hardware MiTM
  35. 35. Cliquez pour modifier le style du titre Cliquez pour modifier le style des sous-titres du masque 35 GOTO: H[a]CK Demo
  36. 36. 36 iPown Personal Data dumper…
  37. 37. 37 iPown Personal Data dumper… What if out alarm clock could silently jailbreak our device in our sleep when we are dreaming ?
  38. 38. Cliquez pour modifier le style du titre Cliquez pour modifier le style des sous-titres du masque 38 38 iPown 2.0 Automating Jailbreak GOTO: H[a]CK
  39. 39. 39 Public Jailbreaks # jailbreakme.com – Exploits by comex, Grant Paul (chpwn), Jay Freeman (saurik) & MuscleNerd – Targeting MobileSafari – Could be used against an unwitting victim – Only working on old devices # Others other recent jailbreaks (absinthe 1&2, evasi0n) – Require USB tethering. – Require User interaction • iDevices refuse to communicate over USB if they are locked unless they have previously paired. • Lower security impact • only useful to the phone’s owner # Are we really safe ?
  40. 40. 40 evasi0n…
  41. 41. 41 Evasi0n Initialization & Stage 1 # Evasi0n Stage 1 – Pairing with the device – Starting com.apple.mobile.file_relay service – Retrieving the com.apple.mobile.installation.plist • plist file • caches the list of installed applications – Activating the apple “DemoApp.app” – Restoring Hijacked “DemoApp.app” in /var/mobile • Using old mobilebackup simlink trick – Updating the caches / Rebooting the device • “DemoApp.app” will show up on SpringBoard after restart”
  42. 42. 42 Evasi0n Stage 2: Overview # Evasi0n Stage 2 – Chmod 777 /var/tmp/launchd • Injecting symbolic link 1/2 – /var/db/timezone -> /var/tmp/launchd • Crarshing lockdonwd 1/2 – Chmod 777 /var/db/timezone – Chmod 777 /var/tmp/launchd/sock • Injecting symbolic link 2/2 – /var/db/timezone -> /var/tmp/launchd/sock • Crashing lockdonwd 2/2 – Chmod 777 /var/tmp/launchd/sock – Waiting for user to launch the “DemoApp.app” – Injecting the remount payload – Uploading Cydia files
  43. 43. 43 Evasi0n Stage 2: Remout payload # Executing “DemoApp.app” => Executing the remount script – Launchctl interfaces with launchd to load, unload daemons/agents – launchd’s IPC mechanism operates through Unix domain sockets. – LAUNCHD SOCKET • Informs launchctl how to find the correct launchd socket – Launchd runs as root and here launchctl runs as mobile • The socket and the demaon launchctl have been chmoded 777 • Our mobile now able to communicate with the root user’s launchd
  44. 44. 44 Evasi0n Stage 2: Remouting the file system in R/W # launchd (runing as root) execute the remount script – No mount point is specified in the script – The kernel use the script name as mount point • Generating errors messages on stderr • The size of mount.stderr growing up # Evasion detects the “DemoApp.app” was launched – Checking the size of mount.stderr # Evasion inject another set of files unsing backup – Restoring timezone directory – Replacing “DemoApp.app” binary by a symbolink link pointing to / • The kernel use the script name as mount point • The file system is successfully remounted in RW
  45. 45. 45 Evasi0n Stage 3: Injecting final payload # Evasi0n Stage 3 – Creating a directory at /var/evasi0n containing 4 files • launchd.conf. – List of subcommands to run via launchctl when launchd starts  Remouting the filesytem in RW  Loading amfi.dylib library  Executing the evasi0n binary • amfi.dylib – Loaded with DYLD_INSERT_LIBRARY – Contains only lazy bindings and no TEXT section  No TEXT/text section means that there is nothing to sign  Overriding MISValidateSignature in order to always return 0  Allowing unsigned code execution • Evasi0n Binary : – Executed with root privilege in the early boot environment.  Launches the kernel exploit • Udid – Contains the UDID of the current device
  46. 46. 46 Reimplementing evasi0n Modding evasi0n installer # Hijacking Music iPhone Application instead of “DemoApp.app” – Launched when connect the device is connected to a dock – Handle Remote accessory protocol – We can trigger the remount payload automatically – The payload can be triggered by the alarm
  47. 47. 47 Simulating user action µC # Original Schematic # iPown Schematic µC in in out
  48. 48. Cliquez pour modifier le style du titre Cliquez pour modifier le style des sous-titres du masque 48 GOTO: H[a]CK Demo
  49. 49. 49 Wake up Neo! Your phone got pwd… Scenario Room 1 : Victim Room 2 : Attacker
  50. 50. 50 Wake up Neo! Your phone got pwd… Demo
  51. 51. Cliquez pour modifier le style du titre Cliquez pour modifier le style des sous-titres du masque 51 51 Conclusion GOTO: H[a]CK
  52. 52. 52 Conclusion # Apple made the choice of user experience instead of security. – It is possible to build up a malicious device in order to get both the data and the control of iDevices. “When things get up close and personal, the rule is always better safe than sorry" Don’t connect your device to an untrusted dock station
  53. 53. 53 Credits Jan0 @planetbeing @pod2g @MuscleNerd @pimskeks @ih8sn0w @i0n1c @p0sixninja @saurik @Comex Thanks to all members of the jailbreak community for sharing their work and all of my friends who helped me to prepare this talk. Don’t learn to hack but hack to learn !
  54. 54. Cliquez pour modifier le style du titre Cliquez pour modifier le style des sous-titres du masque 54 54 Thank you for Listening Questions ? mathieu.renard[-at-]gotohack.org - http://www.gotohack.org GOTO: H[a]CK

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