CROSS CULTURE UNDERSTANDING Lecturer DR. I Gede Budasi, M.Ed. S1 Degree in Applied Linguistics (FKG UNUD,1983) Post Graduate Diploma in Applied Linguistics (RELC- Singapore, 1990) Master in Applied Linguistics (Univ. of South Australia, 1994) Doctor in Historical Comparative Linguistics (UGM 2007)
Countries Visited throughInternational Seminars onCCU Singapore, 1989 Malaysia 1990 Australia 1994 India, 1997 Newzealand, 1997 Swiss, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2012 Denmark, 2009 Russia, 2012
Future Plan for OtherInternational Seminars on CCU Camboja 2013 Mexico 2013 Canada and America 2013
CCU SPECIFIC GOALS To encourage an appreciation of cultural diversity and the process of intercultural communication To provide a context for reading and vocabulary development To stimulate discussions about culture based on the readings and conversational activities To become a better, more tolerant person To become more skilled intercultural communication
What in culture? All accepted and patterned ways of behavior of a given people. It is a body of common understanding. It is the sum total and the organization or arrangement of the group’s ways of thinking, feeling, and acting In this sense, of course, every people has a culture and no individual can live without culture. It is our culture that enables us to get through the day because we and the other people we encounter attach somewhat the same meaning to the same things (Man and Culture, Ina C Brown).
Cont. Culture is that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, moral. law, custom, and other capabilities acquired by member of a society ( E.B. Taylor in Kerry, 1994) The some total of ways of living built up by a group of human beings, which is transmitted from one generation to generation to another (The Macquarie Encyclopedic Dictionary)
Reasons why you might be interested indeveloping intercultural communication skills .. For the sake of improved understanding and harmony. For the sake of doing business with one another and living together successfuly For an enjoyble and self-enriching goal. Are you motivated by all three?
What is the wayforward? Increase contact Goodwill Tolerance Look for knowledge, awareness and skill needed to improve intercultural communication.
We all have rituals? Other cultures have customs and rituals. We don’t. Other people may follow customs and rituals. I don’t. I can do exactly what I want. My actions are independent of my culture. Quite a lot of my behaviour is retiualized. It follows a pattern prescribed by my cultural group.
Cont. I don’t have total freedom of choice in my behaviour. My actions are rule-governed Accept that you are a member of a culture which regulates your behaviour
What should berealized? Underneath, people are fundamentally the same Underneath, people of the world can be profoundly different Cultures are so different that we will never be able to communicate successfully. People have always succeeded and they will continue to succeed in intercultural communication. Accept cultural difference as reality
Cultures are verydifferent from oneanother believe? Which do you “Underneath, we are all fundamentally similar” or “We are fundamentally different” Your answer for this question is probably largely determined by your culture
Are there universals ofbehaviour? Clearly there are universal categories of behaviour. There are five ‘panhuman cultural categories’, each with number of sub categories
Categories of Behavior (Kerry, 1994) Social Control Individual Social Collective and Technology Behaviour Behaviour Beliefs Education1. Bodily 1. Dancing 1. Marriage 1. Calendars 1. Dream2. Adornment 2. Gift Giving 2. Law 2. Cooking Interpretation3. Personal Names 3. Hospitality 3. Property Rights 3. Toolmaking 2. Religious4. Gestures 4. Games 4. Sexual 4. Trade Ritual5. Hair Styles 3. Propitiation of 5. Joking Restriction 5. Numerals Supernatural6. Mourning 5. Status 6. Visiting 6. Obstetrics Beings Differentiation 7. Kinship 6. Inheritance 7. Medicine 4. Magic Naming Rules 5. Religious 7. Education Ritual 8. Government 9. Modesty concerning natural functions
Consider the following: Great each other React to a compliment Apologise Watch TV Regard sexual behaviour Dismiss employees Interview applicant Assess their status in society Stand when talking to the boss Define friendship Make small talk
Some other Conceptabout culture for youto consider Cultures are not fixed: change over time Culture are not Uniform: very internally No culture is an Island
Intercultural Communication Model (Alo, 2003) Accommodative Communication Adaptive Strategy Effective C Culture Culture Communication Personality A B Personality Perception to OthersPerception to Others Uncertainty Anxiousness
CCU TOPICS OF DISCUSSION 1. Introductions 2. Verbal Patterns 3. Nonverbal Communication 4. Personal Relationships 5. Family Values 6. Educational Attitudes 7. Work Values 8. Time and Space Patterns 9. Cultural Conflict 10. Cultural Adjustment
INTRODUCTIONS Varieties of Introductions Use of Titles in Introductions Eye Contact and Handshaking in Introductions Small Talk after Introductions Cultural Variations in Introductions
VERBAL PATTERNS Rulers and Styles of Speaking Directness in American English Invitations Speaking and Refraining from Speaking Different Ways of Expressing Common Needs
NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION Cultural Differences in Nonverbal Communication Gestures Facial Expressions Eye Contact Space
PERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS Circles of Friends Mobility and Friendship Instant Friendships Male – Female Relationships Intercultural Friendships
FAMILY VALUES Child Raising Young Adulthood The Elderly The Nuclear and the Extended Family Familial Roles Stability and Change in the Family
EDUCATIONAL ATTITUDES Diversity in Education Active Participation The Teacher – Student Relationship Independent Learning The Honor System Competition
WORK VALUES The “Work Ethic” The “American Dream” Rewards and Job Satisfaction Workaholics Leisure and Socializing
TIME AND SPACE PATTERNS Time Promptness Division of Time Future Time Architectural Differences Privacy and the Use of Space
CULTURAL CONFLICT Communication and Culture Misinterpretations Ethnocentrism Stereotypes and Prejudice
CULTURAL ADJUSTMENT Culture Shock The Adjustment Process The Re-entry Process Individual Reactions
The Adjustment Process in a New Culture (1)Honeymoon period (5) Acceptance and (3) integration Initial adjustment (2) (4) Culture Metal shock isolation
The “Re – entry” Adjustment Process (1)Acceptance (5) (3) and Re-integration Returnintegration honeymoon (2) (4) Return Re-entry anxiety shock
References Alo L. 2003. Dasar-Dasar Komunikasi Antarbudaya. Jakarta: Pustaka Pelajar. Deena R Levina & Mara B Adelman. Intercultural Communication for English as a Second Language: Beyond Language. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall,Inc., Englewood Cliffs Kerry O’Sullivan 1994. Understanding Ways: Communicating Between Cultures. Sydney: Hale & Iremonger Pty Limited.