Cross CulturUnderstanding by heri


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Cross CulturUnderstanding by heri

  1. 1. CROSS CULTURE UNDERSTANDING  Lecturer  DR. I Gede Budasi, M.Ed.  S1 Degree in Applied Linguistics (FKG UNUD,1983) Post Graduate Diploma in Applied Linguistics (RELC- Singapore, 1990) Master in Applied Linguistics (Univ. of South Australia, 1994)  Doctor in Historical Comparative Linguistics (UGM 2007)
  2. 2. Countries Visited throughInternational Seminars onCCU  Singapore, 1989  Malaysia 1990  Australia 1994  India, 1997  Newzealand, 1997  Swiss, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2012  Denmark, 2009  Russia, 2012
  3. 3. Future Plan for OtherInternational Seminars on CCU  Camboja 2013  Mexico 2013  Canada and America 2013
  4. 4. CCU SPECIFIC GOALS  To encourage an appreciation of cultural diversity and the process of intercultural communication  To provide a context for reading and vocabulary development  To stimulate discussions about culture based on the readings and conversational activities  To become a better, more tolerant person  To become more skilled intercultural communication
  5. 5. What in culture?  All accepted and patterned ways of behavior of a given people. It is a body of common understanding. It is the sum total and the organization or arrangement of the group’s ways of thinking, feeling, and acting  In this sense, of course, every people has a culture and no individual can live without culture. It is our culture that enables us to get through the day because we and the other people we encounter attach somewhat the same meaning to the same things (Man and Culture, Ina C Brown).
  6. 6. Cont.  Culture is that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, moral. law, custom, and other capabilities acquired by member of a society ( E.B. Taylor in Kerry, 1994)  The some total of ways of living built up by a group of human beings, which is transmitted from one generation to generation to another (The Macquarie Encyclopedic Dictionary)
  7. 7. Reasons why you might be interested indeveloping intercultural communication skills ..  For the sake of improved understanding and harmony.  For the sake of doing business with one another and living together successfuly  For an enjoyble and self-enriching goal. Are you motivated by all three?
  8. 8. What is the wayforward?  Increase contact  Goodwill  Tolerance  Look for knowledge, awareness and skill needed to improve intercultural communication.
  9. 9. We all have rituals?  Other cultures have customs and rituals. We don’t.  Other people may follow customs and rituals. I don’t.  I can do exactly what I want. My actions are independent of my culture.  Quite a lot of my behaviour is retiualized. It follows a pattern prescribed by my cultural group.
  10. 10. Cont.  I don’t have total freedom of choice in my behaviour.  My actions are rule-governed  Accept that you are a member of a culture which regulates your behaviour
  11. 11. What should berealized?  Underneath, people are fundamentally the same  Underneath, people of the world can be profoundly different  Cultures are so different that we will never be able to communicate successfully.  People have always succeeded and they will continue to succeed in intercultural communication.  Accept cultural difference as reality
  12. 12. Cultures are verydifferent from oneanother believe?  Which do you “Underneath, we are all fundamentally similar” or “We are fundamentally different” Your answer for this question is probably largely determined by your culture
  13. 13. Are there universals ofbehaviour?  Clearly there are universal categories of behaviour. There are five ‘panhuman cultural categories’, each with number of sub categories
  14. 14. Categories of Behavior (Kerry, 1994) Social Control Individual Social Collective and Technology Behaviour Behaviour Beliefs Education1. Bodily 1. Dancing 1. Marriage 1. Calendars 1. Dream2. Adornment 2. Gift Giving 2. Law 2. Cooking Interpretation3. Personal Names 3. Hospitality 3. Property Rights 3. Toolmaking 2. Religious4. Gestures 4. Games 4. Sexual 4. Trade Ritual5. Hair Styles 3. Propitiation of 5. Joking Restriction 5. Numerals Supernatural6. Mourning 5. Status 6. Visiting 6. Obstetrics Beings Differentiation 7. Kinship 6. Inheritance 7. Medicine 4. Magic Naming Rules 5. Religious 7. Education Ritual 8. Government 9. Modesty concerning natural functions
  15. 15. Consider the following:  Great each other  React to a compliment  Apologise  Watch TV  Regard sexual behaviour  Dismiss employees  Interview applicant  Assess their status in society  Stand when talking to the boss  Define friendship  Make small talk
  16. 16. Some other Conceptabout culture for youto consider  Cultures are not fixed: change over time  Culture are not Uniform: very internally  No culture is an Island
  17. 17. Intercultural Communication Model (Alo, 2003) Accommodative Communication Adaptive Strategy Effective C Culture Culture Communication Personality A B Personality Perception to OthersPerception to Others  Uncertainty  Anxiousness
  18. 18. CCU TOPICS OF DISCUSSION 1. Introductions 2. Verbal Patterns 3. Nonverbal Communication 4. Personal Relationships 5. Family Values 6. Educational Attitudes 7. Work Values 8. Time and Space Patterns 9. Cultural Conflict 10. Cultural Adjustment
  19. 19. INTRODUCTIONS Varieties of Introductions Use of Titles in Introductions Eye Contact and Handshaking in Introductions Small Talk after Introductions Cultural Variations in Introductions
  20. 20. VERBAL PATTERNS Rulers and Styles of Speaking Directness in American English Invitations Speaking and Refraining from Speaking Different Ways of Expressing Common Needs
  21. 21. NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION  Cultural Differences in Nonverbal Communication  Gestures  Facial Expressions  Eye Contact  Space
  22. 22. PERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS  Circles of Friends  Mobility and Friendship  Instant Friendships  Male – Female Relationships  Intercultural Friendships
  23. 23. FAMILY VALUES Child Raising Young Adulthood The Elderly The Nuclear and the Extended Family Familial Roles Stability and Change in the Family
  24. 24. EDUCATIONAL ATTITUDES  Diversity in Education  Active Participation  The Teacher – Student Relationship  Independent Learning  The Honor System  Competition
  25. 25. WORK VALUES The “Work Ethic” The “American Dream” Rewards and Job Satisfaction Workaholics Leisure and Socializing
  26. 26. TIME AND SPACE PATTERNS  Time  Promptness  Division of Time  Future Time  Architectural Differences  Privacy and the Use of Space
  27. 27. CULTURAL CONFLICT Communication and Culture Misinterpretations Ethnocentrism Stereotypes and Prejudice
  28. 28. CULTURAL ADJUSTMENT Culture Shock The Adjustment Process The Re-entry Process Individual Reactions
  29. 29. The Adjustment Process in a New Culture (1)Honeymoon period (5) Acceptance and (3) integration Initial adjustment (2) (4) Culture Metal shock isolation
  30. 30. The “Re – entry” Adjustment Process (1)Acceptance (5) (3) and Re-integration Returnintegration honeymoon (2) (4) Return Re-entry anxiety shock
  31. 31. References Alo L. 2003. Dasar-Dasar Komunikasi Antarbudaya. Jakarta: Pustaka Pelajar. Deena R Levina & Mara B Adelman. Intercultural Communication for English as a Second Language: Beyond Language. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall,Inc., Englewood Cliffs Kerry O’Sullivan 1994. Understanding Ways: Communicating Between Cultures. Sydney: Hale & Iremonger Pty Limited.