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assessment 1 compilation

  1. 1. Assessment The term ‘assessment’ refers to all those activities undertaken by teachers, and by theirstudents in assessing themselves, which provide information to be used as feedback to modify theteaching and learning activities in which they are engaged.Since this seminal article, educators have differentiated assessment according to its purpose: Assessment for learning Assessment as learning Assessment of learning - Assessment for learning - Assessment as learning - Assessment of learning is ongoing, diagnostic, actively involves students. occurs at end of year or and formative. It is for It is ongoing, and it at key stages. It is ongoing planning. It is involves self and peer summative. It is for not used for grading and assessment. It provides grading and Report cards. Report Cards. students with the opportunity to use the feedback to improve learning. Allows time for self-edit. diagnostic and formative self-assessment summative teacher assessment, the development of self- teacher assessment student self-assessment, assessment skills may be either criterion- and/or student peer peer-assessment referenced (based on assessment the development of peer- prescribed learning criterion-referenced – assessment skills outcomes) or norm- criteria based on provides students with referenced (comparing prescribed learning information on their own student achievement to outcomes identified in achievement and prompts that of others) the provincial them to consider how they information on student curriculum, reflecting can continue to improve performance can be performance in relation their learning shared with to a specific learning student-determined parents/guardians, school task criteria based on previous and district staff, and involves both teacher learning and personal other education and student in a process learning goals professionals (e.g., for of continual reflection students use assessment the purposes of and review about information to make curriculum development) progress adaptations to their used to make judgments teachers adjust their learning process and to about students’ plans and engage in develop new performance in relation corrective teaching in understandings to provincial standards response to formative provides the opportunity used for grading and assessment to respond to assessment Report Cards feedback to improve a project.
  2. 2. ASSESSMENT OF LEARNING Assessment is defined as the process of observing and measuring learning. In order to improvestudent learning, teachers evaluate students achievement levels. While many people still think ofassessment as a multiple-choice test, in reality, assessments are accomplished in a number of ways. Educator and scholar Rick DuFour once defined the core mission of education as ensuring thatstudents learn, rather than merely being taught. This raises the questions of what students should learnand how to determine whether they have learned it. State standardized tests and similar assessmentshelp answer these questions by assessing student learning. Since the 1980s, assessment of learning hasbeen a key element in educational accountability.Identification  Assessment of learning, also known as summative assessment, is designed to measure student achievement and gauge what they have learned. Federal and state education laws, aimed at strengthening educational accountability, often require such assessments as measures of how well schools and their students perform academically. Guided by state and federal standards, school systems determine what knowledge and skills students should acquire and align school curriculum to instruments designed to assess the extent to which students have learned.Significance  Because education policy-makers use assessments of learning as a kind of report card by which to grade the performance of individual campuses and entire school systems, educators and students receive enormous pressure to perform well on these tests. The federal No Child Left Behind law, passed in 2001, mandates school improvement requirements for campuses and school systems that fall short of state performance standards.Types  State standardized tests in reading/language arts, mathematics, science and social studies are the most common types of summative assessments. Other examples include the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT), which many colleges and universities require for admission. The SAT measures verbal and mathematical skills. School- and classroom-based final exams in specific subjects are other examples of assessments of learning, because they measure how well students learned the course material.History  Assessment of learning grew in prominence in American education in the 1980s, following the publication of "A Nation at Risk," a federal report which warned of "a rising tide of mediocrity" in American schools. This report set off a wave of education reforms that included a new emphasis on school accountability, as measured by standardized assessments. Key states in this reform movement included Texas, South Carolina and Arkansas.Misconceptions  Because of the high stakes associated with standardized testing, many people may regard all tests as assessments of learning. However, there is another class of assessment, known as formative. Formative tests are assessments for learning, rather than assessments of learning. Formative assessments are designed to measure student progress in learning, and can help guide classroom instruction by identifying strengths and weaknesses in student knowledge. These assessments also can identify students who need additional academic help. Examples of assessments for learning include benchmark assessments, which some school systems
  3. 3. administer during the course of a school year to gauge student progress in reaching learning objectives. What Is Assessment of Learning? Assessment of learning refers to strategies designed to confirm what students know,demonstrate whether or not they have met curriculum outcomes or the goals of their individualizedprograms, or to certify proficiency and make decisions about students’ future programs or placements.It is designed to provide evidence of achievement to parents, other educators, the students themselves,and sometimes to outside groups (e.g., employers, other educational institutions). Assessment of learning is the assessment that becomes public and results in statements orsymbols about how well students are learning. It often contributes to pivotal decisions that will affectstudents’ futures. It is important, then, that the underlying logic and measurement of assessment oflearning be credible and defensible.Teachers’ Roles in Assessment of Learning Because the consequences of assessment of learning are often far-reaching and affect studentsseriously, teachers have the responsibility of reporting student learning accurately and fairly, based onevidence obtained from a variety of contexts and applications. Effective assessment of learning requiresthat teachers provide  a rationale for undertaking a particular assessment of learning at a particular point in time  clear descriptions of the intended learning  processes that make it possible for students to demonstrate their competence and skill  a range of alternative mechanisms for assessing the same outcomes  public and defensible reference points for making judgments  transparent approaches to interpretation  descriptions of the assessment process  strategies for recourse in the event of disagreement about the decisions With the help of their teachers, students can look forward to assessment of learning tasks asoccasions to show their competence, as well as the depth and breadth of their learning.Planning Assessment of Learning Why am I assessing? The purpose of assessment of learning is to measure, certify, and report the level of students’learning, so that reasonable decisions can be made about students.There are many potential users of the information:  teachers (who can use the information to communicate with parents about their children’s proficiency and progress)  parents and students (who can use the results for making educational and vocational decisions)  potential employers and post-secondary institutions (who can use the information to make decisions about hiring or acceptance)  principals, district or divisional administrators, and teachers (who can use the information to review and revise programming)
  4. 4. What am I assessing? Assessment of learning requires the collection and interpretation of information about students’accomplishments in important curricular areas, in ways that represent the nature and complexity of theintended learning. Because genuine learning for understanding is much more than just recognition orrecall of facts or algorithms, assessment of learning tasks need to enable students to show thecomplexity of their understanding. Students need to be able to apply key concepts, knowledge, skills,and attitudes in ways that are authentic and consistent with current thinking in the knowledge domain. What assessment method should I use? In assessment of learning, the methods chosen need to address the intended curriculumoutcomes and the continuum of learning that is required to reach the outcomes. The methods mustallow all students to show their understanding and produce sufficient information to support credibleand defensible statements about the nature and quality of their learning, so that others can use theresults in appropriate ways. Assessment of learning methods include not only tests and examinations, but also a rich varietyof products and demonstrations of learning—portfolios, exhibitions, performances, presentations,simulations, multimedia projects, and a variety of other written, oral, and visual methods.Graduation Portfolios - is a requirement for graduation from British Columbia and Yukon Senior Years schools. These portfolios comprise collections (electronic or printed) of evidence of students’ accomplishments at school, home, and in the community, including demonstrations of their competence in skills that are not measured in examinations.Worth four credits toward graduation, the portfolios begin in Grade 10 and are completed by the end ofGrade 12. The following are some goals of graduation portfolios: Students will adopt an active and reflective role in planning, managing, and assessing their learning. Students will demonstrate learning that complements intellectual development and course- based learning. Students will plan for successful transitions beyond Grade 12.Graduation portfolios are prepared at the school level and are based on specific Ministry criteria andstandards. Students use the criteria and standards as guides for planning, collecting, and presentingtheir evidence, and for self-assessing. Teachers use the criteria and standards to assess student evidenceand assign marks.
  5. 5. THREE MAJOR COMPONENTS OF A GRADUATION PORTFOLIO: 1. Portfolio Core (30 percent of the mark). Students must complete requirements in the following six portfolio organizers: arts and design (respond to an art, performance, or design work); community involvement and responsibility (participate co-operatively and respectfully in a service activity); education and career planning (complete a graduation transition plan); employability skills (complete 30 hours of work or volunteer experience); information technology (use information technology skills); personal health (complete 80 hours of moderate to intense physical activity) 2. Portfolio Choice (50 percent of the mark). Students expand on the above areas, choosing additional evidence of their achievements. 3. Portfolio Presentation (20 percent of the mark). Students celebrate their learning and reflect at the end of the portfolio process.(Portfolio Assessment and Focus Areas: A Program Guide) How can I ensure quality in this assessment process? Assessment of learning needs to be very carefully constructed so that the information uponwhich decisions are made is of the highest quality. Assessment of learning is designed to be summative,and to produce defensible and accurate descriptions of student competence in relation to definedoutcomes and, occasionally, in relation to other students’ assessment results. Certification of students’proficiency should be based on a rigorous, reliable, valid, and equitable process of assessment andevaluation.ReliabilityReliability in assessment of learning depends on how accurate, consistent, fair, and free from bias anddistortion the assessment is. Teachers might ask themselves:  Do I have enough information about the learning of this particular student to make a definitive statement?  Was the information collected in a way that gives all students an equal chance to show their learning?  Would another teacher arrive at the same conclusion?  Would I make the same decision if I considered this information at another time or in another way?Reference Points Typically, the reference points for assessment of learning are the learning outcomes asidentified in the curriculum that make up the course of study. Assessment tasks include measures ofthese learning outcomes, and a student’s performance is interpreted and reported in relation to theselearning outcomes.
  6. 6. In some situations where selection decisions need to be made for limited positions (e.g.,university entrance, scholarships, employment opportunities), assessment of learning results are used torank students. In such norm-referenced situations, what is being measured needs to be clear, and theway it is being measured needs to be transparent to anyone who might use the assessment results.Validity Because assessment of learning results in statements about students’ proficiency in wide areasof study, assessment of learning tasks must reflect the key knowledge, concepts, skills, and dispositionsset out in the curriculum, and the statements and inferences that emerge must be upheld by theevidence collected.Record-Keeping Whichever approaches teachers choose for assessment of learning, it is their records thatprovide details about the quality of the measurement. Detailed records of the various components ofthe assessment of learning are essential, with a description of what each component measures, withwhat accuracy and against what criteria and reference points, and should include supporting evidencerelated to the outcomes as justification. When teachers keep records that are detailed and descriptive, they are in an excellent positionto provide meaningful reports to parents and others. Merely a symbolic representation of a student’saccomplishments (e.g., a letter grade or percentage) is inadequate. Reports to parents and othersshould identify the intended learning that the report covers, the assessment methods used to gather thesupporting information, and the criteria used to make the judgment.Assessing to Meet Benchmarks  Standards are set by every state for each grade level as goals for achievement. Students are assessed to see if they are performing at grade level. For example, in language arts, upper elementary students should be skilled in using reference materials such as a dictionary and thesaurus, and they should be able to identify cause and effect and propaganda techniques. By using assessments to evaluate skill levels, teachers can identify those who need additional help in achieving grade-level goals.Authentic Assessments  Authentic assessments in the classroom resemble tasks a student might encounter in the real world. Working on an authentic assessment task is an engaging learning activity that motivates the student to complete the assignment. An example of an authentic assessment for reading might be to ask students questions based on reading a newspaper. For authentic assessments, the teacher takes the thinking process the student uses into consideration.Standardized Tests  Standardized tests are typically a multiple-choice format in which all students answer the same questions. There is usually only one correct answer to the question. This type of testing is only one of the assessment tools used in todays classroom. The problem with standardized tests is that they reward a students ability to answer a question quickly without any in-depth thought or creativity. Standardized tests have been criticized for not taking minority students cultural
  7. 7. background into consideration and because they do not reflect accurately what is now known about how people learn.Performance Assessments  Another form of assessment in common use today is the performance assessment. For this type of assessment, students are asked to apply their skills. Students are typically presented with a scoring rubric or matrix ahead of time, so they understand how they are being graded. Performance assessments have the added bonus of allowing students to work in cooperative groups, with each member contributing based on individual interests or skills. For example, after reading a short story by Edgar Allan Poe in class, groups might be assigned to research the author, read another of his stories and compare it to the first one, dramatize a scene from the story and create a visual aid for a presentation. Group members may be allowed to select the contributions they would like to make to the project. How can I use the information from this assessment?Feedback to Students Because assessment of learning comes most often at the end of a unit or learning cycle,feedback to students has a less obvious effect on student learning than assessment for learning andassessment as learning. Nevertheless, students do rely on their marks and on teachers’ comments asindicators of their level of success, and to make decisions about their future learning endeavors.Differentiating Learning In assessment of learning, differentiation occurs in the assessment itself. It would make littlesense to ask a near-sighted person to demonstrate driving proficiency without glasses. When the driveruses glasses, it is possible for the examiner to get an accurate picture of the driver’s ability, and tocertify him or her as proficient. In much the same way, differentiation in assessment of learning requiresthat the necessary accommodations be in place that allow students to make the particular learningvisible. Multiple forms of assessment offer multiple pathways for making student learning transparentto the teacher. A particular curriculum outcome requirement, such as an understanding of the socialstudies notion of conflict, for example, might be demonstrated through visual, oral, dramatic, or writtenrepresentations. As long as writing were not an explicit component of the outcome, students who havedifficulties with written language, for example, would then have the same opportunity to demonstratetheir learning as other students. Although assessment of learning does not always lead teachers to differentiate instruction orresources, it has a profound effect on the placement and promotion of students and, consequently, onthe nature and differentiation of the future instruction and programming that students receive.Therefore, assessment results need to be accurate and detailed enough to allow for wiserecommendations.Reporting There are many possible approaches to reporting student proficiency. Reporting assessment oflearning needs to be appropriate for the audiences for whom it is intended, and should provide all of theinformation necessary for them to make reasoned decisions. Regardless of the form of the reporting,however, it should be honest, fair, and provide sufficient detail and contextual information so that it canbe clearly understood. Traditional reporting, which relies only on a student’s average score, provides
  8. 8. little information about that student’s skill development or knowledge. One alternate mechanism, whichrecognizes many forms of success and provides a profile of a student’s level of performance on anemergent-proficient continuum, is the parent-student- teacher conference. This forum provides parentswith a great deal of information, and reinforces students’ responsibility for their learning. ASSESSMENT FOR LEARNINGASSESSMENT FOR LEARNING AT A GLANCE Assessment for learning is a relatively new concept. This involves a process where assessment,including tests, quizzes, and informal assessments such as discussions, journaling and question-and-answer exchanges in the classroom, is directly aligned to the learning outcomes of a particular unit. Inother words, the assessment is designed to match the objectives and outcomes for each unit of study. It is a crucial component of effective instruction. When students clearly understand theirlearning targets, and their progress toward those learning targets, they are more motivated. Additionallywhen teachers clearly understand how well their students are learning content, they can make betterdecisions about how to differentiate and pace learning experiences in the classroom. Educators define assessment for learning as the process of determining what a student knowsor what skills the student has and then making sure the assessment aligns with the knowledge which thestudent needs to gain in a curriculum unit. Increasingly, educational research favors methods ofassessment that involve the student in actively constructing a product or idea and that allow the studentto express knowledge in multiple ways: reading, writing, drawing, acting and composing. Such methodsmaximize student learning and involvement in the process.The Process This approach to developing assessment for learning involves six components:One: Develop Guiding Questions Effective questions should be comprehensive—that is, if students can effectively answer all ofthe guiding questions for a unit, they should do well on the end of unit assessments. Also, questionsshould be easy for students to understand.Two: Develop Answers to the Guiding Questions Prior to teaching, teachers should identify (a) what students need to know to be able to answerthe unit question successfully, and (b) what students need to be able to do in order to successfullyanswer each unit question.Three: Write Specific Proficiencies Once teachers have written answer to the guiding questions, or while they are answeringquestions, they should create a list of specific proficiencies: short sentences that summarize the contentor abilities students need to learn, demonstrate, or master. Good specific proficiencies are (a) partialanswers to guiding questions, (b) short, (c) contain one idea, (d) written as complete sentences, and are(e) easily understood by students.
  9. 9. Four: Identify Informal Assessments Review the list of possible assessments. Identify effective assessments for each specificproficiencies. Effective assessments (a) clearly tell students how well they are performing; (b) clearly tellteachers how well all students are performing (c) are easy to use (d) take little time to implement.Five: Use Assessments Effectively During the class, employ the assessments in a way that ensures you are assessing all students.Six: Revisit, Reflect, Revise After you’ve used the assessments, and at the end of the unit, consider whether or not the unitquestions and the assessments for learning were effective. Where necessary, revise the assessment tomake them are more effective. Formative vs Summative Assessment Formative Assessment Summative AssessmentThe goal of formative assessment is to gather The goal of summative assessment is to measurefeedback that can be used by the instructor and the level of success or proficiency that has beenthe students to guide improvements in the ongoing obtained at the end of an instructional unit, byteaching and learning context. These are low comparing it against some standard or benchmark.stakes assessments for students and instructors. Examples:Examples: Assigning a grade to a final examAsking students to submit one or two sentences Critique of a Senior recitalidentifying the main point of a lecture University Faculty Course EvaluationsHave students submit an outline for a paper.Early course evaluations The outcome of a summative assessment can be used formatively, however, when students or faculty take the results and use them to guide their efforts and activities in subsequent courses.High quality assessment is based on the following principles: 1. The primary purpose of assessment is to improve student learning. 2. Assessment practices must be fair and equitable for all students. 3. Communication about assessment is ongoing, clear and meaningful. 4. Professional development and collaboration support assessment. 5. Students and parents are involved in the assessment process. 6. Assessment practices are regularly reviewed and refined.
  10. 10. The Primary Purpose of Assessment The primary purpose of assessment is for the student to receive multiple attempts to practiceand to demonstrate understanding of content and to develop skills by receiving specific and timelyfeedback by the teacher in order to improve achievement. The primary purpose of assessment is for the teacher to analyze student progress for thepurpose of modifying and refining the teaching/learning cycle to better meet student needs.There are three types of assessment, each distinguished by the kinds of questions that it answers. Withthe exception of some very simple diagnostic tools, the same contexts, methods, and tools can be usedto collect data for each of the three types of assessment: diagnostic, formative, and summative.Identifying the Purpose of Teaching/Learning and Assessment Teachers should review the Boards curriculum guidelines and resource documents, theirknowledge of learning and child development, and assessment information about their students, withthe learning expectations presented in The Ontario Curriculum in mind. One the basis of thisinformation, they:  determine what their students currently know, can do and value  describe what they want their students to know, be able to do and value  describe developmentally appropriate criteria/observable indicators of achievementPrograms, units, lessons, tasks and contexts are then planned and implemented to provide:  multiple and varied opportunities for students to achieve what we want them to know, do and value  multiple and varied opportunities for students to demonstrate their learning  evidence of student achievement  information for the analysis of students strengths, needs and interests  information for determining how successful instructions have been and where modifications may be required The Differences between Assessment and Evaluation ASSESSMENT EVALUATION gathering of information about something, act of setting a value on the assessment such as student performance information is information is a judgment qualitative quantitative pinpoints specific strengths and ranks and sorts individuals within groups weaknesses only summative diagnostic and formative, as well as most useful to administrators, politicians summative and parents most useful to teachers and students focuses on the group focuses on the individual student is a political/administrative measure is an educational measure is referenced by norm is referenced by criterion
  11. 11. REFERENCES     learning.html    achievement/index.asp      ypes_of_assessment.cfm 
  12. 12. St. Louise de Marillac College of Sorsogon Sorsogon City Higher Education Department Submitted by: Jushabeth G. Garcera BSEd-III Submitted to: Mr. Ruel Frago Instructor A.Y. 2011-2012
  13. 13. Table of ContentsAcknowledgement……………………………………………….…………….…….….…..Related Literature………………………………………………………………….…..…….Table of Specification…………………………………………………………....….……..Sample Test Items……………………………………………………………….…..……....Key to Correction………………………………………………………………….….….. .Scores…………………………………………………………………………………….….…......Tally of Scores…………………………………………………………………….…….….….Item Analysis……………………………………………………………………….…….….…Statistical Treatment…………………………………………………………….……..…..
  14. 14. Scores of Students27 27 26 26 2525 24 24 24 2424 23 23 23 2222 22 22 21 2121 21 20 19 19
  15. 15. 19 19 18 18 18 17 17 17 16 15 14 14 12 ITEM ANALYSISSubject: English 1 Grading Period: 3rdSubject Teacher: Mrs. Leah Gabad School year: 2011-2012ITEMS Nt Nr No Di ACTION ITEMS Nt Nr No Di ACTION 1 38 23 60.53 INCLUDED 20 38 7 18.42 DISCARDED 2 38 35 92.11 DISCARDED 21 38 16 42.11 INCLUDED 3 38 14 36.84 INCLUDED 22 38 5 13.16 DISCARDED 4 38 37 97.37 DISCARDED 23 38 33 86.84 DISCARDED 5 38 21 55.26 INCLUDED 24 38 15 39.47 INCLUDED 6 38 15 39.47 INCLUDED 25 38 28 73.68 DISCARDED 7 38 20 52.63 INCLUDED 26 38 29 76.32 DISCARDED 8 38 26 68.42 INCLUDED 27 38 24 63.16 INCLUDED 9 38 21 55.26 INCLUDED 28 38 20 52.63 INCLUDED 10 38 32 84.21 DISCARDED 29 38 10 26.32 DISCARDED 11 38 15 39.47 INCLUDED 30 38 15 39.47 INCLUDED 12 38 14 36.84 INCLUDED 31 38 24 63.16 INCLUDED 13 38 13 34.21 INCLUDED 32 38 5 13.16 DISCARDED 14 38 1 2.63 DISCARDED 33 38 27 71.05 DISCARDED 15 38 29 76.32 DISCARDED 34 38 26 68.42 INCLUDED 16 38 24 63.16 INCLUDED 35 38 33 86.84 DISCARDED 17 38 31 81.58 DISCARDED 36 38 8 21.05 DISCARDED 18 38 15 39.47 INCLUDED 37 38 9 23.68 DISCARDED 19 38 9 23.68 DISCARDED 38 38 25 65.79 INCLUDED
  16. 16. 39 38 10 26.32 DISCARDED 40 38 25 65.79 INCLUDEDNt= no. of students who took the test No= no. of students who omitted the itemNr= no. of students with correct answer Di= Difficulty indexINTERPRETATION: 0% - 30%= Difficult 31%- 69%= Average 70%- 100%ACTION: Discard Include DiscardPrepared by:Jushabeth G. GarceraBSEd-III Acknowledgement I wish to convey my profound gratitude to my devoted andexperience teacher, Mr. Ruel Frago who guided me in making thiscompilation successful. It will help me a lot in my future teaching. I also express my grateful acknowledgement to my belovedparents, friends, “hersheyko” and also to my classmates, who serveas my inspiration in making this project. This compilation has been done to the best of my ability andpersonal knowledge and that if, I will be successful in the future, Iwill share what I’ve learned to the coming young future generationof our entire nation.
  17. 17. JUSHABETH G. GARCERA NAME OF STUDENTS WITH SCORES Nandy Garra 20 Nayco Givero 19 Fay Lalen Gazo 18Melly Hullon 22 Journie Basa II 27Fatima Garrido 17 CJ Ivanne Dichoso 25Amy Fulgar 14 Daniela Givero 24Jhon Bechie Marcaida 22 Raycian Marie Garrados 14Jesusa Gillego 19 Frite Garrido 23Mila Salve Manuel 24Alliah Joi Garcera 23Rona Vargas 21Roselyn Biñas 26Mary Joy Dealagdon 23Venice Lopez 18Twinky Villacone 18
  18. 18. Justin Garcera 21Krisna Durian 25 Jera Rodriguez 19Chelsea Garcera 24 Glydel Mirabel 12Venus Gardon 16 Arnel Parlage 15Kim Yambao 19 Ruth Gayo 27Kim Ferreras 24Tintin Sofia Durian 22Maricar Garcera 17Aldrin Cabrera 21Ma. Joannah Besorio 26Ryan Garrido 21Normenah Padate 17John Kennedy Gillego 24Ronna Mae Infante 22
  19. 19. Key to Correction
  20. 20. 1. C 12. A 23. B 34. C2. B 13. C 24. B 35. D3. A 14. C 25. B 36. A4. D 15. B 26. B 37. B5. B 16. A 27. B 38. D6. B 17. D 28. C 39. B7. C 18. B 29. B 40. C8. A 19. B 30. D9. B 20. B10. B 31. C 21. A 32. A 22. C 33. B11. B