Introduction to Civil Engineering Design


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Introduction to Civil Engineering Design

  1. 1. KKKH 1034 Introduction to Civil Engineering Design<br />LECTURER: 1. Ir. Dr.Othman Jaafar<br /> 2. Ir. AnuarKasa<br /> 3. Pn. NorainiHamzah<br />PRESENTED BY,<br />GROUP 2<br />1. TEOH SHI SHENG A127329<br />2.NOR SHAIRAH AZLAN A126830<br />3.LIM WEE LEE A127084<br />4.NORIZZATI GHAZALI A128156<br />5.MUHAMMAD AKRAM BIN AMIRUDDIN A128457<br />
  2. 2. Introduction<br /><ul><li>Sungai Pinang is located at midway of Sungai Lembing to Kuantan.
  3. 3. Flood always happen.
  4. 4. Inconvenience occurred.
  5. 5. Causes of flood will be investigated.
  6. 6. Topography of the terrain will be studied.
  7. 7. Mitigations and solutions will be proposed.
  8. 8. Remediation plan will be developed for the area affected.</li></li></ul><li>POSSIBLE CAUSES<br />DEFORESTATION<br />SHALLOW RIVER<br />LOWLAND REGION<br />IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE SYSTEM<br />MONSOON SEASON<br />
  9. 9. DEFORESTATION<br />
  10. 10. DEFINITION<br />Clearing of virgin forests, or intentional destruction or removal of trees without replanting and allowing time for the forest to regenerate itself.<br />Imprudent and non-scientific method of logging or burning forest trees.<br />
  11. 11. How deforestation causing flood in Sungai Pinang?<br />It reduces soil quality and results in soil erosion and flooding.<br />Lack of green forest influent the control of water level of Sungai Pinang and consequently causing flood.<br />The land's capacity to hold ground water shrinks with the depleting forest cover.<br />
  12. 12. Reduces soil cohesion, so that flooding ensues.<br />Deforested areas become sources of surface water runoff.<br />Tree reduce raindrop impact. Without them, rain causes more erosion to the soil.<br />Less tree roots to absorb water from the soil.<br />
  13. 13. Demand of palm oil and rubber<br /> Clearing of <br /> tropical forest<br />Logging<br />Forest fires<br />Degrading of rainforest<br />FLOOD !!!<br />
  14. 14. SHALLOW RIVER<br />It cause the flood easily to occur during the heavy rainfall.<br />The river become shallow because of <br /><ul><li>River erosion
  15. 15. Disposal of human domestic wastes
  16. 16. Meandering of the river.</li></ul>River erosion occurs due to :<br /><ul><li>Erosion happens in heavy rain, rainwater will flow fast and erode river banks  sediments on river bed.</li></ul> Disposal of human domestic wastes effected : <br /><ul><li>Wastes such as garbage and industry remnants into river could cause river becoming shallow and water flow being blocked. velocity decrease.</li></li></ul><li>Meandering of the river<br /><ul><li>Meandering  the water that flows through it will erode the meander bends as it travels downstream.
  17. 17. Sediment deposition will occur along the inner meander bends where the velocity is low
  18. 18. Then, it causes the sediment on the river beds.</li></li></ul><li>3.LOW LAND REGION<br /><ul><li>From topography map, Sungai Pinang is located at low land region .</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Usually, rubber tree can be found at low land area.
  19. 19. Rubber tree contain lateritic type of soil.
  20. 20. Lateritic soil can be found in area which receive high rainfall.
  21. 21. Coarse texture, soft and friable.
  22. 22. Very poor in water catchment.</li></li></ul><li>Laterite soil<br />Laterite soil<br />
  23. 23. <ul><li>When raining, there will exist an excess surface runoff water in large amount and cannot be supported by outlet such as river.
  24. 24. Rubber tree plantation existed in the area consists of lateritic type of soil.
  25. 25. Rain water hardly absorbed by the soil and flows to the nearest river.
  26. 26. Water level of the river rises rapidly.
  27. 27. When rain water volume exceeded the river water level, thus flood occurs.</li></li></ul><li>4. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE SYSTEM<br /><ul><li>The problem divided to 2 parts:</li></ul>1.Natural part<br /><ul><li>Too many small streams flow towards Sungai Pinang.
  28. 28. The river has limited capacity.
  29. 29. The surrounding of Sungai Pinang is swampy area.
  30. 30. Being a catchment area.</li></li></ul><li>2.Anthropogenic Part<br /><ul><li>Had been turned into agriculture and mining area.
  31. 31. Development
  32. 32. The irrigation and drainage system available there are not able to transfer water effectively.
  33. 33. The water just flow into Sungai Pinang and accumulates at that area.</li></li></ul><li>5. MONSOON SEASON<br /><ul><li>Malaysia lies between India and Pacific Ocean.
  34. 34. The general air circulation is dominated by a system of monsoons.
  35. 35. Two monsoons influence rainfall at different intervals of year :</li></ul>Southwest monsoon winds blow from April-September.<br />Northeast monsoon winds blow from November-February.<br /><ul><li>Sungai Pinang, Kuantan located at east Peninsular Malaysia, which has a relatively long coastline, having predominantly marine environment.
  36. 36. Kuantan undergone northeast monsoon wind.
  37. 37. Kuantan is considered as one of the wettest region.</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Topographic map showing the average amount of daily rainfall among 7-13 December 2004:</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>The climatological information in Kuantan shown below is provided by MSN’s weather.</li></li></ul><li>MITIGATION AND REMEDIAL MEASURES.<br />SOLUTION OF DEFORESTATION TO MITIGATE FLOOD <br />RIVER BANK PROTECTION<br />IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE SYSTEM<br />CONSTRUCT A NEW BRIDGE AND INCREASE THE ELEVATION OF THE ROAD<br />PERMEABLE PAVEMENT<br />TELEMETRIC SYSTEM<br />
  38. 38. 1.Solution of Deforestationto Mitigate Flood<br />
  39. 39. Sustainable forest management (SFM)<br />The management of forests according to the principles of sustainabledevelopment.<br />Use of forests in a way and at a rate, which to maintain the whole ecological systems at global level.<br />Does not damage other ecosystems.<br />Attainment of balance.<br />
  40. 40. 2. Using of recycled items<br />Example: Books, toilet papers, shopping bags, and etc.<br />Do not waste any of the products. If you can, reuse and recycle them. <br />Reduce of logging of trees beside Sungai Pinang.<br />Therefore, flood can be eased.<br />
  41. 41. 3. Farming<br />New methods are developed to farm more intensively.<br />High-yield hybrid crops, greenhouse, autonomous building gardens, and hydroponics.<br />Rotate crops on farm.<br />
  42. 42. 4. Replacement of firewood<br />Use coals instead of using firewood.<br />Reduce the demand of wood.<br />5. Reforestation and Afforestation<br />Restocking of existing forests and woodlands which have been depleted.<br />Most plants do not like standing in water but some will tolerate moist soils.<br />Elephant Ears helps further to stabilise the bank side.<br />Growing of plants ensures the absorbing of water.<br />
  43. 43.
  44. 44. 2. RIVER BANK PROTECTION<br />
  45. 45. <ul><li>To prevent soil erosion.
  46. 46. Reduce amount of sediment enter to the river.
  47. 47. Artificial levees or dykes:
  48. 48. Made of stone or concrete.
  49. 49. Regulate the water level.
  50. 50. Increase capacity of river.
  51. 51. Patch work is needed.</li></ul>Mississippi River levee at Gretna, Louisiana.<br />
  52. 52. <ul><li>Revetment:
  53. 53. Riprap consists of rock types.
  54. 54. Strengthen river bank.
  55. 55. Absorb kinetic energy of incoming water.
  56. 56. None uniform shape of riprap interlock and makes up a stable structure.
  57. 57. The size and mass of riprap is very big, would not easily flush away.
  58. 58. Plants among riprap can hold structure stronger.</li></li></ul><li>3. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE SYSTEM<br />Irrigation and drainage system in the surrounding area must be refurbished.<br />The authorities such as the Public Works Department (JKR) and the Department of Irrigation and Drainage District to expand the size of the Sungai Pinang<br />Drainage and irrigation should be well monitored and supervised regularly<br />
  59. 59. Government should consider privatization. This is because of the high expenses from the aspect of manpower, equipment, technology and expertise.<br />Privatization accelerates the implementation of flood control project.<br /><ul><li>The amount of electric pump house should be increased, well maintained and upgraded to perform better.
  60. 60. Drainage system shall be constructed near the main drainage to channel the water to the other river
  61. 61. Construct another path to flow water to the nearby agriculture areas</li></li></ul><li>Centre-Pivot system.<br />Portable overhead sprinkler system.<br />
  62. 62. Yellow line- suggested part of <br /> straightening river.<br />Red Spot- suggested area for small dam<br />
  63. 63. 3.1 Straightening the river<br />From our observation, Sungai Pinang is not a straight river. It has a lot bends and curves<br />Cause the water to flows slowly.<br />River straightening is a process of straightening the path of the river to reduce its curves and bends<br />will lead to the shortening of the river thereby increasing the speed of flow.<br />
  64. 64. <ul><li>After the river straightening, now the river was narrower and straighter, making the river flow faster which pushed all debris and sediments on the bank and river bed downstream, making river deeper
  65. 65. Lastly it will reduced the flooding.</li></li></ul><li>3.2 CONSTRUCT A SMALL DAM<br />A small dam is suggested to be constructed between the Sungai Pinang and Sungai Kuantan.<br />This is a closed dam.<br />Water of Sungai Pinang is allowed to flow into the dam to prevent the river overflows.<br />This is an alternative for the water to be transferred from Sungai Pinang to Sungai Kuantan.<br />
  66. 66. The water collected in the dam can be used during drought.<br />The water can be pumped out by electric pump house for plantations uses.<br />Below shows the drawing of the underground dam structure.<br />
  67. 67. 4.1 Construct a New Bridge<br /><ul><li> Existing structure of the river is low and water from the river overflows the road and surrounding areas in the event of rain.
  68. 68. When the heavy rainfall occur, the river is almost at the same level with the bridge.
  69. 69. A higher bridge is suggested to be built across Sungai Pinang to replace the existing structure that is rather low.</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Consider the characteristics of the river such as:
  70. 70. Traffic patterns
  71. 71. Conditions of the soil
  72. 72. Span length.
  73. 73. Several types of bridge that can be built:
  74. 74. Beam bridge
  75. 75. Cantilever bridge
  76. 76. Suspension bridge
  77. 77. Truss bridge</li></li></ul><li> Beam Bridge<br />Cantilever Bridge<br />
  78. 78. Suspension Bridge<br />Truss Bridge<br />
  79. 79. <ul><li>The most appropriate bridge to be developed is the Beam Bridge.</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>The simplest kind of bridge.
  80. 80. Frequently used in pedestrian bridges and for highway overpasses and flyovers.
  81. 81. Usually used to span shorter distances.
  82. 82. Commonly found in local road.
  83. 83. Made with large supports on the edges and heavy beam crossing over water.</li></li></ul><li>Detail of a beam bridge:<br /><ul><li>Ancestor: Log Bridge
  84. 84. Carries: Pedestrians, automobiles, trucks, light rail, heavy rail
  85. 85. Span range: Short
  86. 86. Material: Shallow ‘I’ beam, box grinder, reinforced concrete, post-tensioned concrete
  87. 87. Movable: No
  88. 88. Design effort: Low </li></li></ul><li>Beam bridge suggestion structure:<br /><ul><li>The height of bridge is elevated beyond the maximum high of water when raining.
  89. 89. The structure of the bridge has two poles at each of the river bank respectively.
  90. 90. Does not obstruct the flow of the river.
  91. 91. Must be strong so that it doesn’t bend under its own weight and the added weight of crossing traffic. </li></li></ul><li>4.2 Elevation the road (embankment)<br />The road of Sungai Pinang is situated at the lowland.<br />Can be elevated by embankment the concrete under the existing road.<br />Furthermore, an embankment helps to confine the movement of water by allowing it to flow faster and higher without overflowinglarger flows, a greater sediment transport capacity and may be able to carry this sediment further<br />
  92. 92. Example of the embankment by the concrete to the existing road.<br />
  93. 93. 5.PERMEABLE PAVEMENT<br />
  94. 94. Based on the study of Chicago’ Green Alleys, the impermeable pavement is replaced by permeable pavement. <br />Permeable pavement is porous and enable water to run through.<br />Permeable concrete system acts as a filter.<br />Replenish the water table.<br />Reduce the amount of runoff on the road<br /> to the river and surrounding to prevent <br /> pollution. <br />
  95. 95. Alley with impermeable surface.<br />Alley with permeable surface.<br />
  96. 96. Telemetric system use along with GIS and DEM system<br />Telemetric flood- warning flood system.<br />Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and Digital Elevation Models (DEM) can be used to perform many geospatial and hydrological modeling.<br /> - drainage and watershed delineation,<br /> - flood prediction<br /> - physical development studies <br /> -rural settlements. <br />
  97. 97. GIS application was applied using ILWIS- (Integrated Land and Water Information System)<br />ILWIS used to prepare the required geospatial dataset for the GIS operation. Contour and point maps were generated from a toposheet<br />toposheet of the study area was scanned, geo-referenced and digitized to produce point map and contour maps, referred to as thematic layers<br />
  98. 98. The outcome of the digital elevation model showed well graphically distributed landform and terrain<br />
  99. 99. The effectiveness tolerates between telemetric and GIS and DEM system will do a lot of helps to the villagers and also government.<br />
  100. 100. CONCLUSION<br />The suggested mitigation and remedial measures should be implemented.<br />Open donation can be organized to raise the fund for these project.<br />Resident should give full cooperation on preserving Sungai Pinang.<br />Developers should concern the environmental issue.<br />Developers should plan for complete drainage system.<br />