D-Day                June 6th, 1944                         Homework by                      Markus Schultz               ...
Content by Stefan FieselContent by Stefan FieselContent by Stefan Fiesel ....................................................
Content by Markus SchultzContent by Markus SchultzContent by Markus Schultz..................................................
IntroductionIntroductionD-Day is in our case also known as Invasion of Normandy. June 6, 1944 was the daythe „Operation Ov...
Meaning of D-DayMeaning of D-DayGenerally speaking:The initial D in D-Day is normally not a short cut of anything. It is j...
Conference of TehranConference of TehranJoseph Stalin, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill met in Tehran in Novemb...
Conference of TehranMarshal Joseph Stalin, President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Prime Minister Winston Churchill in Tehranby S...
The German situation before June 6thThe German situation before June 6thOne year before the invasion of Normandy, in summe...
The German situation before June 6thby Stefan Fiesel                               Page 10 of 84
German preperationsGerman preperationsIn November 1943, Generalfeldmarschall Erwin Rommel was appointed Inspector ofCoasta...
German preperationsAdolf Hitler split the six available Panzer divisions in Northern France to resolve thedispute. Three o...
German preperations - The Atlantic WallThe Atlantic WallThe Atlantic Wall was a system of fortifications along the western...
German preperations – The Atlantikwall                       Rommel at the Atlantikwall                              Atlan...
German preperations – The Atlantikwall                          Atlantic Wallby Stefan Fiesel                             ...
Allied preparations – COSSACAllied preparationsCOSSACCOSSAC (Chief of Staff to the Supreme Allied Commander) was a service...
Allied preparations – SHAEFSHAEFSHAEF (Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force) was from late 1943 untilthe end of...
Allied preparations – SHAEFLieutenant General Sir Frederick E. Morgan. Later his plans were adopted, too andstarted in 194...
Allied preparations – SHAEFinvolved in the invasion in addition 4,100 landing craft. Air Marshal Sir Trafford Leigh-Mallor...
Allied preparations – Exercise TigerExercise TigerAllied forces trained their roles for D-Day long time before the invasio...
The most important objectives for the first 40 daysThe most important objectives for the first 40 days        To create a ...
Overview about methods to confuse the GermansOverview about methods to confuse the Germans       Operation Bodyguard:     ...
Hobarts FunniesHobarts FunniesSome unusual Allied preparations were armored vehicles, which were developed underMajor-Gene...
Decision for June 6, 1944 as Invasion DayDecision for June 6, 1944 as Invasion DayAt the conference in Washington in May 1...
Quebec Conference:Quebec Conference:The Quebec Conference was a high-level military conference held during World War IIbet...
Attempts of deceptionOperation FortitudeOperation Fortitude was the codename for an operation. It was divided into two par...
Operation Taxable and GlimmerOperation Taxable and Glimmer was also an very important operation which workedvery well.A pl...
Hans CramerHans Cramer was a German commander of the Africa corps who was captured by theAllies in 1943. Because of his ba...
The following pages are written by Markus Schultzby Markus Schultz                                                       P...
June 6th, 1944 – A lucky decision?June 6th, 1944 – A lucky decision?Before the beginning of Operation Overlord, the Allies...
Code namesCode namesThe allied forces assigned several code names to the various operations involved in theinvasion of Eur...
The Allied invasion PlanThe Allied invasion PlanThe landing area was clustered into several landing- and drop-zones. The f...
The Allied invasion PlanIn the following pages Ill describe what happened in the different landing zones and atthe beachhe...
English D-Day Part 1/3
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  1. 1. D-Day June 6th, 1944 Homework by Markus Schultz & Stefan Fiesel Hans-Grüninger-Gymnasium Markgröningen Course: English Teacher: Mr. Eberhard Year: 2006 Explanation Because this homework is a joint homework,see the remarks on the bottom of the pages for the author of it.
  2. 2. Content by Stefan FieselContent by Stefan FieselContent by Stefan Fiesel .............................................................................. 3Introduction ................................................................................................. 4Meaning of D-Day ....................................................................................... 6 generally speaking: ...........................................................................................6 strictly speaking: ...............................................................................................6Conference of Tehran ................................................................................. 7Situation in Germany before June 6th ....................................................... 9German preperations................................................................................ 11 The Atlantikwall..............................................................................................13Allied preparations.................................................................................... 16 COSSAC...........................................................................................................16 SHAEF .............................................................................................................17 Exercise Tiger ..................................................................................................20The most important objectives for the first 40 days .............................. 21Overview about methods to confuse the Germans ................................ 22Hobarts Funnies ....................................................................................... 23Decision for June 6, 1944 as Invasion Day.............................................. 24Quebec Conference: .................................................................................. 25Attempts of deception ............................................................................... 26 Operation Fortitude ........................................................................................26 Operation Taxable and Glimmer ..................................................................27 Hans Cramer ...................................................................................................28Strategic analysis....................................................................................... 80Sources........................................................................................................ 83 Information......................................................................................................83 Pictures.............................................................................................................84 by Stefan Fiesel Page 3 of 84
  3. 3. Content by Markus SchultzContent by Markus SchultzContent by Markus Schultz.......................................................................... 4June 6th, 1944 – A lucky decision?.......................................................... 30Code names ................................................................................................ 31The Allied invasion Plan........................................................................... 32Airborne landings...................................................................................... 34 Operation Chicago (101st AB) ........................................................................35 Operation Detroit (82nd AB)...........................................................................38 Operation Tonga (UK 6th AB)........................................................................40 Operation Coup-de-Main ..............................................................................42 The Merville Battery .....................................................................................45 River Dives Bridges ......................................................................................50 Defensive Positions .......................................................................................52Amphibious landings ................................................................................ 53 Sword Beach ....................................................................................................55 Juno Beach.......................................................................................................57 Gold Beach.......................................................................................................60 Omaha Beach...................................................................................................63 Pointe du Hoc...................................................................................................68 Utah Beach.......................................................................................................72French Resistance...................................................................................... 76After the landings...................................................................................... 78Sources........................................................................................................ 81 Information......................................................................................................81 Picture sources.................................................................................................82 by Markus Schultz Page 4 of 84
  4. 4. IntroductionIntroductionD-Day is in our case also known as Invasion of Normandy. June 6, 1944 was the daythe „Operation Overlord“ began. This operation was a basic step to defeat the Nazis inEurope.It was a major turning in World War II. Twenty U.S divisions, fourteen Britishdivisions, three Canadian divisions, one French and one Polish division were needed forthis Operation.On June 6th, the first day of the invasion about 120,000 Allied soldiers landed along thecost of Normandy at five beach locations (Gold Beach (UK), Juno Beach (Canada),Omaha Beach (US), Sword Beach (UK), Utah Beach (US)) after crossing from severalsouthern bases the English Channel. On the first day after the landing the Allies had tofight against 50,000 Germans and suffered about 5000 casualties. But they succeeded insecuring the beaches. From now on they started their offensive from the beach locationsalong the cost.The D-Day invasion was the greatest military actions of the 20th century. by Stefan Fiesel Page 5 of 84
  5. 5. Meaning of D-DayMeaning of D-DayGenerally speaking:The initial D in D-Day is normally not a short cut of anything. It is just taken from theword day and acts like a variable.When the day and hour of an operation has not yet been decided the D in D-day and Hin h-hour just designate the hour and the day of the operation or combat attack.For preceding or following actions they use plus or minus signs. For example H-4means four hours before h-hour or D+4 mean four days after D-day.They use the short cuts D-Day and H-Hour because planning of several operations aremade up long before specific dates are set (because sometimes like on invasion ofNormandy it depends for example on weather if the operation could start or not).The first use of these terms was during World War I. „The First Army will attack at Hhour on D day with the object of forcing the evacuation of the St. Mihiel Salient.“Strictly speaking:The most well known D-Day is June 6, 1944 and is also called the invasion ofNormandy. The date was originally set for June 5 but because of bad weather DwightEisenhower had to delay it.In this case the D in D-Day stands for Disembarkment-Day because of crossing theEnglish Channel mostly with ships. by Stefan Fiesel Page 6 of 84
  6. 6. Conference of TehranConference of TehranJoseph Stalin, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill met in Tehran in November1943 to discuss military strategy. Since the Soviet Union had entered the war, Stalin hadbeen claiming that the Allies should open a second front in Europe.However, Churchill and Roosevelt knew that any trying to land troops in Europe is onlypossible with heavy losses. Nevertheless, before the victory in Stalingrad in January1943 Stalin was not sure if they would win the war without a second front.Stalin always preferred an offensive strategy. He was worried about Winston Churchilland Franklin Roosevelt because he thought that there were political and military reasonsfor the Allies not to open up a second front in West Europe. Since the OctoberRevolution Stalin also thought that, the main objective of the capitalist countries wasthe destruction of the communist system in the Soviet Union. Moreover, he knew thatthe Red Army would have great problems with Germany if Britain and the USAwithdrew from the war.At Tehran Joseph Stalin advised Churchill and Roosevelt because of a promise oflanding troops in Europe in spring 1943. Now it was November but no sign of aninvasion of France. After many discussions the Allies agreed that they would start anoffensive in 1944.Today we know from the memoirs of Churchill and Roosevelt that Stalin dominated theconference. Alan Brook later said: "I rapidly grew to appreciate the fact that he had amilitary brain of the very highest caliber. Never once in any of his statements did hemake any strategic error, nor did he ever fail to appreciate all the implications of asituation with a quick and unerring eye. In this respect he stood out compared withRoosevelt and Churchill." by Stefan Fiesel Page 7 of 84
  7. 7. Conference of TehranMarshal Joseph Stalin, President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Prime Minister Winston Churchill in Tehranby Stefan Fiesel Page 8 of 84
  8. 8. The German situation before June 6thThe German situation before June 6thOne year before the invasion of Normandy, in summer 1943, all the territory Germanyhad won in their “Blitzkrieg” campaigns were still occupied by Adolf HitlersWehrmacht.Most of the Russian conquest of 41-42 and the positions on the coast of North Africa,too. Only the Russian offensive at Stalingrad and the Battle of Kursk pushed Hitler backin east Europe.However, Hitler and his Allies still controlled nearly the whole of mainland Europe(except Portugal, Switzerland, Sweden and neutral Spain).Without direct help by the western Allies on the Continent, the military dominance ofHitler was only very hard to defeat. by Stefan Fiesel Page 9 of 84
  9. 9. The German situation before June 6thby Stefan Fiesel Page 10 of 84
  10. 10. German preperationsGerman preperationsIn November 1943, Generalfeldmarschall Erwin Rommel was appointed Inspector ofCoastal Defenses because Hitler realized that a invasion in France could be possible.Later on Rommel became commander of Army Group B, the ground forces which hadto defence Northern France. Rommel knew that the only possibility to defeat aninvasion was to counter attack the beaches with armor. To deliver an immediate counterattack he wanted some armor placed close to the beaches.But one problem was that Rommel wasnt the overall commander of German forces inthe West and about this his authority was limited. The commander of German forces inWest was Feldmarschall Gerd von Rundstedt and the commander of Panzer Group WestGeyr von Schweppenburg supported him. And they favored to concentrate the Panzerdivision inland to determined the primary enemy line and then defeat them in a counterattack German coast artillery in the Pas-de-Calais areaRunstedt and Guderian had no real experiences in fighting against Allied bombersbecause they have made their experiences when the German Luftwaffe controlled theskies. However, Rommel, who has already fought against the Allies in the WesternDesert Campaign, knew the reality of the Allied bombers capabilities. by Stefan Fiesel Page 11 of 84
  11. 11. German preperationsAdolf Hitler split the six available Panzer divisions in Northern France to resolve thedispute. Three of them were allocated to Rommel and the remaining three were placed agood distance behind the beaches and under the command of Hitlers operation staff.The German air defense of north French coast was so small that they had no chances.Just 169 aircraft were available because nearly all airfields in the northern part of Francehad been destroyed by Allied air attacks.The plan of splitting the six available Panzer divisions is one reason for the success ofthe invasion because paratroopers were able to capture bridges without the tanks,standing behind the beaches, needed to counter attack the Allied while they establisheda beachhead. German commanders. Left to right: Colonel General Blaskowitz, Field Marshall Rommel, Field Marshall von Rundstedt by Stefan Fiesel Page 12 of 84
  12. 12. German preperations - The Atlantic WallThe Atlantic WallThe Atlantic Wall was a system of fortifications along the western coast of Europeduring the Second World War to defeat the invasion of the continent from Great Britain.The chief engineer was Frith Todt, also known from the Siegfried Line (Westwall). Hedeveloped the major fortifications and thousands of forced laborers had to construct it.Feldmarschall Erwin Rommel was early in 1944 assigned to improve the defenses of theAtlantic Wall. He believed that the existing fortifications along the coast were veryinadequate and he strengthened them. Furthermore, strings of reinforced-concretepillboxes were building along the beaches to house antitank guns, machine guns andeven light artillery. On the beaches they planted minefields and antitank obstacles andin the water underwater obstacles and mines. Their plan was to destroy the Alliedlanding crafts even before they were able to unload them.In summer 1944 the Germans planted almost6,000,000 mines just in northern France.In possible landing, spots for parachutists theGermans built slanted poles, which were called“Rommelspargel” by the troops, and some riverswere permanently flooded.However, the defensive wall was never completedeven Rommel knew that the invasion must be stoppedat the beach or it would lead to the defeat ofGermany. “Rommelspargel” by Stefan Fiesel Page 13 of 84
  13. 13. German preperations – The Atlantikwall Rommel at the Atlantikwall Atlantikwallby Stefan Fiesel Page 14 of 84
  14. 14. German preperations – The Atlantikwall Atlantic Wallby Stefan Fiesel Page 15 of 84
  15. 15. Allied preparations – COSSACAllied preparationsCOSSACCOSSAC (Chief of Staff to the Supreme Allied Commander) was a service designationfor the Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces and his British-American staff.The job of the COSSAC was the planning and preparation of the Invasion of theNormandy (especially Operation Overlord). They looked for the best place to land inEurope and the best strategies.On January 15th, 1944 COSSAC was detached by the Supreme Headquarters AlliedExpeditionary Force. COSSAC Frederick E. Morgan by Stefan Fiesel Page 16 of 84
  16. 16. Allied preparations – SHAEFSHAEFSHAEF (Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force) was from late 1943 untilthe end of World War II the headquarters of the Commander of Allied forces in north-west Europe. Even General Dwight Eisenhower was in command of SHAEF. Theirmain job was to change the plans for Operation Overlord, which was created byLieutenant General Sir Frederick E. Morgan (COSSAC) into the final version. Badge of SHAEFAfter Operation Barbarossa, the German invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941, theSoviets had done the biggest part of the fighting on the European mainland againstGermany. But, as already said, D. Roosevelt and W. Churchill promised J. Stalin toopen a second front in Europe to aid the Soviets against Germany.U.S. decided how everything would happen because they made clear that in theiropinion the best way to attack Germany is the shortest route from the strongest Alliedbase.Moreover, they said that this was the only plan they would support. Therefore, theyplaned to operations. Operation Sledgehammer should be an invasion in 1942 andOperation Round-up which should be a larger attack in 1943. Operation Round-up laterbecame the famous Operation Overlord and was postponed until 1944.The person, who was responsible for the first planning in March 1943 was the British by Stefan Fiesel Page 17 of 84
  17. 17. Allied preparations – SHAEFLieutenant General Sir Frederick E. Morgan. Later his plans were adopted, too andstarted in 1944 by the SHAEF (Supreme Headquarters, Allied Expeditionary Force).One problem was the short range of the British Spitfire, Hawker Typhoon and theAllied fighters. That is the reason why the choices of amphibious landing were limited.Geography greatly limited the choices, too because there were only two possibilities:The Pas de Calais and the Normandy coastThe Pas de Calais coast was undoubtedly the best possibility because of the shortdistance from the UK, the best beaches for landing and the direct route to Germany.However, Hitler expected that this was the best point for a possible invasion and aboutthis it was the most fortified and heavily defended coast. Therefore, the Allies chose theNormandy coast for the invasion.The Allies decided not to attack a French harbor in their first landings because they allremembered the Canadian raid on Dieppe in 1942. The Battle of Dieppe was an Alliedattack on the port of Dieppe (this port was German-occupied). Most of the attackingsoldiers were Canadian supported by British naval and air. But the attack was a fataltactical disaster. They accomplished no major objectives and 4,384 of the 6,086 menwere wounded, captured or killed.Landing on a broad front in Normandy would made it possible to attack the port ofCherbourg, coastal ports further west and an attack towards Paris and the border withGermany at the same time.The Normandy coast was, as already said, less defended with the possibility to confusethe German defending forces.The plan required two brigades landed by air and SHAEF to five sea divisions, the airand an additional assault at Utah Beach quickly increased three sea landing divisionsbut this number. In total about 140,000 soldiers took part in the Battle of Normandy (47divisions: 26 British, Canadian, Commonwealth and free European troops and 21American).About 6,900 ships under the command of Admiral Sir Bertram Ramsay would be by Stefan Fiesel Page 18 of 84
  18. 18. Allied preparations – SHAEFinvolved in the invasion in addition 4,100 landing craft. Air Marshal Sir Trafford Leigh-Mallory had to support the landings with 12,000 aircraft and about 1,000 transports tofly in the parachute troops. 14,000 attack sorties would be flown and over 10,000 tonsof bombs would be dropped against the defenses of Germany. Invasion Training in England - Hitting the beach. Training with live ammunition in England. by Stefan Fiesel Page 19 of 84
  19. 19. Allied preparations – Exercise TigerExercise TigerAllied forces trained their roles for D-Day long time before the invasion. On April 28,1944 German torpedo boats disturbed such an exercise and killed 749 U.S. soldiers andsailors. This exercise was named Operation Tiger or Exercise Tiger. A plaque at the memorial, commemorating those who perished by Stefan Fiesel Page 20 of 84
  20. 20. The most important objectives for the first 40 daysThe most important objectives for the first 40 days To create a beachhead including the cities of Cherbourg (for its deep-water port) and Caen. To break out from the beachhead to free Brittany and its ports. To advance to a line about 125 miles to the south-west of ParisThe objective after thee-month was to control a zone defined by the rivers Loire andSeine. by Stefan Fiesel Page 21 of 84
  21. 21. Overview about methods to confuse the GermansOverview about methods to confuse the Germans Operation Bodyguard: It should persuade that northern France and other points would be threatened. Some weeks later another operation should persuade the Germans again that the main invasion would really take place to the Pas de Calais. Operation Fortitude: North: The Axis should expect an attack on Norway South: Should persuade the Germans again to expect the main invasion at the Pas de Calais Operation Quicksilver: An fictitious first U.S. Army Group (FUSAG) under the command of General George S. Patton supposedly located in south-eastern England was created by the use of double agents and fake radio traffic. Operation Skye: Radio traffic from Scotland should convince German traffic analysts that an invasion in Norway would be possible. The result of Operation Skye was that German troops were kept in Norway instead of defending France. Operation Pluto: To support the invading forces in the first few weeks oil pipelines between England and France were installed.by Stefan Fiesel Page 22 of 84
  22. 22. Hobarts FunniesHobarts FunniesSome unusual Allied preparations were armored vehicles, which were developed underMajor-General Percy Hobert, specially adapted for the assault. These vehicles werecalled Hobarts Funnies including swimming tanks, mine-clearing tanks, bridge-layingtanks and road-laying tanks. Hobbart Funny Hobbart Funny by Stefan Fiesel Page 23 of 84
  23. 23. Decision for June 6, 1944 as Invasion DayDecision for June 6, 1944 as Invasion DayAt the conference in Washington in May 1943 Churchill and Roosevelt had chosen May1944 as the time the invasion should start. However, difficulties mainly in installationlanding craft forced to delay the invasion until June. June 5 was fixed as a unchangeabledate by Eisenhower. Nevertheless, on June 5th the weather was too bad for an attackand Eisenhower and his subordinates delayed the time for the invasion again for 24h-hours. Then, the chief meteorologist James Martin Stagg told Eisenhower of a break inthe weather and it was time to embark. Over 3,000 landing craft, 2,500 other ships and500 navel ships began to leave the ports. Only in this night, more than 800 aircraft, mosttime carrying parachutists, flew to the Normandy. Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill during the Washington Conference. by Stefan Fiesel Page 24 of 84
  24. 24. Quebec Conference:Quebec Conference:The Quebec Conference was a high-level military conference held during World War IIbetween the British and United States governments. The conference was held in QuebecCity, August 17, 1943 - August 24, 1943. It took place at the Citadelle and at theChâteau Frontenac. The chief representatives were Winston Churchill, Franklin D.Roosevelt and William Lyon Mackenzie King of Canada.They agreed the invasion of France would take place in May 1944. Franklin D. Roosevelt and Churchill at Quebec by Stefan Fiesel Page 25 of 84
  25. 25. Attempts of deceptionOperation FortitudeOperation Fortitude was the codename for an operation. It was divided into two parts,Fortitude North and Fortitude South. Fortitude North was a delusion to invade Norway.The sense of Fortitude South was to confuse the Germans and make them believe thatthe invasion of France would take place in the Pad de Calais. One of the most importantand successful operations was Fortitude South.Fortitude North: The British fictional Army with units and headquarters, fake radiotraffic (called Operation Skye) with media reports of unit’s activities was created. Foran invasion of Norway British, diplomats began negotiations with Sweden for the rightto fly over Sweden, refuel their planes, and make emergency landings and so on. Thesense of these negotiations was of course that they hoped German spies would hearfrom this news.Fortitude South: Fortitude South should affect that the invasion of France would takeplace at Calais. This route was strategically the best place for an invasion because of thebeaches and the short distance from Dover. About this it was not very hard to make theGermans believe that this is the place for the invasion. As a part of this operation theAllies built oil storage depots, air planes and even dummy tanks. With the aid of somedouble agents and spies, it was not very hard to convince the Germans.The leader of this “ghost army” wasGeneral George Patton who had wonrespect in the Italian and Africancampaigns as a field commander.This operation worked very well. On 6th ofJune the German Generals thought that thelanding at Normandy was just a fake for thereal invasion in the Pad de Calais area. by Stefan Fiesel Page 26 of 84
  26. 26. Operation Taxable and GlimmerOperation Taxable and Glimmer was also an very important operation which workedvery well.A plan, developed by Dr. Cockburn, would show on German radar screens that manyships were heading for Pad de Calais. The trick was very simple. Some plans withaluminium foil had to fly very low and release an amount of the foil. Only the bestsquadrons were able for such timing. 617 Dambusters for Operation Taxable and 218Squadrons for Operation Glimmer were chosen. Flight path for operation Glimmer by Stefan Fiesel Page 27 of 84
  27. 27. Hans CramerHans Cramer was a German commander of the Africa corps who was captured by theAllies in 1943. Because of his bad health, later he was repatriated to Germany. On hisway home, he was able to see all the plans, tanks and ships that were ready for theinvasion. However, the trick was that Cramer did not know were he was. He was toldthat he is now in southern and eastern England and this is also, what he told in Berlin.This was another trick and another reason why everybody in Germany thought that theinvasion would take place in the Calais area. Hans Cramer by Stefan Fiesel Page 28 of 84
  28. 28. The following pages are written by Markus Schultzby Markus Schultz Page 29 of 84
  29. 29. June 6th, 1944 – A lucky decision?June 6th, 1944 – A lucky decision?Before the beginning of Operation Overlord, the Allies had carefully mapped and testedthe landing area, paying particular attention to weather conditions in the EnglishChannel.A full moon was required both for light and for the spring tide. D-Day (the designatedday) for the operation was set for June 5th, 1944, but because of bad weather conditionsGeneral Eisenhower had to postpone the assault to June 6th.On June 6th the weather was still sub-optimal, but Eisenhower decided not to wait forthe next full moon.This helped the allies to catch the German forces off-guard, as they did not expect anattack under such bad conditions.In addition to this, Feldmarschall Rommel returned to Germany on June 4th for hiswifes 50th birthday. Feldmarschall Rommel inspecting beach defenses. by Markus Schultz Page 30 of 84
  30. 30. Code namesCode namesThe allied forces assigned several code names to the various operations involved in theinvasion of Europe. “Overlord” was the name to the establishment of a large-scaled footprint on continental Europe. The first phase of Operation Overlord, to establish a secure foothold, was codenamed “Neptune”.US-Military reports say that Operation Neptune began on D-Day (June 6th) and endedon June 30th, 1944.Operation Overlord also began on D-Day and continued until allied forces crossed theRiver Seine on 19th August.Besides those operations, there were code names for the several beachheads, drop-zonesand other locations. I will explain them in the following pages. by Markus Schultz Page 31 of 84
  31. 31. The Allied invasion PlanThe Allied invasion PlanThe landing area was clustered into several landing- and drop-zones. The following mapwill show you the planned order of battle, from east to west: British 6th Airborne Division was delivered by parachute and glider to the east of the River Orne to protect the left flank. 1st Special Service Brigade comprising No.3, No.4, No.6 and No.45(Royal Marines) Commandos landed at Ouistreham in Queen Red sector (leftmost) on Sword Beach. British 3rd Infantry Division and the 27th Armored Brigade on Sword Beach, from Ouistreham to Lion-sur-Mer. No.41 (Royal Marines) Commando landed on the far right of Sword Beach, too. Canadian 3rd Infantry Division, 2nd Armored Brigade and No.48 (Royal Marines) Commando on Juno Beach, from Saint-Aubin-sur-Mer to La Rivière-Saint-Sauveur. No.46 (Royal Marines) Commando at Juno to scale the cliffs on the left side of the Orne River estuary and destroy a battery. British 50th Infantry Division and 8th Armored Brigade on Gold Beach, from La Rivière to Arromanches. No. 47 (Royal Marines) Commando on the West flank of Gold Beach. U.S. V Corps (U.S. 1st Infantry Division and U.S. 29th Infantry Division) on Omaha Beach, from Sainte-Honorine-des-Pertes to Vierville-sur-Mer. U.S. 2nd and 5th Ranger Battalion at Pointe du Hoc (The 5th diverted to Omaha). U.S. VII Corps (U.S. 4th Infantry Division plus others) on Utah Beach, around Pouppeville and La Madeleine. U.S. 101st Airborne Division by parachute around Vierville to support Utah Beach landings. U.S. 82nd Airborne Division by parachute around Sainte-Mère-Église, protecting the right flank. Activities by the French Resistance forces helped to disrupt Axis communication lines. by Markus Schultz Page 32 of 84
  32. 32. The Allied invasion PlanIn the following pages Ill describe what happened in the different landing zones and atthe beachheads Allied invasion plan. by Markus Schultz Page 33 of 84

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