NE555, SA555, SE555PRECISION TIMERSSLFS022C – SEPTEMBER 1973 – REVISED FEBRUARY 20021POST OFFICE BOX 655303 • DALLAS, TEXAS 75265D Timing From Microseconds to HoursD Astable or Monostable OperationD Adjustable Duty CycleD TTL-Compatible Output Can Sink or Sourceup to 200 mAD Designed To Be Interchangeable WithSignetics NE555, SA555, and SE555descriptionThese devices are precision timing circuitscapable of producing accurate time delays oroscillation. In the time-delay or monostable modeof operation, the timed interval is controlled by asingle external resistor and capacitor network. Inthe astable mode of operation, the frequency andduty cycle can be controlled independently withtwo external resistors and a single externalcapacitor.The threshold and trigger levels normally aretwo-thirds and one-third, respectively, of VCC.These levels can be altered by use of thecontrol-voltage terminal. When the trigger inputfalls below the trigger level, the flip-flop is set andthe output goes high. If the trigger input is abovethe trigger level and the threshold input is abovethe threshold level, the flip-flop is reset and the output is low. The reset (RESET) input can override all otherinputs and can be used to initiate a new timing cycle. When RESET goes low, the flip-flop is reset and the outputgoes low. When the output is low, a low-impedance path is provided between discharge (DISCH) and ground.The output circuit is capable of sinking or sourcing current up to 200 mA. Operation is specified for supplies of5 V to 15 V. With a 5-V supply, output levels are compatible with TTL inputs.The NE555 is characterized for operation from 0°C to 70°C. The SA555 is characterized for operation from–40°C to 85°C. The SE555 is characterized for operation over the full military range of –55°C to 125°C.AVAILABLE OPTIONSPACKAGETA VTHRES MAXVCC = 15 VSMALLOUTLINE(D, PS)CHIPCARRIER(FK)CERAMICDIP(JG)PLASTICDIP(P)PLASTICTHIN SHRINKSMALL OUTLINE(PW)0°C to 70°C 11.2 VNE555DNE555PS— — NE555P NE555PW–40°C to 85°C 11.2 V SA555D — — SA555P —–55°C to 125°C 10.6 V SE555D SE555FK SE555JG SE555P —The D package is available taped and reeled. Add the suffix R to the device type (e.g., NE555DR). The PS and PW packagesare only available taped and reeled.Copyright 2002, Texas Instruments IncorporatedPRODUCTION DATA information is current as of publication date.Products conform to specifications per the terms of Texas Instrumentsstandard warranty. Production processing does not necessarily includetesting of all parameters.12348765GNDTRIGOUTRESETVCCDISCHTHRESCONTNE555 . . . D, P, PS, OR PW PACKAGESA555 . . . D OR P PACKAGESE555 . . . D, JG, OR P PACKAGE(TOP VIEW)3 2 1 20 199 10 11 12 13456781817161514NCDISCHNCTHRESNCNCTRIGNCOUTNCSE555 . . . FK PACKAGE(TOP VIEW)NCGNDNCCONTNCVCCNCNCRESETNCNC – No internal connectionOn products compliant to MIL-PRF-38535, all parameters are testedunless otherwise noted. On all other products, productionprocessing does not necessarily include testing of all parameters.Please be aware that an important notice concerning availability, standard warranty, and use in critical applications ofTexas Instruments semiconductor products and disclaimers thereto appears at the end of this data sheet.
NE555, SA555, SE555PRECISION TIMERSSLFS022C – SEPTEMBER 1973 – REVISED FEBRUARY 20022 POST OFFICE BOX 655303 • DALLAS, TEXAS 75265FUNCTION TABLERESETTRIGGERVOLTAGE†THRESHOLDVOLTAGE† OUTPUTDISCHARGESWITCHLow Irrelevant Irrelevant Low OnHigh <1/3 VDD Irrelevant High OffHigh >1/3 VDD >2/3 VDD Low OnHigh >1/3 VDD <2/3 VDD As previously established† Voltage levels shown are nominal.functional block diagram1SRR1TRIGTHRESVCCCONTRESETOUTDISCHGNDÎÎÎ ÎÎÎÎÎPin numbers shown are for the D, JG, P, PS, and PW packages.NOTE A: RESET can override TRIG, which can override THRES.48562173
NE555, SA555, SE555PRECISION TIMERSSLFS022C – SEPTEMBER 1973 – REVISED FEBRUARY 20024 POST OFFICE BOX 655303 • DALLAS, TEXAS 75265electrical characteristics, VCC = 5 V to 15 V, TA = 25°C (unless otherwise noted)PARAMETER TEST CONDITIONSSE555NE555SA555 UNITMIN TYP MAX MIN TYP MAXTHRES voltage levelVCC = 15 V 9.4 10 10.6 8.8 10 11.2VTHRES voltage levelVCC = 5 V 2.7 3.3 4 2.4 3.3 4.2VTHRES current (see Note 3) 30 250 30 250 nAVCC = 15 V4.8 5 5.2 4.5 5 5.6TRIG voltage levelVCC = 15 VTA = –55°C to 125°C 3 6VTRIG voltage levelVCC = 5 V1.45 1.67 1.9 1.1 1.67 2.2VVCC = 5 VTA = –55°C to 125°C 1.9TRIG current TRIG at 0 V 0.5 0.9 0.5 2 µARESET voltage level0.3 0.7 1 0.3 0.7 1VRESET voltage levelTA = –55°C to 125°C 1.1VRESET currentRESET at VCC 0.1 0.4 0.1 0.4mARESET currentRESET at 0 V –0.4 –1 –0.4 –1.5mADISCH switch off-state current 20 100 20 100 nAVCC = 15 V9.6 10 10.4 9 10 11CONT voltage (open circuit)VCC = 15 VTA = –55°C to 125°C 9.6 10.4VCONT voltage (open circuit)VCC = 5 V2.9 3.3 3.8 2.6 3.3 4VVCC = 5 VTA = –55°C to 125°C 2.9 3.8VCC = 15 V, 0.1 0.15 0.1 0.25CC ,IOL = 10 mA TA = –55°C to 125°C 0.2VCC = 15 V, 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.75CC ,IOL = 50 mA TA = –55°C to 125°C 1VCC = 15 V, 2 2.2 2 2.5Low-level output voltageCC ,IOL = 100 mA TA = –55°C to 125°C 2.7VLow-level out ut voltageVCC = 15 V, IOL = 200 mA 2.5 2.5VVCC = 5 V,IOL = 3.5 mATA = –55°C to 125°C 0.35VCC = 5 V, 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.35CC ,IOL = 5 mA TA = –55°C to 125°C 0.8VCC = 5 V, IOL = 8 mA 0.15 0.25 0.15 0.4VCC = 15 V, 13 13.3 12.75 13.3CC ,IOH = –100 mA TA = –55°C to 125°C 12High-level output voltage VCC = 15 V, IOH = –200 mA 12.5 12.5 VVCC = 5 V, 3 3.3 2.75 3.3CC ,IOH = –100 mA TA = –55°C to 125°C 2Output low, VCC = 15 V 10 12 10 15Supply current,No load VCC = 5 V 3 5 3 6mASupply currentOutput high, VCC = 15 V 9 10 9 13mAgNo load VCC = 5 V 2 4 2 5NOTE 3: This parameter influences the maximum value of the timing resistors RA and RB in the circuit of Figure 12. For example, whenVCC = 5 V, the maximum value is R = RA + RB ≈ 3.4 MΩ, and for VCC = 15 V, the maximum value is 10 MΩ.
NE555, SA555, SE555PRECISION TIMERSSLFS022C – SEPTEMBER 1973 – REVISED FEBRUARY 20025POST OFFICE BOX 655303 • DALLAS, TEXAS 75265operating characteristics, VCC = 5 V and 15 VPARAMETERTESTCONDITIONS†SE555NE555SA555 UNITCONDITIONS†MIN TYP MAX MIN TYP MAXInitial error Each timer, monostable§TA = 25°C0.5% 1.5%* 1% 3%Initial errorof timing interval‡ Each timer, astable¶TA = 25°C1.5% 2.25%Temperature coefficient Each timer, monostable§TA = MIN to MAX30 100* 50ppm/°Cof timing interval Each timer, astable¶TA = MIN to MAX90 150ppm/°CSupply-voltage sensitivity Each timer, monostable§TA = 25°C0.05 0.2* 0.1 0.5%/Vy g yof timing interval Each timer, astable¶TA = 25°C0.15 0.3%/VOutput-pulse rise timeCL = 15 pF,TA = 25°C100 200* 100 300 nsOutput-pulse fall timeCL = 15 pF,TA = 25°C100 200* 100 300 ns* On products compliant to MIL-PRF-38535, this parameter is not production tested.† For conditions shown as MIN or MAX, use the appropriate value specified under recommended operating conditions.‡ Timing interval error is defined as the difference between the measured value and the average value of a random sample from each processrun.§ Values specified are for a device in a monostable circuit similar to Figure 9, with the following component values: RA = 2 kΩ to 100 kΩ,C = 0.1 µF.¶ Values specified are for a device in an astable circuit similar to Figure 12, with the following component values: RA = 1 kΩ to 100 kΩ,C = 0.1 µF.
NE555, SA555, SE555PRECISION TIMERSSLFS022C – SEPTEMBER 1973 – REVISED FEBRUARY 20026 POST OFFICE BOX 655303 • DALLAS, TEXAS 75265TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS†Figure 1ÏÏÏÏÏTA = 125°CÏÏÏÏTA = 25°CIOL – Low-Level Output Current – mAÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏVCC = 5 VLOW-LEVEL OUTPUT VOLTAGEvsLOW-LEVEL OUTPUT CURRENTÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏTA = –55°C0.10.040.011 2 4 7 10 20 40 70 1000.0710.40.710470.020.22–Low-LevelOutputVoltage–VVOLFigure 2ÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏVCC = 10 VLOW-LEVEL OUTPUT VOLTAGEvsLOW-LEVEL OUTPUT CURRENT–Low-LevelOutputVoltage–VVOLIOL – Low-Level Output Current – mA0.10.040.011 2 4 7 10 20 40 70 1000.0710.40.710470.020.22ÏÏÏÏÏTA = 125°CÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏTA = 25°CÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏTA= –55°CFigure 3TA = 125°CTA = 25°CTA = –55°CÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏVCC = 15 VLOW-LEVEL OUTPUT VOLTAGEvsLOW-LEVEL OUTPUT CURRENT–Low-LevelOutputVoltage–VVOLIOL – Low-Level Output Current – mA0.10.040.011 2 4 7 10 20 40 70 1000.0710.40.710470.020.22Figure 410.60.201.41.82.00.41.60.81.2–IOH – High-Level Output Current – mAÏÏÏÏTA = 125°CÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏTA = 25°C100704020107421ÏÏÏÏÏÏVCC = 5 V to 15 VÏÏÏÏTA = –55°CDROP BETWEEN SUPPLY VOLTAGE AND OUTPUTvsHIGH-LEVEL OUTPUT CURRENTVCCVOH–VoltageDrop–V)(†Data for temperatures below 0°C and above 70°C are applicable for SE555 circuits only.
NE555, SA555, SE555PRECISION TIMERSSLFS022C – SEPTEMBER 1973 – REVISED FEBRUARY 20027POST OFFICE BOX 655303 • DALLAS, TEXAS 75265TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS†Figure 554210935 6 7 8 9 10 11–SupplyCurrent–mA768SUPPLY CURRENTvsSUPPLY VOLTAGE1012 13 14 15TA = 25°CTA = 125°CTA = –55°COutput Low,No LoadCCIVCC – Supply Voltage – VFigure 610.9950.9900.9850 5 101.0051.010NORMALIZED OUTPUT PULSE DURATION(MONOSTABLE OPERATION)vsSUPPLY VOLTAGE1.01515 20CCVPulseDurationRelativetoValueat=10VVCC – Supply Voltage – VFigure 710.9950.9900.985–75 –25 251.0051.010NORMALIZED OUTPUT PULSE DURATION(MONOSTABLE OPERATION)vsFREE-AIR TEMPERATURE1.01575 125PulseDurationRelativetoValueat=25TA – Free-Air Temperature – °C–50 0 50 100VCC = 10 VTAC°Figure 8150100500200250300–PropagationDelayTime–nsPROPAGATION DELAY TIMEvsLOWEST VOLTAGE LEVELOF TRIGGER PULSELowest Voltage Level of Trigger PulseTA = –55°CTA = 125°CTA = 25°CtpdTA = 0°CTA = 70°C0 0.1 × VCC 0.2 × VCC 0.3 × VCC 0.4 × VCC†Data for temperatures below 0°C and above 70°C are applicable for SE555 series circuits only.
NE555, SA555, SE555PRECISION TIMERSSLFS022C – SEPTEMBER 1973 – REVISED FEBRUARY 20028 POST OFFICE BOX 655303 • DALLAS, TEXAS 75265APPLICATION INFORMATIONmonostable operationFor monostable operation, any of these timers can be connected as shown in Figure 9. If the output is low,application of a negative-going pulse to the trigger (TRIG) sets the flip-flop (Q goes low), drives the output high,and turns off Q1. Capacitor C then is charged through RA until the voltage across the capacitor reaches thethreshold voltage of the threshold (THRES) input. If TRIG has returned to a high level, the output of the thresholdcomparator resets the flip-flop (Q goes high), drives the output low, and discharges C through Q1.VCC(5 V to 15 V)RARLOutputGNDOUTVCCCONTRESETDISCHTHRESTRIGInputÎ5 8476231Pin numbers shown are for the D, JG, P, PS, and PW packages.Figure 9. Circuit for Monostable OperationVoltage–2V/divTime – 0.1 ms/divÏÏÏÏÏÏCapacitor VoltageOutput VoltageInput VoltageÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏRA = 9.1 kΩCL = 0.01 µFRL = 1 kΩSee Figure 9Figure 10. Typical Monostable WaveformsMonostable operation is initiated when TRIGvoltage falls below the trigger threshold. Onceinitiated, the sequence ends only if TRIG is highat the end of the timing interval. Because of thethreshold level and saturation voltage of Q1,the output pulse duration is approximatelytw = 1.1RAC. Figure 11 is a plot of the timeconstant for various values of RA and C. Thethreshold levels and charge rates both are directlyproportionaltothesupplyvoltage,VCC.Thetiminginterval is, therefore, independent of the supplyvoltage, so long as the supply voltage is constantduring the time interval.Applying a negative-going trigger pulsesimultaneously to RESET and TRIG during thetiming interval discharges C and reinitiates thecycle, commencing on the positive edge of thereset pulse. The output is held low as long as thereset pulse is low. To prevent false triggering,when RESET is not used, it should be connectedto VCC.–OutputPulseDuration–sC – Capacitance – µF10110–110–210–310–41001010.10.0110–50.001twRA = 10 MΩRA = 10 kΩRA = 1 kΩRA = 100 kΩRA = 1 MΩFigure 11. Output Pulse Duration vs Capacitance
NE555, SA555, SE555PRECISION TIMERSSLFS022C – SEPTEMBER 1973 – REVISED FEBRUARY 20029POST OFFICE BOX 655303 • DALLAS, TEXAS 75265APPLICATION INFORMATIONastable operationAs shown in Figure 12, adding a second resistor, RB, to the circuit of Figure 9 and connecting the trigger inputto the threshold input causes the timer to self-trigger and run as a multivibrator. The capacitor C charges throughRA and RB and then discharges through RB only. Therefore, the duty cycle is controlled by the values of RA andRB.This astable connection results in capacitor C charging and discharging between the threshold-voltage level(≈0.67 × VCC) and the trigger-voltage level (≈0.33 × VCC). As in the monostable circuit, charge and dischargetimes (and, therefore, the frequency and duty cycle) are independent of the supply voltage.GNDOUTVCCCONTRESETDISCHTHRESTRIGCRBRAOutputRL0.01 µFVCC(5 V to 15 V)(see Note A)ÎÎNOTE A: Decoupling CONT voltage to ground with a capacitor canimprove operation. This should be evaluated for individualapplications.Open5 8476231Pin numbers shown are for the D, JG, P, PS, and PW packages.Figure 12. Circuit for Astable OperationVoltage–1V/divTime – 0.5 ms/divtHCapacitor VoltageOutput VoltagetLÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏRA = 5 kW RL = 1 kWRB = 3 kW See Figure 12C = 0.15 µFFigure 13. Typical Astable Waveforms
NE555, SA555, SE555PRECISION TIMERSSLFS022C – SEPTEMBER 1973 – REVISED FEBRUARY 200210 POST OFFICE BOX 655303 • DALLAS, TEXAS 75265APPLICATION INFORMATIONastable operation (continued)Figure 13 shows typical waveforms generated during astable operation. The output high-level duration tH andlow-level duration tL can be calculated as follows:tH+0.693 (RA)RB)CtL+0.693 (RB)COther useful relationships are shown below.period +tH)tL+0.693 (RA)2RB) Cfrequency [ 1.44(RA)2RB) COutput driver duty cycle + tLtH)tL+ RBRA)2RBOutput waveform duty cycleLow t high ratio + tLtH+ RBRA)RB- o-+ tHtH)tL+1–RBRA)2RBf–Free-RunningFrequency–HzC – Capacitance – µF100 k10 k1 k1001011001010.10.010.10.001RA + 2 RB = 10 MΩRA + 2 RB = 1 MΩRA + 2 RB = 100 kΩRA + 2 RB = 10 kΩRA + 2 RB = 1 kΩFigure 14. Free-Running Frequency
NE555, SA555, SE555PRECISION TIMERSSLFS022C – SEPTEMBER 1973 – REVISED FEBRUARY 200211POST OFFICE BOX 655303 • DALLAS, TEXAS 75265APPLICATION INFORMATIONmissing-pulse detectorThe circuit shown in Figure 15 can be used to detect a missing pulse or abnormally long spacing betweenconsecutive pulses in a train of pulses. The timing interval of the monostable circuit is retriggered continuouslyby the input pulse train as long as the pulse spacing is less than the timing interval. A longer pulse spacing,missing pulse, or terminated pulse train permits the timing interval to be completed, thereby generating anoutput pulse as shown in Figure 16.Figure 15. Circuit for Missing-Pulse DetectorVCC (5 V to 15 V)DISCHOUTVCCRESETRL RAA5T3644CTHRESGNDCONTTRIGInput0.01 µFÏÏÏOutput4 8376251Pin numbers shown are shown for the D, JG, P, PS, and PW packages.Figure 16. Completed-Timing Waveformsfor Missing-Pulse DetectorTime – 0.1 ms/divVoltage–2V/divÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏVCC = 5 VRA = 1 kΩC = 0.1 µFSee Figure 15Capacitor VoltageÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏOutput VoltageInput Voltage
NE555, SA555, SE555PRECISION TIMERSSLFS022C – SEPTEMBER 1973 – REVISED FEBRUARY 200212 POST OFFICE BOX 655303 • DALLAS, TEXAS 75265APPLICATION INFORMATIONfrequency dividerBy adjusting the length of the timing cycle, the basic circuit of Figure 9 can be made to operate as a frequencydivider. Figure 17 shows a divide-by-three circuit that makes use of the fact that retriggering cannot occur duringthe timing cycle.Voltage–2V/divTime – 0.1 ms/divCapacitor VoltageOutput VoltageInput VoltageÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏVCC = 5 VRA = 1250 ΩC = 0.02 µFSee Figure 9Figure 17. Divide-by-Three Circuit Waveformspulse-width modulationThe operation of the timer can be modified by modulating the internal threshold and trigger voltages, which isaccomplished by applying an external voltage (or current) to CONT. Figure 18 shows a circuit for pulse-widthmodulation. A continuous input pulse train triggers the monostable circuit, and a control signal modulates thethreshold voltage. Figure 19 shows the resulting output pulse-width modulation. While a sine-wave modulationsignal is illustrated, any wave shape could be used.
NE555, SA555, SE555PRECISION TIMERSSLFS022C – SEPTEMBER 1973 – REVISED FEBRUARY 200213POST OFFICE BOX 655303 • DALLAS, TEXAS 75265APPLICATION INFORMATIONTHRESGNDCRARLVCC (5 V to 15 V)OutputDISCHOUTVCCRESETTRIGCONTModulationInput(see Note A)ClockInputNOTE A: The modulating signal can be direct or capacitively coupledto CONT. For direct coupling, the effects of modulationsource voltage and impedance on the bias of the timershould be considered.4 837625Pin numbers shown are for the D, JG, P, PS, and PW packages.1Figure 18. Circuit for Pulse-Width ModulationVoltage–2V/divTime – 0.5 ms/divÏÏÏÏÏÏCapacitor VoltageÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏOutput VoltageÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏClock Input VoltageÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏRA = 3 kΩC = 0.02 µFRL = 1 kΩSee Figure 18ÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏModulation Input VoltageFigure 19. Pulse-Width-Modulation Waveformspulse-position modulationAs shown in Figure 20, any of these timers can be used as a pulse-position modulator. This applicationmodulates the threshold voltage and, thereby, the time delay, of a free-running oscillator. Figure 21 shows atriangular-wave modulation signal for such a circuit; however, any wave shape could be used.RBModulationInput(see Note A)CONTTRIGRESET VCCOUTDISCHVCC (5 V to 15 V)RL RACGNDTHRESNOTE A: Themodulating signal can be direct or capacitively coupledto CONT. For direct coupling, the effects of modulationsource voltage and impedance on the bias of the timershould be considered.Pin numbers shown are for the D, JG, P, PS, and PW packages.4 837625OutputFigure 20. Circuit for Pulse-Position Modulation Figure 21. Pulse-Position-Modulation WaveformsVoltage–2V/divÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏRA = 3 kΩRB = 500 ΩRL = 1 kΩSee Figure 20ÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏCapacitor VoltageÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏOutput VoltageÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏModulation Input VoltageTime – 0.1 ms/div
NE555, SA555, SE555PRECISION TIMERSSLFS022C – SEPTEMBER 1973 – REVISED FEBRUARY 200214 POST OFFICE BOX 655303 • DALLAS, TEXAS 75265APPLICATION INFORMATIONsequential timerMany applications, such as computers, require signals for initializing conditions during start-up. Otherapplications, such as test equipment, require activation of test signals in sequence. These timing circuits canbe connected to provide such sequential control. The timers can be used in various combinations of astableor monostable circuit connections, with or without modulation, for extremely flexible waveform control. Figure 22shows a sequencer circuit with possible applications in many systems, and Figure 23 shows the outputwaveforms.SVCCRESET VCCOUTDISCHGNDCONTTRIG4 8376152THRESRCCC0.01CC = 14.7 µFRC = 100 kΩ Output CRESET VCCOUTDISCHGNDCONTTRIG4 8376152THRESRB 33 kΩ0.0010.01µFCB = 4.7 µFRB = 100 kΩOutput BOutput ARA = 100 kΩCA = 10 µFµF0.01µF0.00133 kΩRATHRES25167384TRIGCONTGNDDISCHOUTVCCRESETµFµFCBCAPin numbers shown are for the D, JG, P, PS, and PW packages.NOTE A: S closes momentarily at t = 0.Figure 22. Sequential Timer CircuitVoltage–5V/divt – Time – 1 s/divÏÏÏÏÏSee Figure 22ÏÏÏOutput AÏÏÏÏÏÏOutput BÏÏÏOutput CÏÏÏt = 0ÏÏÏÏÏtwC = 1.1 RCCCÏÏtwCÏÏÏÏÏtwB = 1.1 RBCBÏÏÏÏÏÏtwA = 1.1 RACAÏÏÏÏtwAÏÏÏÏÏÏtwBFigure 23. Sequential Timer Waveforms
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