Oxford DrupalCamp 2012 - The things we found in your websitePresentation Transcript
The things we found in your website Hernâni Borges de Freitas Technical Consultant firstname.lastname@example.org @hernanibf Oxford, 23rd June, 2012
About us • Expert Drupal Support • Optimized Drupal hosting • Dev Cloud • Managed Cloud • Foster Drupal adoption • Commons • Drupalgardens.com • Dev Desktop The things we found in your website!
About me • .pt / Oxford • Acquia Professional Services EMEA • Technical Consultant • Drupal* many things • Passionate about web and communities • Travel lover The things we found in your website!
@2011 The things we found in your website!
What my team does • Drupal Jumpstarts • Architecture Workshop • Discovery workshops • Site Audit • Performance Audit • Security Audit • On-‐site Consulting The things we found in your website!
Site Audit • During limited time we look to your website assuring it is following best practices and don’t present risks: • Architecture • Security • Performance • Infrastructure • Maintenance headaches The things we found in your website!
Balance • Understand the project history / constraints • Be clear that there is no single right way of solving problems. • Everyone do mistakes. And should learn from them! • Long term solutions make everyone happier than short term patchwork. • The best tool: the one you know how to use. The things we found in your website!
Content architecture “Editors don’t understand what to create. ” “The page content type article is similar to news. We just used it during some months to create special news in homepage.” “We needed to change this template because we wanted to show everything in that location and we use school_location and teacher_city.”The things we found in your website!
Content architecture Symptoms • Similar content types • Fields not reused • Content types with almost no nodes Chasing it Take a look at ﬁeld report page. Content type structure. Simple database queries Select count(*), type from node group by type The things we found in your website!
Display architecture “Views_london, views_paris, views_porto shows jobs available in these cities” “The scores block in the sports section ? Some PHP code is controlling its visibility in block conﬁguration..” “We need those node_load() in preprocess_page because we need to show those nodes in homepage.” The things we found in your website!
Site architecture Chasing it • Understand how pages are build. • Look at views and how reusable they are. • How much custom templates do you have? • How much logic do you have in templates. • How easy is to switch theme (mobile, special occasions?) • How long does it take to produce a totally new design in your site? The things we found in your website!
Site architecture Symptoms • Modules installed • Number of modules that are not useful at all. • Hacked core and modules • “There is a module for that” – does not mean you need to use it! • Modules used for things they were not designed to do. • PHP Code in database The things we found in your website!
Reinventing the wheel “This is a custom module we designed to create forms on the ﬂy that can be sent by email to site admins!” “ That custom module adds small hidden tokens to control SPAM in our website.”The things we found in your website!
Extra complexity “We thought we needed content translation but in the end our website is just in english.” “Right now we only have one type of users, but in the future we might need to have more roles, so we already have content_access.” “ Authcache module is used to speed up pages for our 20 journalists.”The things we found in your website!
Site architecture Chasing it • Use hacked! module ( http://drupal.org/project/hacked) to compare code versions used. • Balance custom code / contributed code or reusable ways of solving problems. • Couldn’t that query be a view ? • Couldn’t context or panels creating that page? • Couldn’t that custom action be controlled by a rule? The things we found in your website!
Custom modules Symptoms • Not following coding standards • Can be a warning for what is coming… • Not using the right hooks • Excessive usage of hook_init, hook_nodeapi • Not using the API • Reinventing something that Drupal is already doing well • Hardcoded strings (nids, tids, vids, urls). • All code in .module ﬁle The things we found in your website!
Security “ That webservice path is impossible to ﬁnd, it does not need authentication. Only the mobile app uses it.” “ You would need to be a administrator to access that page.” “ We are the only ones we can access the server, therefore we are just too worried about it.”The things we found in your website!
Security Basic problems • Not updated core and contributed modules. • Bad conﬁguration • Users have permissions to do things they shouldn’t • Admins have easy passwords (similar to usernames, hacked email accounts..) • File upload is not checked • Code repository contain extra gifts • Database dumps, ﬁles with information that should no be there .. The things we found in your website!
Security SQL Injection • db_query(“select from table where id=$_GET[‘id’]”); • Example.com/index.php?id=1;drop database yoursite;-‐-‐ XSS – Cross site scripting • <?php echo “Your number is “. $_GET[‘id’]; ?> • Index.php?id=<script>alert(“UAAAT??”);</script> CSRF – Cross site request forgery $items[‘admin/cookies/%/delete’] = array( access callback => user_access, access arguments => array(access cookies), page callback => cookie_delete ); The things we found in your website!
Security CSRF – Cross site request forgery • HTML Email • <img src=‘http://example.com/admin/cookies/10/delete’ /> • HTTP Post to forms • You expect the request to come from your site but it can come from anywhere • Drupal protects against both attacks using tokens and Form API The things we found in your website!
Performance What is your website doing • How long do most pages take to load (common lists, node pages, homepage?) • Why do they take so long? DB queries, application requests? • What about edge cases? Clear cache for instance? • What is your caching strategy? • What are your logs telling you? The things we found in your website!
Performance • How long do most pages take to load ? • Devel query log can show immediately some problems • XhProf can do the rest • NewRelic (newrelic.com) is pure gold! • Why is CPU and memory wasted? • Typically • Complex queries that take too much time • Function called too much times • Edge cases that are happening all the time The things we found in your website!
Performance Why is the database so slow? Why is only slow now? • Databases not optimized to grow • Complex queries made by without indexes usage • Complex queries made automatically SELECT node.nid AS nid, users.picture AS users_picture, users.uid AS users_uid, users.name AS users_name, users.mail AS users_mail, node.title AS node_title, GREATEST(node.changed, node_comment_statistics.last_comment_timestamp) AS node_comment_statistics_last_updated FROM node node INNER JOIN users users ON node.uid = users.uid INNER JOIN node_comment_statistics node_comment_statistics ON node.nid = node_comment_statistics.nid ORDER BY node_comment_statistics_last_updated DESC The things we found in your website!
Performance Is using InnoDb always better? SELECT COUNT(*) FROM (SELECT DISTINCT node.nid AS nid FROM node node LEFT JOIN og_ancestry og_ancestry ON node.nid = og_ancestry.nid INNER JOIN users users ON node.uid = users.uid INNER JOIN node_comment_statistics node_comment_statistics ON node.nid = node_comment_statistics.nid WHERE og_ancestry.group_nid = 5 ) count_alias • Use views lite pager The things we found in your website!
Performance Can it be cached? • Assure caching and aggregation are set. Yes, look at it! • Review caching strategy: • https://www.acquia.com/blog/when-‐and-‐how-‐caching-‐can-‐ save-‐your-‐site-‐part-‐2-‐authenticated-‐users • Guarantee caching is eﬀectively helping you. • Don’t clear it too often. • Not used only by a minority. The things we found in your website!
Infrastructure This is where your website ends.. • What is the right size? How do you grow? • Are the diﬀerent servers well tuned ? • Apache / PHP • Mysql • Varnish • What are your logs telling you? The things we found in your website!
Infrastructure “Our DB Server has 48Gb of memory. Enough to handle all requests!” • My.cnf • Innodb_buﬀer_pool = 1024M • Adjust limits according to your resources. • http://mysqltuner.pl • Your slowest bottleneck represents your overall bottleneck. The things we found in your website!
Infrastructure “We don’t need that many web servers. As varnish is set in front and working as a reverse proxy, most of the trafﬁc will be cached.” The things we found in your website!
Infrastructure “Our external ﬁrewall controls all sort of attacks. We don’t use any speciﬁc ﬁrewall in the servers.” • 50/70% of attacks are internal. Remote connections with DB, Memcached, Solr should be forbidden. • Hard to remember about details on fast moving environments. The things we found in your website!
Maintenance This is going to be must of the work! • What is your deployment architecture? • How hard is it too change? • How do you test changes? • How relaxed do you leave your desk? The things we found in your website!
Deployment “We just copy the code directly to the server by FTP.” “Any developer can just take a snapshot from production and install on their laptop.” “Don’t touch that module. We just did some changes from what it was originally.”The things we found in your website!
Maintenance Control your code! • All piece of code should be under VCS. • Git, Mercury, Bazaar, SVN, CVS • Copying to backup folders is not VCS. • Yes, those log messages serve for something… • No, your holidays pictures should not be under VCS. • No, your database dumps shouldn’t also be there. The things we found in your website!
Maintenance “We can only test that in production.” “Yes we have a staging environment. But its data is from last summer.” “Sometimes problems occur when we upgrade. But we have always a backup.”The things we found in your website!
Maintenance Do once, prepare many! • Several environments should exist • Development, Staging and Production. • Should be possible to deploy from VCS to them! • Environments should be up to date and accessible • Environments should be as possible similar to real life • Environments should be easy to destroy and replicate The things we found in your website!
Maintenance This is going to be most of the work! • Be prepared for changes • You don’t control them most of times! • Review periodically website architecture • What you need today is not similar when you built it • Pay attention to security updates • Review your logs periodically The things we found in your website!
Free site audit ? The things we found in your website!
So, before your questions. I do have a question. Would you like to join Acquia? We are hiring EVERYWHERE! • Consultants • Support • Sales • Engineering