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Topic 5 bone of skull neck

Topic 5 bone of skull neck



U wanna know about the structure of the skull??? here we go...

U wanna know about the structure of the skull??? here we go...



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    Topic 5 bone of skull neck Topic 5 bone of skull neck Presentation Transcript

    • Skull, Neck and Muscles By : Hermizan Halihanafiah Bsc Biomedical Sc (Hons), UKM hermizanhalihanafiah@yahoo.com http://www.slideshare.net/hermizan84
    • Skull Contains 22 bones Rest superior to the vertebral column Consists 2 sets of bones, facial and cranial bones Cranial bones forms the cranial cavity, which encloses and protect the brain Facial bones form the face.
    • Cranial Bones (8 bones) 1 Frontal bone 2 parietal bones 2 temporal bones 1 Occipital bone 1 Sphenoid bone 1 Ethmoid bone
    • Facial bones (14 bones) 2 nasal bones 2 maxillas 2 zygomatic bones Mandible 2 lacrimal bones 2 palatines bone 2 inferior nasal conchae Vomer
    • Figure 8.4a
    • Figure 8.4b
    • Function of the skull Protect the brain Inner surface attach to the membranes (meninges) that stabilize the position of the brain, blood vessels and nerves. Outer surface of cranial bones provide large areas for muscle attachment that move various part of the head. The bones also provide muscle attachment for some muscles that produce facial expressions.
    • Function of the skull Facial bones – forms framework of the face Facial bones – provide support for entrance to the digestive and respiratory system Together cranial and facial bones protect and support the delicate special sense organs for vision, taste, smell, hearing and equibilirium.
    • Frontal Bones Forms the forehead, the roof of the orbits and most of the anterior part of the cranial floor Soon after birth, the left and right side of the frontal bone united together by the metopic suture, usually disappear by age of six to eight.
    • Frontal Bones Frontal Bone that forms the forehead – Frontal squama Superior to the orbits the frontal bone thickens, forming the supraorbital margin. From this margin, the frontal bone extends posteriorly to form the roof of the orbits, which is part of the floor of the cranial cavity. Within the supraorbital margin, slightly medial to its midpoint, is a hole called supraorbital foramen where supraorbital nerve and artery pass through it.
    • Frontal Bones Frontal sinuses lie deep to the frontal squama. Sinuses, or called parasinuses, are mucous membrane – lined cavities in certain skull bones.
    • Figure 8.8
    • Parietal Bones 2 parietal bones Form the greater portion of the side and roof of the cranial cavity Internal surface of parietal bones contain many protrusion and depression that accommodate the blood vessels supplying the dura mater (superficial connective tissue that lining the brain. No foramina in the parietal bones.
    • Temporal Bones 2 temporal bones Form the inferior lateral aspects of the cranium and part of the cranial floor Lateral view of the temporal bones, called temporal squama, the thin, flat part that form the anterior and superior part of the temple. Projecting from the inferior portion of the temporal squama is the zygomatic process.
    • Mandibular ArticularFossa Zygomatic arch Tubercle
    • Figure 8.4b
    • Temporal Bone Zygomatic process of temporal bones articulate with temporal process of zygomatic (cheek) bone form the zygomatic arch A socket called the mandibular fossa is located on the inferior posterior surface of the zygomatic process of the temporal bones. Anterior to the mandibular fossa is a rounded elevation called articular tubercle.
    • Temporal Bone The mandibular fossa and articular tubercle articulate with the mandible (lower jawbone) to form the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Located posteriorly on the temporal bone is the mastoid portion. It is located posterior and inferior to the external auditory meatus or ear canal.
    • Temporal Bone The mastoid process is a rounded projection of the mastoid portion of the temporal bone posterior to the external auditory meatus. It is the point for several neck muscles attachment. The internal auditory meatus is the opening through which facial nerve (cranial nerve VII) and vestibulocochlear nerve (cranial nerve VIII) passes.
    • Temporal Bone The styloid process projects inferiorly from the inferior surface of the temporal bones and serve as a point of attachment for muscles and ligaments of the tongue a neck. Between the styloid process and mastoid process is the stylomastoid foramen.
    • Figure 8.4a Zygomatic arch
    • Temporal Bone At the floor of the cranial cavity is the petrous portion of the temporal bone. This part is the triangular and it is located at the base of the skull between the sphenoid and occipital bones. The petrous portion houses the internal and middle ear, structure involve hearing and equibilirium.
    • Temporal Bone It also contain the carotid foramen, through which the carotid artery passes. Posterior to the carotid foramen and anterior to the occipital bone is the jugular foramen, passageway for the jugular vein.
    • Occipital Bone Forms the posterior part and most of the base of the cranium The foramen magnum is in the inferior part of the bone. Within this foramen, the medulla oblongata connect with the spinal cord. The vertebral and spinal arteries also pass through this foramen.
    • Occipital Bone The occipital condyles are oval processes with convex surface, one on either side of the foramen magnum. They articulates with depression on the 1st cervical vertebra (atlas) to form the atlanto- occipital joint. Superior to each occipital condyle on the inferior surface of the skull is the hypoglossal foramen.
    • Occipital Bone The external occipital protuberance is a prominent midline projection on the posterior surface of the bone just above the foramen magnum. A large fibrous, elastic ligament, the ligamentum nuchae, which help support the head, extend from the external occipital protuberance to the 7th cervical vertebra.
    • Occipital Bone Extending laterally from the protuberance are two curved ridges, the superior nuchal lines, and below these are two inferior nuchal lines, which is areas for the muscles attachment.
    • Sphenoid Bone Lies at the middle part of the base of the skull. Keystone of the cranial floor because it articulates with all the other cranial bones, holding them together Sphenoid articulation – joins anteriorly with the frontal bone, laterally with the temporal bones and posteriorly with the occipital bones.
    • Sphenoid
    • Sphenoid Bone Lie posterior and slightly superior to the nasal cavity and forms part of the floor, side walls, and rear wall of the orbit. The shape of the sphenoid resembles a bat with outstretched wings. The body of the sphenoid is the cube-like medial portion between the ethmoid and occipital bones.
    • Figure 16.11 The sphenoid bone viewed from above.
    • Sphenoid Bone It contains the sphenoidal sinuses, which drain into the nasal cavity. The sella turcica, ia bony saddle-shaped structure on the superior surface of the body of the sphenoid. Anterior part of the sella turcica, which form the horn of the saddle, is a ridge called the tuberculum sellae.
    • Sphenoid Bone The seat of the saddle is a depression, called hypophyseal fossa, which contain pituitary gland. The posterior part of the sella turcica, which forms the back of the saddle, is another ridge called the dorsum sellae. The greater wings of the sphenoid project laterally from the body and form the anterolateral floor of the cranium.
    • Sphenoid Bone The greater wings also form part of the lateral wall of the skull just anterior to the temporal bone. The lesser wings, which are smaller, form a ridge of bone anterior and superior to the greater wings. They form part of the floor of the cranium and the posterior part of the orbit of the eye.
    • Sphenoid Bone Between the body and lesser wing, just anterior to the sella turcica is the optic foramen. Lateral to the body between the greater and lesser wings is a triangular slit called the superior orbital fissure. Pterygoid process – structures project inferiorly from the point where the body and wings unite and form the lateral posterior region of the nasal cavity. Some of the muscles that move the mandible attach to the pterygoid process.
    • Sphenoid Bone At the base of the pterygoid process in the greater wings is the foramen ovale. The foramen lacerum is bounded anteriorly by the sphenoid bone and medially by sphenoid and occipital bones Foramen rotundum – located at the junction of the anterior and medial parts of the sphenoid bone.
    • Ethmoid Bone Light, spongylike bone, located on the midline in the anterior part of the cranial floor medial to the orbits. Anterior to the sphenoid and posterior to the nasal bones
    • Ethmoid
    • Ethmoid Bone Ethmoid bone forms: Part of the anterior portion of the cranial floor Medial wall of the orbit Superior portion of the nasal septum Most of the superior sidewalls of the nasal cavity.
    • Ethmoid Bone The lateral masses of the ethmoid bone compose most of the wall between the nasal cavity and orbits. Contain 3 to 18 air spaces, or “cells”. The ethmoidal cells together to form ethmoidal sinuses. The perpendicular plate forms the superior portion of the nasal septum
    • Ethmoid Bone The cribriform plate lies in the anterior floor of the cranium and forms the roof of the nasal cavity. The cribriform plate contain olfactory foramina through which axons of the olfactory nerve pass. Projecting upward from the cribriform plate is a triangular process called the crista galli. This structure is serve as a point of attachment for the membrane that cover the brain.
    • Figure 16.12 The right ethmoid bone and its related structures.
    • Ethmoid Bone The lateral masses of the ethmoid bone contain 2 thin, scroll shaped projection lateral to the nasal septum. These are the superior nasal conchae and middle nasal conchae. A third pair of conchae, the inferior nasal conchae, are separated bones.
    • Ethmoid Bone The conchae cause turbulance in inhaled air, which result in many inhaled particles striking and becoming trapped in the mucus that lines the nasal passageways. This turbulence thus cleanses the inhaled air before it passes into the rest of the respiratory tract. Turbulence airflow around the superior nasal conchae also aids in the distribution of olfactory stimulants for the sensation of smell. Air striking and mucous lining of the conhae is also warmed and moisted.
    • Nasal Bones Paired of the nasal bones meet at the midline Form part of the bridge of the nose The rest of the supporting tissue of the nose consists of cartilage
    • Maxillae A paired maxillae unite together to form the upper jawbone Articulate with every bone of the face except the mandible (lower jawbone) Forms part of the floor of the orbits, part of the lateral walls and floor of the nasal cavity, and most of the hard palate.
    • Maxillae The hard palate is a bony partition formed by palatine process of the maxillae and horizontal plates of the palatine bones that forms roof of the mouth. Each maxillae contains a large maxillary sinus that empties into the nasal cavity. The alveolar process of the maxillae is an arch that contain the alveoli (sockets) for the maxillary (upper) teeth.
    • Maxillae The palatine process is a horizontal projection of the maxillae that forms the anterior three quarters of the hard palate. The union and diffusion of the maxillary bones normally is completed before birth. The infraorbital foramen is an opening in the maxillae below the orbit. Inferior orbital fissure, located between the greater wing of the sphenoid and the maxilla.
    • Maxillae
    • Zygomatic Bones 2 zygomatic bones Called cheekbones Form the prominence of the cheek and part of the lateral wall and floor of each orbit Articulate with the maxillae and the frontal, sphenoid and temporal bones.
    • Lacrimal Bones In pair Smallest bones of the face Thin, resemble a fingernail in size and shape Posterior and lateral to nasal bones and form a part of medial wall of each orbit Contain lacrimal fossa, vertical tunnel formed with maxilla, that houses for the lacrimal sac. Lacrimal fossa – gathers tears and passes them into the nasal cavity.
    • Palatine Bones In pair L-shaped Form the posterior portion of the hard palate, part of the floor and lateral wall of the nasal cavity, and smallest portion of the floors of the orbits. The horizontal palate of the palatine bones form the posterior portion of the hard palate, which separate the nasal cavity and oral cavity
    • Inferior Nasal Conchae In pair Inferior to the middle nasal conchae of the ethmoid bone Scroll like bones that form a part of the inferior lateral wall of the nasal cavity and project into the nasal cavity. The inferior nasal conchae is a separate bones, they are not part of the ethmoid bone
    • Inferior Nasal Conchae All three pairs of the nasal conchae help swirl and filter air before it passes into the lungs. Only superior nasal conchae involve in the sense of smell
    • Vomer Triangular bone Located in the floor of the nasal cavity Articulates superiorly with perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone and inferiorly with both the maxilla and palatine along the midline It is apart of the nasal septum, partition that divides the nasal cavity into right and left sides.
    • Mandible Lower jawbone Largest, strongest facial bone Movable skull bone Consist of a curved , horizontal portion, the body, and two perpendicular portions, the rami. The angle of the mandible is the area where each ramus meets the body
    • Mandible Each ramus has a posterior condylar process. On each condylar process has a articulating surface called mandibular condyle that articulates with the mandibular fossa and articular tubercle of the temporal bones. This articulation called temporomandibular joint (TMJ) Has anterior coronoid process to which temporalis muscles attaches. The depression between coronoid and condylar process called the mandibular notch
    • Mandible The alveolar process is an arch containing the alveoli (sockets) for the mandibular (lower) teeth. The mental foramen is located below the mandibular second premolar tooth. The mandibular foramen on the medial surface of each ramus. The mandibular foramen, beginning of the mandibular canal, which run obliquely in the ramus and anteriorly to the body deep to the roots of the teeth
    • Mandible The inferior alveolar nerves and blood vessels, which are distributed to the mandibular teeth, pass through this canal.
    • Figure 8.15
    • Hyoid Bone Single Unique, does not articulate with any bones Suspended from the styloid processes of the temporal bones by ligaments and muscles. Located in the anterior neck between the mandible and larynx Support the tongue, providing attachment sites for some tongue muscles and for muscles of the neck and pharynx.
    • Hyoid Bone Consists horizontal body and paired projection called the lesser horns and the greater horns. Muscles and ligaments attach to these paired projection.
    • Hyoid Bone
    • The Important of Hyoid Bone It helps to support the tongue and serves as an attachment point for several muscles that help to elevate the larynx during swallowing and speech. The hyoid bone is unique in that it is the only bone of the body that does not articulate with any other bone. Instead, it is suspended above the larynx where it is anchored by ligaments to the styloid processes of the temporal bones of the skull. When depressed it also assists in locating vocal chords when intubating a patient
    • Sutures Immovable joint Holds skull bone together 5 prominent suture: Coronal Sagittal Lambdoid Squamous metopic
    • Paranasal Sinuses Cavities within certain cranial and facial bones and connecting with nasal cavity Lined with mucous membrane. Frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid and maxillary sinus.
    • Fontanels Soft spot – areas of unossified mesenchyme. Soon after birth it gradually become suture (intramembranous ossification) Anterior fontanel Posterior fontanel Anterolateral Posterolateral
    • •The largest – diamond •Smaller than anterior shape •Closes – 2 months •Closes – 18 – 24 months•Small, irregular shape •Small, irregular shape•Closes – 3 months •Closes – 1-2 months
    • Muscles of Facial Expression Scalp muscles Mouth muscles Neck muscles Orbit and eyebrow muscles
    • Scalp Muscles Frontalis (anteriorly) Occipitalis (posteriorly)
    • Mouth muscles Orbicularis oris Zygomaticus major Zygomaticus minor Levator labii superioris Depressor labii inferioris Depressor anguli oris Levator anguli oris Buccinator Risorius Mentalis
    • Orbit and Eyebrow Muscles Oribicularis oculi Corrugator supercilli Levator palpebrae superioris
    • Muscles Of Mastication Muscles move the mandible Muscles move the tongue (extrinsic tongue muscles)
    • Muscles Move the Mandible Masseter Temporalis Medial pterygoid Lateral pterygoid
    • Muscles Move The Tongue Genioglossus Styloglossus Platoglossus hyoglossus
    • Muscles of the Anterior Neck Located superior to the hyoid bone (suprahyoid muscles) 1. Digastric 2. Stylohyoid 3. Mylohyoid 4. geniohyoid
    • Muscles of the Anterior Neck Located superior to the hyoid bone (Infrahyoid muscles) 1. Omohyoid 2. Sternohyoid 3. Sternothyroid 4. Thyrohyoid
    • Muscles that Move the Eyeball(Extrinsic Eye Muscles) Superior rectus Inferior rectus Lateral rectus Superior oblique Inferior oblique Levator palpebrae superioris
    • Muscles that Moves the Head Sternocleidomastoid Semispinalis capitis Splenius capitis Longissimus capitis
    • THANK YOU!!