Topic 4 joint


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This ppt discuss about the characteristics of the various types of the joint including fibrous, cartilaginous and synovial joint.

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Topic 4 joint

  2. 2. JointsWhat is Joint?• Point of contact between two bones, between bone and cartilage or between bone and teeth.• Also called articulation or arthrosis #
  3. 3. Structural Classification of Joint• Based on presence or absence the synovial cavity and types of connective tissues that hold the two bones: – Fibrous joint – Cartilaginous joint – Synovial joint #
  4. 4. Fibrous Joint• No synovial cavity• Hold by dense irregular connective tissues, rich in collagen fiber• Fixed joint, immovable joint (synarthrosis)• 3 types; sutures, syndesmoses, interosseous membranes. #
  5. 5. Suture Interosseous Membrane Dentoalveolar #
  6. 6. Syndesmosis Joint #
  7. 7. Cartilaginous Joint• Lack of synovial cavity• Allows little movements (partially movable) (ampiarthrosis) or immovable joint (synarthrosis)• Articulating bones tightly connected with the hyaline cartilage or fibrocartilage• Two types; synchondroses and symphyses #
  8. 8. Synchondroses •Connecting meterials between 2 articulating bones is a hyaline cartilage •Immovable joint (synarthrosis) •Exp: 1st stercostal joint, epiphyseal plate #
  9. 9. Synchondroses •Epiphyseal plate is one type of the synchondrosis joint. •Immovable joint (synarthrosis) #
  10. 10. Symphyses • Connecting materials between 2 articulating bones is fibrocartilage. • Partially movable joint (ampiarthrosis) • Examples: sternal angle of sternum, pubic symphysis, intervertebral joint, #
  11. 11. Symphyses •Intervertebral joint is a one type of the symphysis joint. •Joint between body of vertebra bones. •Body of vertebra connect each other by intervertebral disc (fibrocartilage) •Partially movable (ampiarthrosis) #
  12. 12. Symphyses #
  13. 13. Synovial Joints• Presence of synovial cavity between articulating bones• Freely movable joint (diarthrosis)• Bones at a synovial joint are covered by a hyaline cartilage called articular cartilage• Divide into 6 types, ball and socket, planar (gliding), condyloid, saddle, hinge, pivot joint. #
  14. 14. Structure of Synovial JointArticular capsule• Surrounds a synovial joint• Composed 2 layers, outer fibrous membrane and inner synovial membrane• Fibrous membrane connect periosteum between 2 articulating bones.• Fibrous membrane give flexibility and strengthen the synovial joint• Synovial membrane produce synovial fluid that avoid friction between articulating boned during movements. #
  15. 15. Articular Capsule #
  16. 16. Articular CartilageArticular Cartilage• Covered the articulating surface of the bones with a smooth, slippery surface.• Reduce friction between bones during movement and assist to absorb shock. #
  17. 17. Synovial Fluid• Secrete by synovial membrane• Viscous, clear or pale yellow fluid• Function:• Reducing friction by lubricating the joint• Absorbing shock• Supply O2 & nutrient to and removing CO2 and waste product from the chondrocyte.• Contain phagocyte – remove microbe and debris #
  18. 18. Accessory StructureExtracapsular Structure• Ligament that lies outside the capsule• Example : fibular collateral & tibial collateral ligaments at the knee joint, Patella ligament lie at the surface of patella etc• Some joint strengthen by group of muscles. For examples rotator cuff muscles (SITS) strengthen the shoulder joint. #
  19. 19. Struktur Extracapsular #
  20. 20. Rotator Cuff Muscles #
  21. 21. Intracapsular Structure• Structure within the articular capsule• For examples anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments at knee joint• Inside some synovial joint, such as knee, pads of fibrocartilage disc lie between articular surface of the bone.• These pads are known as articular disc or menisci.• All these structure provide stabilization of the joint. #
  22. 22. Struktur IntracapsularAnterior Cruciate Ligament Posterior Cruciate Ligament #
  23. 23. Struktur Intracapsular # Posterior View Knee Joint
  24. 24. Struktur Intracapsular #
  25. 25. Bursae and Tendon SheathBursae• Saclike structure, filled with synovial fluid• Strategically situated to alleviate friction in some joint (knee and shoulder)• Acts as a cushion and protect the articulating bones from friction. #
  26. 26. Bursae and Tendon SheathTendon (Synovial) sheath• Tubelike bursae that wrap certain tendon that considerably friction.• Reduce friction during movement• For examples tendon of biceps brachii that pass through the synovial cavity.• Also found at wrist and ankle #
  27. 27. Movement of Synovial JointAngular Movement• Increase or decrease in the angle or articulating bones.• Flexion, extension, lateral flexion, hyperextension, abduction and adduction. #
  28. 28. Flexion & ExtensionFlexion• Movement that decrease in the angle between articulating bones.Extension• Movements that increase in the angle between articulating bones. #
  29. 29. Figure 9.12a #
  30. 30. Hyperextension• Continuation of extension beyond the anatomical position. #
  31. 31. Lateral Flexion• Movements of the trunk sideways to the right or left at the waist. #
  32. 32. Figure 9.12b #
  33. 33. #
  34. 34. Figure 9.12d #
  35. 35. Abduction• Movement of the body away from the midline #
  36. 36. Adduction• Movement of the bone toward midline #
  37. 37. Circumduction• Movement of the distal end of the body part in circle. #
  38. 38. #
  39. 39. Rotation• A bone revolves around its own longitudinal axis• Two types of rotation; Medial rotation and Lateral rotation #
  40. 40. Medial rotation• Anterior surface of the bone of the limb is turned toward midline #
  41. 41. Lateral Rotation• Anterior surface of the bone of a limb is turned away from the midline. #
  42. 42. Special Movements• Elevation• Depression• Protraction• Retraction• Inversion• Eversion #
  43. 43. Special Movements• Dorsiflexion• Plantar flexion• Supination• Pronation• Opposition #
  44. 44. Elevation• Upward movement of a part of the body #
  45. 45. Depression• Downward movement of a part of the body #
  46. 46. Protraction• Movements of apart of the body anteriorly in the transverse line. #
  47. 47. Retraction• Movement of a protracted part of the body back to the anatomical position. #
  48. 48. Figure 9.15 #
  49. 49. Inversion• Movements of the soles medially at the intertarsal joint, so that the soles face each other. #
  50. 50. Eversion• Movement of the soles laterally at the intertarsal joint so that the soles face away each other. #
  51. 51. Dorsiflexion• Bending of the foot at the ankle in the direction of the dorsum (superior surface).• Occurs when stand on your heels. #
  52. 52. Plantar flexion• Bending of the foot at the ankle joint in the direction of the plantar or inferior surface.• Occurs when standing on your toes. #
  53. 53. #
  54. 54. Supination• Movements of the forearm at the proximal and distal radioulnar joint in which the palm is turned anteriorly or superiorly. #
  55. 55. Pronation• Movements of the forearm at the proximal and distal radioulnar joint in which the distal end of the radius crosses over the distal end of ulna and the palm is turned posteriorly or inferiorly. #
  56. 56. Opposition• Movements of the thumbs at the carpometcarpal joint in which the thumb moves across the palm to touch the tips of the finger on the same hands. #
  57. 57. Figure 9.21 #
  58. 58. Gliding Movement• Simple movement in which relatively flat bone surfaces move back and forth and from side to side.• No significant alteration in angle between bones #
  59. 59. Type of Synovial JointSynovial joints are classified into 6 groupsbased on shapes of articulating surface andpossible movement.  Ball and socket  Hinge  Planar (gliding)  Condyloid  Pivot  Saddle #
  60. 60. Ball and Socket• Consists of the ball like surface of one bone fitting into cuplike depression of another bone• Provide triaxial movement (flexion – extension, abduction – adduction, lateral rotation – medial rotation)• Examples : hip joint and shoulder joint #
  61. 61. Ball and Socket Joint Triaxial MovementsHip Joint Glenohumeral Joint #
  62. 62. Hinge Joint• Convex surface of one bone fits into the concave surface of another bone.• Provide monoaxial movement (flexion – extension)• Examples: knee joint and elbow joint and interphalangeal joint. #
  63. 63. Hinge Joint Monoaxial MovementElbow Joint Knee Joint #
  64. 64. Pivot• Rounded or pointed surface of one bone articulates with a ring formed partly by another bone and partly by ligament.• Provide monoaxial movement• Examples: proximal radioulnar joint, atlantoaxial joint. #
  65. 65. Pivot Joint Monoaxial MovementAtlantoaxial Joint Radioulnar Joint #
  66. 66. Condyloid / Ellipsoidal Joint• The convex oval shaped projection of one bone fits into the oval shaped depression of another bone.• Provide biaxial movement (flexion – extension, abduction – adduction)• Examples : radiocarpal joint, metacarpopahalangeal (2-5). #
  67. 67. Condyloid JointMetacarpophalangeal Joint Carpometacarpal Joint #
  68. 68. Saddle Joint• The articular surface of one bone is saddle shaped, and the other bone fits into saddle.• Provide triaxial movement (flexion – extension, abduction – adduction, rotation)• Example : 1st carpometacarpal joint between trapezium of the carpus and 1st metacarpal. #
  69. 69. Saddle Joint Triaxial MovementsCarpometacarpal Joint #
  70. 70. Planar / Gliding Joint• Articulating surface of two bones are flat or slightly curve.• Limited movement• Provide biaxial movement (back – forth, side – side)• Examples:intercarpal, intertarsal,sternoclavicular, acromioclavicular etc. #
  71. 71. Gliding / Planar Joint Biaxial MovementsIntercarpal Joint #
  72. 72. Thank You….any question?? #