Leadership and social influence processes


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Leadership and social influence processes

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Leadership and social influence processes

  1. 1. Leadership and Social Influence Processes
  2. 2. Leadership and Social Influence Processes <ul><li>Status and Power </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Followership </li></ul><ul><li>Contingency Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Group Norms: Social Influence and Conformity </li></ul><ul><li>Group Development </li></ul>
  3. 3. Status and Power <ul><li>Types of Status </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Status is defined as a person’s position or rank relative to others in a group. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Differences in status in a group may either facilitate or hinder interaction. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Status and Power <ul><li>Types of Status </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Power and status equal the ratio of the number of successful power acts to the number of attempts to influence. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The success rate and relative status of any individual will vary from group to group. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Status and Power <ul><li>Types of Power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reward power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coercive power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legitimate power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Referent power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expert power </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Status and Power <ul><li>Power tends to equate to effectiveness in the eyes of others. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comments in small groups tend to be directed more often (by direction of eye contact) to higher-status group members than to those of lower status. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Positive and Negative Uses of Power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most experts agree that power tactics are amoral. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Leadership <ul><li>An effective leader is essential for optimal group performance. </li></ul><ul><li>Historic Trends </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trait Theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The physical traits associated with leadership were height, weight, physical attractiveness, and body shape. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Circumstances Theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A person may be an effective leader in one circumstance but perform poorly in a different circumstance. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Leadership <ul><li>Historic Trends </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Function Theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Leadership consists of certain behaviors, or functions, that groups must have performed. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. Task orientation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. People orientation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3. Change-oriented behaviors (Yukl et al, 2002) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Leadership <ul><ul><li>Interaction Process Analysis. Categories of Communicative Acts </li></ul></ul>Source: Based on Robert F. Bates. Interaction Process Analysis (Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley, 1950), p. 9; A. Paul Hare. Handbook of Small Group Research (New York: Free Press of Glencoe, 1962), p. 66; and Clovis R. Shepherd. Small Groups, Some Sociological Perspectives (San Francisco: Chandler, 1964), p. 30.
  10. 10. Leadership <ul><li>Leadership Styles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Early studies identified three different styles: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Autocratic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Democratic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Laissez-faire </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Leadership <ul><li>SuperLeaders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A SuperLeader who gets a lot of other people involved is said to develop SuperTeams. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manz and Neck (1999) have proposed the idea of self-leadership: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>We are each responsible for our own choices. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The challenge is to channel these choices in a desirable direction. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Followership <ul><li>Followership Styles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dependent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Counterdependent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Independent </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Followership <ul><li>Leadership and Followership Styles </li></ul>
  14. 14. Followership <ul><li>Research has revealed that followers contribute 80% to the success of the organization, while the leader only contributes a mere 20%. </li></ul><ul><li>Followers should be valued and held accountable for the successes of any group while their leaders should be rewarded for encouraging the followers to reach their full potential. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Contingency Theory <ul><li>Fiedler and Chemers (1974) and Potter and Fiedler (1993) argue that a combination of three separate factors determines a leader’s effectiveness: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leader-member relations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Task structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Position power </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Contingency Theory <ul><li>Fiedler’s Contingency Leadership Model </li></ul>Source: From Fiedler and Chemers. Leadership and Effective Management (Glenview, Ill: Scott, Foresman, 1974), p. 80. Copyright © 1974 by Scott, Foresman & Co. Reprinted by permission of the author.
  17. 17. Contingency Theory <ul><li>Hershey and Blanchard’s Contingency Model of Leadership </li></ul>Source: From Hershey, Blanchard, and Johnson, Management of Organizational Behavior , 8 th ed. (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.:Prentice-Hall, 2001), p. 182.
  18. 18. Group Norms: Social Influence and Conformity <ul><li>Wood, Phillips, and Pedersen (1986) define norms as “standardized patterns of belief, attitude, communication and behavior within groups.” </li></ul>
  19. 19. Group Norms: Social Influence and Conformity <ul><li>Guidelines for helping groups arrive at more creative solutions (Leonard and Swaps, 1999). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid changing your mind only to avoid conflict and to reach agreement and harmony. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Withstand pressures to yield, which have on objective or logically sound foundation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>View differences of opinion as both natural and helpful. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Group Norms: Social Influence and Conformity <ul><li>Conformity: Research and Applications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conformity is when most members of the group agree on a particular outcome and minority influence is when the decision made reflects the opinion of the minority. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In group situations, the social influence of the majority often causes the opposing minority members to change their views to that of the majority, even if the majority is clearly wrong. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Group Norms: Social Influence and Conformity <ul><li>Conformity: Research and Applications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Groupthink represents a form of social influence of the majority that results in a dangerous level of agreement by all members of the group, even if the decided action is obviously wrong. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To prevent Groupthink, alternative viewpoints should be fostered by the leader instead of hidden. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Group Norms: Social Influence and Conformity
  23. 23. <ul><ul><li>Theoretical Curves of Communications from Strong Rejectors, Mild Rejectors, and Four Nonrejectors to the Deviant in the Four Experimental Conditions. </li></ul></ul>Group Norms: Social Influence and Conformity Source: From Schacter. “Deviation, rejection, and communication.” Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 46:202. American Psychological Association, copyright © 1951.
  24. 24. Group Development <ul><li>Group development seems to occur in four phases. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phase 1 (orientation) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Group members break the ice and begin to find out enough about one another to have some common basis for functioning. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phase 2 (conflict) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Frequently characterized by conflict of one kind or another. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Group Development <ul><li>Group development . . . (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phase 3 (emergence) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Involves a resolution of the conflict experienced in Phase 2. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phase 4 (reinforcement) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The phase of maximum productivity and consensus. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Review of the Systems Approach <ul><li>High-status individuals tend to have more power. </li></ul><ul><li>The leadership style that would be appropriate in one situation with one set of followers may not be the most appropriate in a different situation with a different set of followers. </li></ul>
  27. 27. The Systems Approach <ul><li>Conformity pressure differs depending on the type of group, the personalities of the group members, and a number of other factors. </li></ul><ul><li>Groups go through fairly common phases, depending on the type of group. </li></ul>