The passive 2012
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  • 1. CHAPTER 10Passive Voice Mr. Hani M. Al-Tahrawi Eng-112 Pre-Dental (Batch 2) Pre-Pharma (Batch 2) March, 2012
  • 2. Pres. ParticipleBase Present Past Past Participle V4 FutureVerb Simple Simple V3 ing form has am will be am is was have am be is been are being were is going to be are was had were are has am will write is write have amwrite wrote written are writing writes was is going to write had were are has am will steal is am steal havesteal stolen are stealing is going to steal steals stole was had are were
  • 3. Subject Verb Object be V3 (by subject)
  • 4. An Active Sentence Subject Verb Object Turki wrote a letter.A Passive Sentence Object be V3 (by Subject) A letter was written by Turki.
  • 5. When we changed the sentence: Turki wrote a letter. into: A letter was written by Turki.We used ‘was’ as one of the forms of verb ‘ be ’. WHY?
  • 6. We used ‘was’ as one of the forms of verb ‘ be ’, and it is the simple past tense. That’s because….. The main verb in the active sentence was in the simple past tense. Turki wrote a letter. A letter was written by Turki.
  • 7. BUT which form of verb to be should I use?????????Base Form Past Pres. P. Present P.P. (Bare Simple V4 Simple V3infinitive) V2 ing-form am has am is was have be is been are being were are was had were
  • 8. To use one of the forms of verb to be,we have to meet two conditions: be What agrees The same with the new tense of the subject main verb ( object)
  • 9. The samebe tense of the main verb
  • 10. Tenses Taught in Semester 1:Present Simple Present Progressive Present Perfect Present Perfect Progressive Simple Past Past Progressive Past Perfect Future Simple
  • 11. Can you recognize the tense in these sentences?They give us new books at the beginning of every year.They have been publishing these books for ten years.They are discussing the new rules at the highest level.The police caught the thieves last night.The earthquake has destroyed hundreds of houses.Have they cleaned the room yet?They will interview the potential candidate next week.They didnt see Mona this morning.
  • 12. Can you recognize the tense in these sentences?They give us new books at the beginning of every year. Present Simple Present PerfectThey have been publishing these books for ten years. ProgressiveThey are discussing the new rules at the highest level. Present ProgressiveThe police caught the thieves last night. Simple PastThe earthquake has destroyed hundreds of houses. Present PerfectHave they cleaned the room yet? Present PerfectThey will interview the potential candidate next week. Future SimpleThey didnt see Mona this morning. Simple Past Negative
  • 13. Can you recognize the tense in these sentences?While the mechanic was fixing my car at the workshopyesterday, someone broke the windscreenThe instructor had notified the students of the newprocedures before he asked them to write their rough drafts.
  • 14. Can you recognize the tense in these sentences?While the mechanic was fixing my car at the workshop Past progressiveyesterday, someone broke the windscreen Simple PastThe instructor had notified the students of the new Past Perfectprocedures before he asked them to write their rough drafts. Simple Past
  • 15. Now can you give the equivalent passive of each tense? give /gives Present Simple (am/is/are) given have been publishing Present Perfect Progressive (has/ have) been being published are discussing Present Progressive (am/is/are) being discussed caught Simple Past (was/were) caught has destroyed Present Perfect (has/have) been destroyed Have ……. cleaned …….? Present Perfect Have/Has ……. been cleaned ….? will interview Future Simple will be interviewed didnt see Simple Past Negative (wasn’t/weren’t) seen
  • 16. Now can you give the equivalent passive of each tense? was fixing Past progressive (was/were) being fixed broke Simple Past (was/were) broken had notified Past Perfect had been notified asked Simple Past (was/were) asked
  • 17. The Simple Present Active PassiveThey write / don’t write the science column. The science column is/ isn’t written by them.He writes / doesn’t write the science columns. The science columns are/ aren’t written by him. Do they write the science column? Is the science column written by them? Does he write the science columns? Are the science columns written by him? What do the Dental students write? What is written by the Dental students? What does the Pharma student write? What is written by the Pharma student?
  • 18. The Present Progressive Active PassiveHe is fixing the stove. The stove is being fixed.They aren’t using the main meeting room. The main meeting room is not being used.Is the worker painting his condominium? Is his condominium being painted?Are they finalizing their biology project? Is their biology project being finalized?Where is he taking the guests? Where are the guests being taken?What are they doing about the new complaints? What is being done about the new complaints?
  • 19. The Present Perfect Active PassiveHe has broken / hasn’t broken the window. The window has/hasn’t been broken (by him).They have seen / have never seen a UFO in A UFO [has /has never] been seen in thisthis country before. country before.Has he (ever) broken the window? Has the window (ever) been broken (by him)?Have they (ever) seen a UFO in this Has a UFO (ever) been seen in this countrycountry before? before?What has he broken? What has been broken?What have they seen in this country before? What has been seen in this country before?
  • 20. The Present Perfect Progressive Passive Active (Rarely used and considered awkward with this tense)They have been teaching anatomy Anatomy and other medical coursesand other medical courses in this have been being taught in this collegecollege since 2007. since 2007.Have those kids been torturing Has that kitten been being torturedthat kitten? by those kids?What have they been teaching in What has been being taught in thisthis college since 2007? college since 2007?
  • 21. The Simple Past Active Passive ‘Sense and Sensibility ‘ was written byJane Austen wrote ‘Sense and Sensibility ‘ in 1811. Jane Austen in 1811.No one knew his real name. His real name wasn’t known.The police didn’t find their hiding place. Their hiding place wasn’t found. Did they arrange her birthday party? Was her birthday party arranged? Where did they send him? Where was he sent ?
  • 22. The Past Progressive Active PassiveHe was cleaning the attic when he found his The attic was being cleaned when his old jacketold jacket. was found.While they were counting the votes, his While the votes were being counted, hiscampaign manager announced his withdrawal was announced by his campaignwithdrawal. manager.Were they interviewing him when someone Was he being interviewed when his apartmentbroke into his apartment? was broken into? Where were they sending it? Where was it being sent?
  • 23. The Past Perfect Active PassiveThey broke the window after they had hit it The window was broken after it had been hitwith a stone. with a stone.Had they completed the housework before Had the housework been completed beforethey called their friends? their friends were called?Why had they sent him to Malaysia earlier? Why had he been sent to Malaysia earlier?
  • 24. The Future Simple and other Modal Auxiliary Structures Active PassiveThey will send some warning letters soon. Some warning letters will be sent soon.Ahmad is going to write the art column. The art column is going to be written by Ahmad.They must obey the rules. The rules must be obeyed.Will they send the warning letters soon? Will the warning letters be sent soon?Is Ahmad going to write the art column? Is the art column going to be written by Ahmad?Do they have to obey the rules? Do the rules have to be obeyed?Can you deliver this envelope tonight? Can this envelope be delivered tonight? When will they send the warning letters? When will the warning letters be sent? What will the Dental students write? What will be written by the Dental students?
  • 25. Ali takes the pills.The pills are taken by Ali.
  • 26. People speak English in many countries. English is spoken in many countries.
  • 27. Someone robbed the bank yesterday.The bank was robbed yesterday.
  • 28. Our teacher will collect the projects tomorrow. The projects will be collected tomorrow.
  • 29. The tailor has made this suit for me.This suit has been made for me.
  • 30. Builders had made this house using mud.This house had been made using mud .
  • 31. Jill paints the fence once a year.The fence is painted once a year.
  • 32. Sue bought a silk dress for her sister’s wedding. A silk dress was bought by Sue.
  • 33. The police arrested them yesterday. They were arrested yesterday.
  • 34. John and Paul have taken a lot of pictures since they arrived on the island. A lot of pictures have been taken by John and Paul since they arrived on the island.
  • 35. We asked her to help with the housework.She was asked to help with the housework.
  • 36. Scientific Process: Manufacturing Cars( They produce cars in this factory. )1. Cars are produced in this factory.
  • 37. ( Mechanics have already checked the cars in the blue area. )2. The cars have already been checked in the blue area.
  • 38. ( Electricians will install air-conditioning in the cars in the red area. )3. Air-conditioning will be installed in the cars in the red area.
  • 39. Passive Questions: (Simple Present)Does Subject verb Object ?DoAm Object Verb 3 (by Subject) ?IsAre
  • 40. Passive Questions: (Simple Past)Did Subject verb Object ?Was Object Verb 3 (by Subject) ?Were
  • 41. Passive Questions: (Present Perfect)Has Subject V3 object ?HaveHas object been V3 (by subject) ?Have
  • 42. Passive Questions: (Past Perfect)Had Subject Verb 3 Object ?Had Object been V3 (by Subject) ?
  • 43. Passive Questions: (Simple Future: will + stem verb) Will Subject verb Object ? Will Object be Verb 3 (by Subject) ?
  • 44. Passive Questions: (Simple Future: be going to + stem verb) Am Subject going to verb Object ? Is Are Am Object going to be Verb 3 (by Subject) ? Is Are
  • 45. Change the following into Passive. 1. Did they tell her the story? 2. What must we do about this? 3. What questions did they ask? 4. Has anyone changed the curtains yet? 5. Where did they park the car?6. Will anyone tell him about the accident?7. Has anyone dusted that blackboard yet? 8. Who is cleaning my room? First try to do these transformations yourself. The answers are on the following slides.
  • 46. Did they tell her the story? Was she told the story?
  • 47. What must we do about this? What must be done about this?
  • 48. What questions did they ask? What questions were asked?
  • 49. Has anyone changed the curtains yet?Have the curtains been changed yet?
  • 50. Where did they park the car?Where was the car parked?
  • 51. Will anyone tell him about the accident? Will he be told about the accident?
  • 52. Has anyone dusted that blackboard yet? Has that blackboard been dusted yet?
  • 53. Who is cleaning my room? Who is my room being cleaned by? ORWhom is my room being cleaned by?
  • 54. Someone wrote this letter. ( Change into a passive question asking about the underlined. ) Step 1: Form an Active Question. Who wrote this letter?Step 2: Change the Active Question into a Passive Question. Who was this letter written by?
  • 55. Researchers estimate that 8 million peoplein the United States are suffering from an Eating Disorder.It is estimated that 8 million people in the United States are suffering from an Eating Disorder.
  • 56. Correct the following verbs. (ACTIVE or PASSIVE ) is broken/ was broken The window pane (break) _________________. is cooking Someone (cook) ___________________ a meal in the kitchen right now. were asked / will be asked We (ask)___________________ several questions by the police tonight. was run over My cat (run over) ________________ by the milk van. must be done This homework (must do) ___________________ tonight. are written / were written/ have been written Poems ( write) ________________________________ in every culture . Know/ knew People all over the world (know) ___________________ her name. was being looted/ had already been looted The truck (loot)_____________________________________ when the police arrived. were served The guests (serve) ________________ some tea after they had a seat. have done The students (do) ____________ these exercises before.
  • 57. A. Correct the verb in parentheses. B. Then change the sentence into the PASSIVE. have been rearing1. Those boys (rear) _____________ these kittens for a long time. Passive: These kittens have been being reared for a long time.3. might eat / might have eaten The dog (might, eat) ____________________ your meal. Passive: Your meal might be eaten /might have been eaten by the dog.5. ought to take The patient (ought to, take) ________________ these pills every day. Passive: These pills ought to be taken by the patient every day. has to practice7. A freshman (have to, practice) _____________ English regularly. Passive: English has to be practiced regularly.9. slams Whenever the wind blows, it (slam) ________________ the door. Passive: The door is slammed whenever the wind blows. has to test / had to test6. Someone (have to, test)____________________ you on your English grammar. Passive: You have to be tested/ had to be tested on your English grammar.
  • 58. Choose the correct answer1. Hazel won the lottery.A. The lottery had been won by Hazel.B. The lottery was won by Hazel.C. The lottery is won by Hazel.
  • 59. Choose the correct answer1. Hazel won the lottery.A. The lottery had been won by Hazel.B. The lottery was won by Hazel.C. The lottery is won by Hazel.
  • 60. 2. The police interrogated Bryan.A. Bryan is interrogated by the police.B. Bryan was interrogated by the police.C. Bryan had been interrogated by the police.
  • 61. 2. The police interrogated Bryan.A. Bryan is interrogated by the police.B. Bryan was interrogated by the police.C. Bryan had been interrogated by the police.
  • 62. 3. Abu Malek has paid for the pizza.A. The pizza was paid for by Abu Malek.B. The pizza has been paid for by Abu Malek.C. The pizza is paid for by Abu Malek.
  • 63. 3. Abu Malek has paid for the pizza.A. The pizza was paid for by Abu Malek.B. The pizza has been paid for by Abu Malek.C. The pizza is paid for by Abu Malek.
  • 64. 4. Joy will meet you at the airport.A. You will have met Joy at the airport.B. You would be met by Joy at the airport.C. You will be met by Joy at the airport.
  • 65. 4. Joy will meet you at the airport.A. You will have met Joy at the airport.B. You would be met by Joy at the airport.C. You will be met by Joy at the airport.
  • 66. 5. People highly respect Berna´s opinion.A. Berna´s opinion will be highly respected.B. Berna´s opinion was highly respected.C. Berna´s opinion is highly respected.
  • 67. 5. People highly respect Berna´s opinion.A. Berna´s opinion will be highly respected.B. Berna´s opinion was highly respected.C. Berna´s opinion is highly respected.
  • 68. 6. Amanda upset me by what she said.A. I am upset by what Amanda said.B. I was upset by what Amanda said.C. I would be upset by what Amanda said.
  • 69. 6. Amanda upset me by what she said.A. I am upset by what Amanda said.B. I was upset by what Amanda said.C. I would be upset by what Amanda said.
  • 70. 7. Charms is going to inform Brian later.A. Brian would be informed by Charms later.B. Brian is going to be informed by Charms later.C. Brian was going to be informed by Charms later.
  • 71. 7. Charms is going to inform Brian later.A. Brian would be informed by Charms later.B. Brian is going to be informed by Charms later.C. Brian was going to be informed by Charms later.
  • 72. 8. The police arrested 10 rioters last night.A. Ten rioters were going to be arrested last night.B. Ten rioters were arrested last night.C. Ten rioters should have been arrested last night.
  • 73. 8. The police arrested 10 rioters last night.A. Ten rioters were going to be arrested last night.B. Ten rioters were arrested last night.C. Ten rioters should have been arrested last night.
  • 74. 9. The Dean may visit us next week.A. We may be visited by the Dean next week.B. We maybe visited by the Dean next week.C. We must be visited by the Dean next week.
  • 75. 9. The Dean may visit us next week.A. We may be visited by the Dean next week.B. We maybe visited by the Dean next week.C. We must be visited by the Dean next week.
  • 76. 10. Studying hard could have saved you.A. You could have saved by studying hard.B. You could have been saved by studying hard.C. You could be saved by studying hard.
  • 77. 10. Studying hard could have saved you.A. You could have saved by studying hard.B. You could have been saved by studying hard.C. You could be saved by studying hard.
  • 78. As you have noticed, the Passive Voice of any tense contains this structure: be + V. 3 (Past Participle) is broken will be met was interrogated . is going to be informed could have been saved was being looted had been seen
  • 79. Do you know the past and Past Participle forms of the irregular verbs ?You have to know the past and Past Participleforms of the IRREGULAR VERBS by heart.
  • 80. A REFERENCE LIST Mnemonic Rhyming Groups Learning can be fun with Mnemonics!When we were kids, rhyming songs and phrases were some of the gimmicks used to make us remember different things. I hope sorting these Irregular Verbs into rhyminggroups can help you memorize them in a short period of time. Actually some groups can be memorized in ONLY 10 SECONDS!!! Have a look at Group 3 !!!
  • 81. Group 1SIMPLE FORM SIMPLE PAST PAST PARTICIPLE sing sang sung sink sank sunk drink drank drunk shrink shrank shrunk swim swam swum begin began begun run ran run
  • 82. Group 2SIMPLE FORM SIMPLE PAST PAST PARTICIPLE feed fed fed lead led led breed bred bred read read* read* (Pronounced as red) (Pronounced as red) sell sold sold tell told told slide slid slid hold held held
  • 83. Group 3SIMPLE FORM SIMPLE PAST PAST PARTICIPLE hit hit hit fit fit fit spit spit (spat) spit (spat) knit knit /(knitted) knit /(knitted) quit quit quit let let let set set set upset upset upset shut shut shut cut cut cut put put put cost cost cost hurt hurt hurt spread spread spread broadcast broadcast broadcast
  • 84. Group 4SIMPLE FORM SIMPLE PAST PAST PARTICIPLE buy bought bought fight fought fought seek sought sought think thought thought bring brought brought teach taught taught catch caught caught
  • 85. Group 5SIMPLE FORM SIMPLE PAST PAST PARTICIPLE bend bent bent send sent sent lend lent lent spend spent spent build built built sleep slept slept keep kept kept creep crept crept weep wept wept sweep swept swept leap leapt (leaped) leapt (leaped) feel felt felt mean meant meant dream dreamt /(dreamed) dreamt /(dreamed) meet met met leave left left lose lost lost burn burnt /(burned) burnt /(burned)
  • 86. Group 6 SIMPLE FORM SIMPLE PAST PAST PARTICIPLE hang hung hung hang (to kill ) hanged hanged dig dug dug shoot shot shot stand stood stood understand understood understood stick stuck stuck strike struck struck sit sat sat win won won make made madepay paid paidlay laid laidsay said said light lit / (lighted) lit / (lighted)find found foundfound founded founded
  • 87. Group 7SIMPLE FORM SIMPLE PAST PAST PARTICIPLE throw threw thrown grow grew grown blow blew blown draw drew drawn withdraw withdrew withdrawn fly flew flown know knew known
  • 88. Group 9 SIMPLE FORM SIMPLE PAST PAST PARTICIPLE dive dived/dove dived do did done go went gone hear heard heard have had hadbe ( am , is , are) was, were been come came come become became become overcome overcame overcome see saw seen saw sawed sawn /(sawed) lie lied lied lie lay lain lay laid laid
  • 89. Thank You and Good Luck Mr. Hani M. Al-Tahrawi Eng-112 Pre-Dental Batch 2 Pre-Pharma Batch 2 March, 2012