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Basic Fingerprints Classification And Analysis

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    Basic Fingerprints Classification And Analysis Basic Fingerprints Classification And Analysis Document Transcript

    • Title: Basic Fingerprints Analysis<br />ABSTRACT<br />Fingerprint recognition or fingerprint authentication refers to the automated method of verifying a match between two human fingerprints. Fingerprints are one of many forms of biometrics used to identify an individual and verify their identity. The three basic patterns of fingerprint ridges are the arch, loop, and whorl. It states that family members often share the same general fingerprint patterns, leading to the belief that these patterns are inherited. To identify the pattern of individual fingerprints, the method used is rubber-stamp ink pad where by special “ink” pads and self-stick labels take a dark, clear print without leaving any visible residue on the thumb. <br />Keywords: fingerprints, identity, fingerprints pattern<br />Introduction <br />The histories of fingerprints begin with the finding of Marcello Malpighi. In 1686, Marcello Malpighi, a professor of anatomy at the University of Bologna, noted in his treatise, ridges, spirals and loops in fingerprints. He made no mention of their value as a tool for individual identification. A layer of skin was named after him; " Malpighi" layer, which is approximately 1.8mm thick. During the 1870's, Dr. Henry Faulds, the British Surgeon-Superintendent of Tsukiji Hospital in Tokyo, Japan, took up the study of " skin-furrows" after noticing finger marks on specimens of " prehistoric" pottery. A learned and industrious man, Dr. Faulds not only recognized the importance of fingerprints as a means of identification, but devised a method of classification as well. In 1880, Faulds forwarded an explanation of his classification system and a sample of the forms he had designed for recording inked impressions, to Sir Charles Darwin. Darwin, in advanced age and ill health, informed Dr. Faulds that he could be of no assistance to him, but promised to pass the materials on to his cousin, Francis Galton. Also in 1880, Dr. Henry Faulds published an article in the Scientific Journal, " Nature" (nature). He discussed fingerprints as a means of personal identification, and the use of printers ink as a method for obtaining such fingerprints. He is also credited with the first fingerprint identification of a greasy fingerprint left on an alcohol bottle. <br />Nowadays, in this modern era, fingerprints identification has been very useful to all of the humanity from all around the world. Fingerprint is the cheapest, fastest, most convenient and most reliable way to identify someone. That's why fingerprint alone has 2/3 of the biometric world market (according to an International Biometric Group independent report). And the tendency, due to scale, easiness and the existing foundation, is that the use of fingerprint will only increase. Cars, cell phones, PDAs, personal computers and dozens of products and devices are using fingerprints more and more. One big advantage of fingerprint identification is that it is very well accepted in the legal community, among law enforcement, and the general public. It has a long history in forensic science, complete with numerous studies which back up the use of fingerprints for identification. This venerable history gives it weight and credence which are not available to newer identification systems. In addition, fingerprint identification is widely perceived as highly accurate and very reliable, since the statistical chance of two people on Earth having identical fingerprints is very low.<br />Before conduct this project, we make our research first to improve our understanding about fingerprint. There are several patterns that we can observe in fingerprint identification. We have arch, loop and whorl. For this main pattern, we also have the other sub pattern. For example for loop, we have double loop, right loop and left loop. For arch, we have tented arch. For whorl we also have spiral whorl. We will go about this more deeply in our discussion part.<br />For this project we make our survey by using 30 female students from biology course and 30 male students from police volunteer reserve association. We take their fingerprint from both of their thumb. After we collect their fingerprint, we analyse and identify its pattern. After that, we tabulate all the data that we gain in order to make it look more clearly. <br />Objective <br />
      • To understand more about the concept of population for genetic course.
      • To study the factor that affects the fingerprint pattern.
      • To study fingerprint pattern.
      • To know more about the application that use fingerprint.
      • To know the relation between fingerprints and individual characteristics.
      Materials<br />
      • Rubber-stamp ink pad
      • Tissue paper
      • Clean white papers
      Methods<br />
      • Firstly, cleaned finger tips with tissue paper.
      • Carefully rolled one of the respondent finger tips on the pad.
      • Make sure that the respondents not to slide their finger as roll it.
      • Then roll the ink-covered finger tip on a piece of paper.
      • Do it carefully so that the fingerprints can be seen more clearly.
      • Lastly, determine the pattern of the fingerprints.
      Result:<br /> Types Characteristics Percentage (%) A Double loop 18.33 B Single loop 50.00 C Arch 0 D Whorl 31.67<br />Overall Percentage (%) of Left Hand Fingerprint Patterns Among Respondents<br /> Types Characteristics Percentage (%) A Double loop 5.00 B Single loop 53.33 C Arch 0.00 D Whorl 41.67<br />Overall Percentage (%) of Right Hand Fingerprint Patterns Among Respondents<br />Percentage (%) of Left Hand Fingerprint Patterns Among Male Respondents<br /> Types Characteristics Percentage (%) A Double loop 20.00 B Single loop 63.33 C Arch 0.00 D Whorl 16.67<br /> <br />Percentage (%) of Left Hand Fingerprint Patterns Among Female Respondents <br /> Types Characteristics Percentage (%) A Double loop 16.67 B Single loop 36.67 C Arch 0.00 D Whorl 46.67<br />Percentage (%) of Right Hand Fingerprint Patterns Among Male Respondents<br /> Types Characteristics Percentage (%) A Double loop 3.33 B Single loop 56.67 C Arch 0.00 D Whorl 40.00<br />Percentage (%) of Right Hand Fingerprint Patterns Among Female Respondents <br /> Types Characteristics Percentage (%) A Double loop 6.67 B Single loop 50.00 C Arch 0.00 D Whorl 43.33<br />Discussion:<br />Fingerprints are classified into distinct groups based on general similarities allows the fingerprint examiner to search for an unidentified fingerprint within a specific section of the fingerprint file rather than having to search the whole file. Fingerprint can be classified according to pattern types, size of the patterns and the positions of the patterns on the finger.<br />There are several fingerprint classification systems in use throughout the world today. These systems are all based on three fundamental ridge formations described by Purkinje, Galton, Vucetich and Henry. They are the arch, the loop - radial and ulnar, and the whorl.<br />In our study, we observed all the fingerprint patterns of 60 respondents. We also compared the patterns that we observed and classified them into four types: single loop, double loop, arch and whorl. We had use rubber-stamp ink pad for taking prints. This is because the prints can only be visible when our fingers are dirty or oily. <br />In fact, the patterns of ridges on human finger pad are unique. There are no two individuals even the twins possess similar fingerprint patterns. Generally, individuals have a mixture of pattern types on their fingertips, with some correlation between the left and right hands. There is also evidence that the general fingerprint pattern may be genetically determined. We found that the loop pattern is the most common pattern of fingerprint. <br />The uniqueness of fingerprints has been recognized for some two millennia and studied scientifically for two centuries. But researchers have not been able to explain how they form. A new theoretical computer model describes the patterns are created at the beginning in the 10th week of gestation, when a fetus is about 3 inches (80 mm) long.<br />Michael Kücken and Alan Newell of the University of Arizona found that formation of the patterns involves stresses in a sandwiched sheet of skin called the basal layer. In a fetus, the basal layer grows faster than surrounding layers: the epidermis on the outside and the inner dermis. The basal layer buckles and folds in several directions, forcing complex shapes. These folds encode the future fingerprint pattern that becomes visible on the skin surface in subsequent weeks. Since the fingerprint pattern is coded underneath the skin surface, the pattern cannot be destroyed by superficial skin injuries. Micheal Kücken also said that preservation of fingerprint pattern during the growth of fetus is still unclear. <br />Overall Percentage (%) of Left Hand Fingerprint Patterns Among Respondents<br />The pie chart show that the overall percentage of left hand fingerprint pattern among respondents. The pie chart shows that the highest percentage for fingerprint pattern is single loop with 50 percent. The lowest percentage of fingerprint percentage is arch with 0 percent. This means there is no respondent with this type of fingerprint. The seeing lowest is double loop pattern with 18.33 percent while the second highest percentage of fingerprint is whorl with 31.67 percent. From the pie chart, we have been discovered the most available fingerprint pattern among our respondent is single loop and there is no arch fingerprint pattern among our respondent.<br />The single loop fingerprint is the most common among our respondent because it has the highest percentage while the arch fingerprint has the lowest percentage. The data that has been analysed from our respondent’s left hand fingerprint. This result shows that the single loop has the highest because it may affect by the frequency of left hand used. Most of our respondents are not a left handed user. Therefore the result that we have obtained may affect by this factor.<br />Overall Percentage (%) of Left Hand Fingerprint Patterns Among Respondents<br />The pie chart shows the overall percentage of right hand fingerprint pattern among respondents. The highest percentage of fingerprint pattern is single loop with 53.33 percent while the lowest percentage of fingerprints is arch with zero percent. The second lowest percentage of fingerprints is double loop with just five percent. The second highest percentage is whorl fingerprint pattern with 41.67 percent.<br />The most common fingerprint pattern among our respondent is single loop. From the result show that the highest percentage of fingerprint pattern for right hand is same with left hand fingerprint pattern. There are no arch fingerprint pattern among our respondent and it also same with left hand fingerprint pattern. The result of our research show that the used of left or right hand on daily life routine does not affect the pattern of fingerprint. Therefore the inference that notice in the left hand fingerprint pattern cannot be accepted.<br /> <br />Percentage (%) of Left Hand Fingerprint Patterns Among Male Respondents<br /> <br />The pie chart show that the overall percentage of left hand fingerprint pattern among male respondents. The pie chart shows that the highest percentage for fingerprint pattern is single loop with 63.33 percent. The lowest percentage of fingerprint percentage is arch with 0 percent. This means there is no respondent with this type of fingerprint. The seeing lowest is whorl pattern with 16.67 percent while the second highest percentage of fingerprint is double loop with 20 percent. From the pie chart, we have been discovered the most available fingerprint pattern among our respondent is single loop and there is no arch fingerprint pattern among male respondent for their left hand fingerprints. The single loop fingerprint is the most common among our respondent because it has the highest percentage while the arch fingerprint has the lowest percentage. <br />Percentage (%) of Left Hand Fingerprint Patterns Among Female Respondents <br />The pie chart show that the overall percentage of left hand fingerprint pattern among female respondents. The pie chart shows that the highest percentage for fingerprint pattern is whorl with 46.67 percent. The lowest percentage of fingerprint percentage is arch with 0 percent. This means there is no respondent with this type of fingerprint. The seeing lowest is double loop pattern with 16.67 percent while the second highest percentage of fingerprint is single loop with 36.67 percent. From the pie chart, we have been discovered the most available fingerprint pattern among our respondent is whorl and there is no arch fingerprint pattern among female respondent for their left hand fingerprints. The whorl fingerprint is the most common among our female respondent for their left hand because it has the highest percentage while the arch fingerprint has the lowest percentage. <br />Percentage (%) of Right Hand Fingerprint Patterns Among Male Respondents<br />The pie chart show that the overall percentage of right hand fingerprint pattern among male respondents. The pie chart shows that the highest percentage for fingerprint pattern is single loop with 56.67 percent. The lowest percentage of fingerprint percentage is arch with 0 percent. This means there is no respondent with this type of fingerprint. The seeing lowest is double pattern with 3.33 percent while the second highest percentage of fingerprint is double loop with 40 percent. From the pie chart, we have been discovered the most available fingerprint pattern among our respondent is single loop and there is no arch fingerprint pattern among male respondent for their right hand fingerprints. The single loop fingerprint is the most common among our respondent because it has the highest percentage while the arch fingerprint has the lowest percentage. <br />Percentage (%) of Right Hand Fingerprint Patterns Among Female Respondents <br />The pie chart show that the overall percentage of right hand fingerprint pattern among female respondents. The pie chart shows that the highest percentage for fingerprint pattern is single loop with 50 percent. The lowest percentage of fingerprint percentage is arch with 0 percent. This means there is no respondent with this type of fingerprint. The seeing lowest is double loop pattern with 6.67 percent while the second highest percentage of fingerprint is whorl with 43.33 percent. From the pie chart, we have been discovered the most available fingerprint pattern among our respondent is single loop and there is no arch fingerprint pattern among female respondent for their right hand fingerprints. The single loop fingerprint is the most common among our female respondent because it has the highest percentage while the arch fingerprint has the lowest percentage. <br />We also did make another research about the relation of fingerprints pattern with general permanent characteristics of any individual. It is based on previous research that was developed by Richard Unger, a hand analyst for over 40 years, and the founder of the International Institute of Hand Analysis. It is called LifePrints. LifePrints is a method of fingerprint analysis used to determine person Life Purpose. It is using pointer and thumb fingerprints of right hand. Below is the relationship between the patterns of fingerprints with the personal characteristics;<br />The first pattern here represents fingerprints of pointer finger. The second one represent fingerprint of thumb finger.<br />Loop and Loop<br />You are a loving and tolerant person who likes to socialize. You are not stubborn or stuck in your ways. You prefer to be flexible and adaptable to each situation.<br />Loop and Whorl<br />You are highly original in your methods to getting the results you seek. Once you decide what you want, you are able to make it happen. You are easy going and social and present yourself in a straightforward way.<br />Loop and Double loop<br />You are a very diplomatic person because you are always able to see both sides of a story. In getting your results, you can see more than one way of getting there. You prefer variety to routine and may have a hard time committing 100 percent to something.<br />Loop and Arch<br />You are slow and steady in your progress. You may work well with your hands and you enjoy the outdoors. You are practical in your methods and confidence will build over time. Rushing into things may make you uncomfortable. You also have a stubborn side to your personality.<br />Whorl and Loop<br />You have a strong sense of self. You may be secretive. You see yourself as an individual before part of a group. You prefer to work alone or to be in charge of your work environment.<br />Whorl and Whorl<br />You are highly original in your methods to getting the results you seek. Once you decide what you want, you are able to make it happen. You have a strong sense of self. You may be secretive. You see yourself as an individual before part of a group. You prefer to work alone or to be in charge of your work environment.<br />Whorl and Double loop<br />You are a very diplomatic person because you are always able to see both sides of a story. In getting your results, you can see more than one way of getting there. You prefer variety to routine and may have a hard time committing 100 percent to something.<br />Whorl and Arch<br />You are slow and steady in your progress. You may work well with your hands and you enjoy the outdoors. You are practical in your methods and confidence will build over time. Rushing into things may make you uncomfortable. You also have a stubborn side to your personality. You have a strong sense of self. You may be secretive. You see yourself as an individual before part of a group. You prefer to work alone or to be in charge of your work environment.<br />Double loop and Loop<br />You are a person who loves variety. Sometimes it's hard for you to know what you truly want. You are very diplomatic and can always see two sides of the story. You may be a Jack of all trades.<br />Double loop and Whorl<br />You are a person who loves variety. Sometimes it's hard for you to know what you truly want. You are very diplomatic and can always see two sides of the story. You may be a Jack of all trades. You are highly original in your methods to getting the results you seek. Once you decide what you want, you are able to make it happen. You are easy going and social and present yourself in a straightforward way.<br />Double loop and Double loop <br />You are a person who loves variety. Sometimes it's hard for you to know what you truly want. You are very diplomatic and can always see two sides of the story. You may be a Jack of all trades.<br />Double loop and Arch<br />You are a person who loves variety. Sometimes it's hard for you to know what you truly want. You are very diplomatic and can always see two sides of the story. You may be a Jack of all trades. You are slow and steady in your progress. You may work well with your hands and you enjoy the outdoors. You are practical in your methods and confidence will build over time. Rushing into things may make you uncomfortable. You also have a stubborn side to your personality.<br />Arch and Loop<br />You are cautious, stubborn, loyal, and reliable. You work well with your hands, but your confidence may develop slowly. You may get stuck in behavior cycles. Remember to try new things every once in awhile!<br />Arch and Whorl<br />You are cautious, stubborn, loyal, and reliable. You work well with your hands, but your confidence may develop slowly. You may get stuck in behavior cycles. Remember to try new things every once in awhile! You are highly original in your methods to getting the results you seek. Once you decide what you want, you are able to make it happen.<br />Arch and Double loop<br />You are cautious, stubborn, loyal, and reliable. You work well with your hands, but your confidence may develop slowly. You may get stuck in behavior cycles. Remember to try new things every once in awhile!<br />Arch and Arch<br />You are slow and steady in your progress. You may work well with your hands and you enjoy the outdoors. You are practical in your methods and confidence will build over time. Rushing into things may make you uncomfortable. You also have a stubborn side to your personality.<br />When research was conducted, almost 100% of the respondent agreed that the above personality characteristics are true with them. Our respondents were about 50 people that composed of lecturers and biology UPSI students. This really show that individual personality can be determined by analyzing fingerprints as stated by Richard Unger, a hand analyst for over 40 years, and the founder of the International Institute of Hand Analysis.<br />Conclusion:<br />Fingerprints have been used for many years to identify people. There are three basic types of fingerprints which are loops, arches, and whorls. Everyone falls into one of these categories. Loops are an extended version of parabolas that occur on maximum people's finger tips, in almost 60% cases. These patterns have an oblong delta and core that is shaped like a loop. The core especially appears like a bean. Ulnar loops and radial loops are two different patterns of loops. The radial ones have a free flowing and constant delta but the ulnar ones have more obstructed deltas. Whorls are also common as the loops and occur in almost 25% people. In a whorl pattern, the ridges are concentric. There are different abnormalities in the concentric circles as the deltas and cores tend to fluctuate and go out of the concentric circles. Some common types of whorls include plain whorl, central pocket whorl, double loop whorl and accidental whorl. Arches are usually observed on the mid of the finger tip, and have friction ridges, that are run in a parabola from one side of the pattern to another without turning back. There are some patterns where the ridges do re-curve back into the pattern. There is usually no delta (triangular patch), in this pattern. Some important sub-patterns of Arches include, plain arches, radial arches, ulnar arches and tented arches, which are based upon the re-curving patterns,delta and core structures. Fingerprints are so unique because there is no one has the same number of minutia points in the same places. The fingerprint analysis also can be used for identifying personal characteristics of an individual. But this method cannot be determined it accuracy since it is cannot be prove scientifically in science field.<br />
      • REFERENCES:
      • http://www.worldofhands.com/index.html
      • http://www.policensw.com/info/fingerprints/finger06.html
      • http://www.policensw.com/info/fingerprints/finger07.html
      • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fingerprint
      • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Classification_System
      • http://www.slideshare.net/juroc26/fingerprint-classification-slide-2
      • http://www.henryleeinstitute.com/worxcms_published/courses_page43.shtml
      • http://www.reachoutmichigan.org/funexperiments/agesubject/lessons/prints.html