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2011 dialogue the language of complex systems v.2

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  • The critical point to get across here is that the systems paradigm assumes that complexity cannot be managed by breaking things down into parts and fixing the bits. The assumption is that relationships between parts are dynamic so when you want to change things you have to consider all the relationships involved. For example, if you decide to set a target that reduces waiting times in A&E, you have to understand not only all of the factors involved in the A&E processes but also the impact on all other hospital departments of changing those processes and how those impacts ‘feed back’ into A&E itself – otherwise you will simply ‘move’ the blockage to another part of the system (eg the admission ward).
  • Transcript

    • 1.
    • 2. Intro
      Dialogue: The Language of Complex Systems
    • 3. Intro
      Introductions
    • 4. Intro
      Learning Outcomes
      Understand complexity as it relates to healthcare leadership, collaboration, and innovative change
      Practice systems thinking and inquiry skills to bridge diverse perspectives, strengthen relationships, and collaboration across disciplines
      Use dialogue to navigate complex, ambiguous and rapidly changing environments with less stress
      Explore a real challenge with peers, leaving the program with fresh ideas and practical next steps for building partnerships and leveraging change
    • 5. Intro
      Guiding Principles
      Appreciative
      Workshop approach
      Balance reflection and action
      Applied and practical
    • 6. Intro
      Agenda
      Day 1
      Introduction & Context Setting
      A Systems View of Healthcare
      Navigating Complex Systems
      Systems Thinking in Action
      Change Challenge l
      Change in Complex Systems
      Introduction to Dialogue
      Reflection & Summary
      Day 2
      Opening Reflection
      Developing Dialogue & Inquiry Skills
      Using Dialogue in Pivotal Conversations
      Beyond Expert and Silo’s Thinking
      Change Challenge ll
      Project Sharing and Planning Next Steps
      Summary & Evaluation
      6
    • 7. A Systems View of Healthcare
    • 8. Navigating Complex Systems
    • 9. An Increasingly Complex World
      2
      Danish political scientist Bjorn Lomborg heads the Copenhagen Consensus, which has prioritized the world's greatest problems -- global warming, world poverty, disease -- based on how effective our solutions might be. It's a thought-provoking, even provocative list.
      A campaign to change the course of history. Really. It’s time to make a choice. We can let present trends continue and risk almost certain breakdown and collapse.
      Four years is enough time to build that will, to change our direction, even to transform ourselves. And Go because we must start now.
      9
    • 10. Organisation is: Structures Roles Processes Balance sheets
      People are: rational, role-oriented, willing to be a ‘cog’ within a managed system (‘levers’, ‘engagement’, ‘performance maximisation’, ‘human capital’)
      A paradigm so prevalent it is largely invisible
      Machines are predictable, controllable and can be reduced to parts – problems can be solved by taking them apart and looking at the ‘pieces’
      The machine paradigm
    • 11. The complexity paradigm
      Organisation is made of :
      Relationships and feedback loops
      Power interactions, loyalties and rivalries
      Influence systems, in groups and out groups
      Paradigm assumes that reality is complex and that key issues are in relationships, not the parts
      This requires :
      a holistic approach (the system cannot be studied by breaking it down into parts)
      an appreciation of different perspectives (there is no single objective viewpoint)
    • 12. 2
      Qualities of Complex Challenges
      Difficult to frame, not predictable in detail
      Multiple root causes, non-linear
      Multiple stakeholders
      Emergent
      Novel
      Difficult to Eliminate
      Long Term Nature
      Relational complexity - Relationships are more important than parts
      Dynamic complexity - feedback loops rather than linear cause and effect
    • 13. The impact of complexity on people
      These basic characteristics of complex systems lead to:
      Ambiguity, uncertainty about what is occurring, what others require
      Rapid change: change in information, in events and context
      Unpredictability that is inherent in the situation
      Strong interdependence to other systems that are also complex
      And for individuals, a sense of being overloaded, not in control.
    • 14. What sort of challenge have you got?
      Complexity
      Worldview
      Far
      C
      E
      R
      T
      A
      I
      N
      T
      Y
      Chaotic
      Zone of
      Complexity
      Complicated
      Simple
      Near AGREEMENT Far
      Mechanistic Worldview
      The Stacey Matrix
      Brenda Zimmerman, Professor of Policy/Strategic Management , Schulich School of Business
    • 15. What sort of challenge have you got ?
    • 16. What can you do about it?
      2
      Some problems are so complex that you have to be highly intelligent
      and well informed just to be undecided about them.
      ~ Laurence J. Peter
      16
    • 17. Systems Thinking in Action
    • 18. Systems thinking is an organised way of shifting your way of thinking so as to escape from mental traps generated by the ‘machine’ paradigm:
      Linear cause and effect thinking
      Search for ‘objectivity’
      ‘Locking in’ of starting assumptions
      All systems thinking tools provide ways of:
      stepping back and seeing a bigger picture
      including multiple perspectives
      representing complex feedback mechanisms
    • 19. Systems Thinking in Action
      What kinds of questions do systems thinkers ask?
      What happens when we don’t think systemically?
      If you see differently, you think differently. And all your actions start to change.
      - Peter Senge
      19
    • 20. Behavior/Events
      Increased Leverage & Opportunity for Learning & Change
      Assumptions/Patterns
      The "Water Line"
      Mental Models/Systemic Forces
      Systems Leverage
      20
      Society for Organizational Learning
    • 21. Systems Archetypes
      Quick Fix That Fails
      Quick Fix or
      Symptomatic Solution
      Problem Symptom
      Side Effect
      Shifting the Burden
      Success to the Successful
      Tragedy of the Commons
      Accidental Adversaries
      Fundamental
      Solution
      Society for Organizational Learning
    • 22. Tragedy of the Commons
    • 23. Systems Thinking & Dialogue
      The system needs to be in the room
      Systems thinking needs a space or container for the “thinking together”
      The container is conversation, and specifically dialogue
      Dialogue aligns us through shared inquiry and a common understanding of the system.
      23
    • 24. I draw conclusions
      and take action
      This becomes a reinforcing loop as we select the same data to focus on over and over.
      I make assumptions
      I select data
      Pool of observable data:
      Things I could choose to focus on
      What gets in the way?
      Ladder of Inference
      Observed event, interpretation, generalization
      This is the way it is!
      Treating initial inferences as facts
      24
      William Isaacs Dialogue and the Art of Thinking Together
    • 25. Change Challenge l
    • 26. Change in Complex Systems
    • 27. Types of Change
    • 28.
    • 29. Simple, Complicated, & Complex Change
      Low
      Transformational
      CHANGE
      AGREEMENT
      Transitional
      change
      High
      Developmental change
      High
      Low
      CERTAINTY
    • 30. Appreciative Inqiury
      Kotter
      Senge
      Heifitz - Adaptive Change
    • 31. Heifitz - Adaptive Leadership
      Get on the Balcony
      • A place from which to observe the patterns in the wider environment as well as what is over the horizon
      Identify the Adaptive Challenge
      • A challenge for which there is no ready made technical answer
      • 32. A challenge which requires the gap between values, beliefs, attitudes and behaviours to be addressed
      Create the Holding Environment
      • May be a physical space in which adaptive work can be done
      • 33. The relationship or wider social space in which adaptive work can be accomplished
      Give back
      the work
      Maintain
      Disciplined Attention
      Cook
      the conflict
      • Resume responsibility
      • 34. Use their knowledge
      • 35. Support their efforts
      • 36. Create the heat
      • 37. Sequence & pace the work
      • 38. Regulate the distress
      • 39. Work avoidance
      • 40. Use conflict positively
      • 41. Keep people focussed
      Protect the voices of Leadership from below
      • Ensuring everyone's voice is heard is essential for willingness to experiment and learn
      • 42. Leaders have to provide cover to staff who point to the internal contradictions of the organisation
    • Introduction to Dialogue
    • 43. Low Value Conversations….
      …..do not contribute to positive change
      Telling the history of how we got here
      Giving explanations and opinions
      Blaming and complaining
      Making reports and descriptions
      Carefully defining terms and conditions
      Retelling your story again and again
      Seeking quick action
      Most of what we want to see changed has been explained, complained about, reported upon, and defined for decades. Peter Block
    • 44. Leadership Conversation
      Conversation
      Begins
      Choice Point:
      What kind of
      conversation does
      this need to be?
      Dialogue
      Inquiry
      Assumption Testing
      Shared Understanding
      Discussion
      Action
      Problem Solving
      Finding Best Answer
      Conviviality
      Debate
      34
      Garmston & Wellman, Cognitive Coaching
    • 45. 35
      A Balcony View
      Conversation
      Begins
      Choice Point:
      What kind of
      conversation does
      this need to be?
      Dialogue
      Inquiry
      Assumption Testing
      Shared Understanding
      Discussion
      Action
      Problem Solving
      Finding Best Answer
      Leadership Conversation:
      Creative Conflict, Collaboration, Innovation
      Effective Action
      Garmston & Wellman, Cognitive Coaching
    • 46. 36
      Dialogue is a way of conversing and thinking together
      that dissolves barriers, creates collaboration, and builds partnership.
      The outcomes of dialogue are:
      Greater view of the system
      Access diverse perspectives
      Break down silos
      Collaboration and partnerships that foster shared responsibility and accountability
      Team learning
      Leaders talk about what matters - Trust built that surfaces undiscussibles
      Get at root of recurring problems
      New insights leading to innovation
      Dialogue is a core process in complex systems
    • 47. Developing Dialogue and Inquiry Skills
    • 48. Dialogue Practice
      Suspend certainty
      Bring curiosity rather than
      answers
      Inquire into your own and other’s reasoning
      Display assumptions rather
      than defend them
      Allow silence for reflection
      Slow down; Speak from “I”
      Speak to the centre rather than
      to the person
      Welcome diversity in ideas and thinking
      Move
      Voicing
      Follow
      Listening
      Bystand
      Suspending
      Oppose
      Respecting
      38
      William Isaacs Dialogue and the Art of Thinking Together
    • 49. Dialogue Practice
      What conversations are happening now in healthcare that are shaping our practices and changing our lives?
    • 50. Using Dialogue in Pivotal Conversations
    • 51. What is a pivotal conversation?
      Potential to change the course of action and consequently the levels of results
      Crosses boundaries
      Potential for conflict
      Power dynamics
      Outcome matters
    • 52. Left Hand-Right Hand Column
      Conversation Transcript: 4 x4
      Unspoken thoughts & Feelings
      Mental models as barriers to effective communication
      Record what you didn’t say but thought, reflect on assumptions and preconceptions
      - J. Bennecker
      42
      Chris Argyris, Graduate School of Business, Harvard University
    • 53. Leadership Moves in Pivotal Conversations
      Framing
      (abstract)
      Illustrating
      (concrete)
      Inquiring
      (others)
      Advocating
      (self)
    • 54. Trio Check-In: Pivotal ConversationsWhat did you observe about yourself in recent pivotal conversation?Which parts of speech do you most rely on?What will increase your effectiveness?
    • 55. Beyond Expert & Silo’d Thinking
    • 56. Ellinor & Gerard Dialogue: Creating and Sustaining Collaborative Partnerships at Work
    • 57.
    • 58. 1920’s Piaget research on stages of child development,
      expanded to include stages of adult development
      (Fowler 1981; Kohlberg 1981; Kegan 1982; Loevinger 1976,
      Wilber 2000; Torbert, 2004)
      Progressive levels of meaning-making, cognitive and
      emotional growth.
      As adults evolve through these stages, they develop the
      capacity for more complex thought and find it easier to
      understand and empathize with different viewpoints.
      Adults do not automatically progress through these stages
      as they age.
      What are the implications for leadership & leadership
      development?
    • 59. Robert Kegan
      In Over Our Heads
      (1995)
      McGuire & Rhodes
      Transforming Your
      Leadership Culture
      (2009)
      Joiner & Josephs
      Leadership Agility
      (2007)
      Bill Torbert
      Action Inquiry
      The Secret of Timely
      & Transforming Leadership
      (2004)
      We’ve found that the level of personal development of the leader can have a critical impact on the success of organizational change efforts and, in turn, on the company’s ability to thrive in an ever-more complex business environment.
      ~Torbert & Rooke, Seven Transformations of Leadership (Harvard Business Review, 2005)
    • 60.
    • 61. Expert leaders tend to operate within silos; little emphasis on cross functional teamwork; tend to be overly involved in subordinates work, fighting fires and interacting with direct reports one-on-one; little time to approach their own roles strategically. Organizational improvements are mainly technical and incremental.
      Achiever leaders articulate strategic objectives; have the right people and processes in place to achieve these objectives; develop effective teams, orchestrating them to achieve important outcomes. This patient/ customer centred culture encourages rewards and customer focused cross-functional teamwork. Change initiatives reflect analysis of the larger environment, and consultation with key stakeholders is a cultural norm.
      Strategist leaders animate by a compelling vision that includes high levels of participation, empowerment, and teamwork. Collaboration, decisiveness and candid, constructive conversations are the norm. Senior teams become living labs that create this kind of culture and in the organization. Leaders coach their people, solicit informal feedback and change their behaviors in ways that are beneficial to the organization.
      Developing
      your capacity
      to meet
      complex
      conditions
    • 62. DevelopmentalTransformations
      Transcend
      and
      Include
      Adapted from Harthill UK
    • 63.
    • 64. Change Challenge ll
    • 65. Integration of Learning