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  1. 1. Language Production http:// /psycholinguistics College of Foreign Languages Northwest Normal University Lanzhou, 2007
  2. 2. Key points highlighted <ul><li>Language comprehension and language production </li></ul><ul><li>Complexity of language production </li></ul><ul><li>Stages of speech production </li></ul><ul><li>Models of speech production </li></ul>
  3. 3. Language comprehension and production <ul><li>Language comprehension: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From symbol (visual or aural) to meaning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Language production </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From meaning to symbol (visual or aural) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Speech production is NOT merely the reversal of comprehension </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Production use different neural and anatomical structure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Considerable body of research on comprehension, language production not well understood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most of the production processes are outside consciousness. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Harder to control output than input </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Complexity of speech production Production… “ Why did Ken set the soggy net on top of his deck?” ?
  5. 5. How complex? …s peaking “ Why did Ken set the soggy net on top of his deck?” <ul><li>Select words that will express the concept </li></ul><ul><ul><li>soggy vs. wet ; deck vs. patio ; set vs. put </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Arrange them into the appropriate phrases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>… set the net on his deck NOT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>… set the deck on his net </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Look up and arrange their sound structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>soggy net NOT noggy set </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Add appropriate prosody </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WHY did ken… vs. why DID ken …vs. why did KEN … </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Code the final product in motor commands </li></ul>Complexity of speech production
  6. 6. Speech production Message source Speech articulation Select words Construct phrases Insert sound structure Add inflection Insert prosodic structure Are these separate levels of processing? Or handled in one big translation process?
  7. 7. Stages of speech production <ul><li>Four stages are involved in speech production </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conceptualizing a thought </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formulating a linguistic plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Articulating the plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitoring the speech </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Conceptualizing a thought <ul><li>William James </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Speech production involves two processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The thought processes: global and holistic, thinking in mentalese </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The speech process: serial and linear assemblage of the units of language </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A process of holistic-to-sequential transition </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Evidence from eye movement <ul><li>Griffin and Bock used picture sets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pictures that portrayed active events </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The mouse is squirting the turtle with water </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pictures that portrayed active-passive events, depending on whether the human is the agent or the patient in the scene. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The mailman is being chased by the dog </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The mailman is chasing the dog </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Subjects are asked to describe the pictures under four conditions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extemporaneous speech: describing while viewing the pics. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prepared speech: viewing while preparing, then reporting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Patient detection: finding the person or thing being acted upon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inspection: viewing the pics without particular tasks </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Evidence from eye movement <ul><li>Findings: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>when speaking extemporaneously, speakers begin fixating on the pictured elements less than a second before naming them in their description, consistent with sequential encoding. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eye movements also anticipate the order of mention despite changes in picture orientation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speakers’ initial eye-movement and those of subjects performing the nonspeaking patient detection task suggest that response-relevant information is rapidly extracted from the pictures, permitting them to select grammatical subjects based on their comprehension of the event rather than salience. (The inspection task) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The inspectors did not fixate on one region of the picture during the first 1200 ms after the picture onset when they fixated on the patient. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extemporaneous speakers began fixating on picture elements less than a second before naming the actors in their descriptions, the subject first and then the object. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These suggest that speakers rapidly extracted the event structure and that there is a very orderly linkage between successive fixations during event viewing and word order in speaking. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Formulating a linguistic plan <ul><li>Generating a framework on which to hang the units of speech. </li></ul><ul><li>This process has three phases: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identifying the meaning and finding the words </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Selecting a syntactic structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generating an intonation contour. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Finding the words -- Findings from picture naming tasks <ul><li>Picture naming </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More difficult than word reading since written words have a more direct access to the lexicon than pictures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Involves presentation of two stimuli </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A picture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A spoken or printed distractor word </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Semantically related sheep-goat </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Phononlogi8cally related sheep-street </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unrelated: sheep-house </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Target words: sheep-sheep </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Results indicated the naming response was delayed when semantically related distractors were presented, relative to unrelated distractors. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Early distrctors slowed down semantic reaction times but phonological distractors had no effect </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>With concurrent presentation, semantifc distractors had no effect but phonological distrctors speeded up raction times </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>At delayed interval, semantic distractors had no effect but phonological distractors speeded up reaction times even more. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Semantics are activated during lexical access before phonological aspects are activated, confirming the serial model. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Finding the words -evidence from TOT phenomenon <ul><li>Subjects given the definition of an unusual word and asked to name what word fits the definition. </li></ul><ul><li>The list of guesses generated in TOT showed how subjects searched memory in lexical selection. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TOT is universal, spanning all ages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be induced in many ways, such as by giving a definition and seeking the proper words, showing a face and seeking names, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Words related to the target often come to mind and are usually about 50 percent of TOTs are successfully resolved without about one minute. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TOT findings suggest that lexical access is a two-stage process wherein conceptual semantic and syntactic sources of information are retrieved prior to phonological information. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. The slips of the tongue 一天,我开车在路上,车胎没气了,问乘车同事哪里有充气的,同事说:“街上到 处都是打胎的啊!” 俺碰到一个心仪已久的女孩从澡堂里出来,想套近乎,憋了半天憋出一句:“你洗澡啊,里面男人多不多啊?” 公司养一狗叫小白。某天大家逗狗,同事甲拿着一饼干对狗说到:“小白,整个办公室只有你喂我哦。”三秒钟后,整个办公室暴笑! 有一次 , 我同学询问我另一个同学在医院是哪一科的 , 我记不太清楚了 , 觉得又像是内科又像是针灸科 , 结果就说她是 : 内疚科的 . 大学时候 , 一同学和我争论问题 , 一时处于下风 , 情急中一拍桌子起身大叫 : 你胡说 , 我又不是不傻 ! 一小学生 , 看到被老师点到念作文的同学 , 特别羡慕 , 总盼着老师也能让自己念一回 . 机会终于来了 .&quot; 某某 , 把你的作文给大家念一下 ! 小学生 &quot; 腾 &quot; 地一下站起来 :&quot; 我的老师 . 老师 , 我多象你的妈妈 ......&quot; .
  15. 15. Evidence from slips of the tongue <ul><li>Slips of the tongue as clues to the process of speech production </li></ul><ul><li>Lots of different varieties: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anticipations: cuff of coffee (cup of coffee) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perseverations: gave the goy (gave the boy) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exchanges: teep a cape (keep a tape) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>with this wing I do red </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>*note: don’t plan just one word at a time! </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Evidence from slips of the tongue </li></ul><ul><li>Slips occur among several different sized units: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phrases: I wouldn’t buy kids for the macadamia nuts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Words: I have to fill up the gas with car . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Morphemes: Oh, that’s just a back truck ing out. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Syllables: canpakes (pancakes), butterpiller and catterfly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phonemes: fost and lound (lost and found); we’re going to have to f ar t very f i de (fight very hard) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Features: mity the due teacher (pity the new teacher; nasal-stop exchange) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>*suggests that speech planning is carried out a several different levels of analysis </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Slips of the tongue as clues to the process of speech production </li></ul><ul><li>Slips can provide information about the size and structure of planning units at the various stages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sound exchanges tend to occur within a clause </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Word exchanges can occur across clausal boundaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sound exchanges respect syllable structure: onsets exchange with onsets, rhymes with rhymes, etc., </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sound exchanges do not respect grammatical form class of words: sounds can exchange between nouns & verbs, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Word exchanges tend to respect grammatical form class, when exchanges cross phrasal boundaries, but not when they occur within a clause </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Implementing the plan: articulation <ul><li>Plan implementation: saying what is intended </li></ul><ul><li>Planning and implementing plans are alternated, as is evidenced by the alternation of hesitation and fluency in our speech. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Suggesting that we tend to express a portion of our intended message, pause to plan the next portion, articulate that portion, pause again, and so on. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Linguistic planning is very cognitively demanding and it’s hard to plan an entire utterance at once. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where do we pause when speaking: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Periods of high uncertainty </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Number of words from which we choose </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Morphological complexity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lexical ambiguity </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Models of plan implementation <ul><li>Incremental processing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If we plan unit x before we articulate unit x, our implementation of linguistic plans is serial. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If we plan unit x+1 units before articulating unit x, the processing is parallel. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What constitute a unit? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clauses, phrases, words, syllables, phonemes? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Depending on the amount of resources needed for a given portion of the message </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An unfamiliar word </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A cliché or routinized phrase </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two competing viewpoints: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Syntactical approach: syntactic structure is laid out in advance than then content words are fitted into the structure. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lexical approach: the production process may begin with words that are conceptually accessible, which then trigger the syntactic strcture, not the other way around. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Speech monitoring <ul><li>Self-repairs: overtly monitor, edit and correct our speech. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Self interruption: Interrupt after an error is detected </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>64% of the errors were corrected </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interruptions occurs very shortly after the error occurs, usuallty made at the first word boundary after the error </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Editing expressions: Utter one of the various editing expressions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uh, sorry, I mean </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self repairs: Repair the utternce </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Models of speech production <ul><li>The Fromkin Garret Model </li></ul><ul><li>The Levelt Model </li></ul><ul><li>The Dell Model </li></ul>
  22. 22. The Fromkin Garret Model <ul><li>Meaning to be conveyed and intentions of a speaker are chosen </li></ul><ul><li>Syntactic structures of the sentence and its constituent slots is created </li></ul><ul><li>Intonation contour and what word slots are stressed </li></ul><ul><li>Lexical selection of content words are selected </li></ul><ul><li>Affixes and function words are selected </li></ul><ul><li>Phonological segmetns are selected according to phonological rules </li></ul>
  23. 23. The Levelt Model <ul><li>The message level captures the intended meaning and provides output for grammatical encoding </li></ul><ul><li>Grammatical encoding combines functional and positional sets of information. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Functional processing uses lexical selection, which captures the lexical concepts that are appropriate to convey the intended meaning, and function assignments, which involves assignment of gramamtical roles or syntactic functions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Positional processing creates an ordered set of word slots and inflection or morphological slots </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The phonological encoding stage creates the phonological structure of the message in terms of phonological units of words. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Levelt’s (1989) “Blueprint for the Speaker” CONCEPTUALIZER message generation monitoring grammatical encoding phonological encoding preverbal message FORMULATOR LEXICON lemmas forms phonetic plan (internal speech) ARTICULATOR AUDITION parsed speech discourse model, situation knowledge, encyclopedia etc. phonetic string overt speech SPEECH- COMPREHENSION SYSTEM surface structure
  25. 25. The Dell Model <ul><li>A connectionist model of speech production </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spreading activation over multiple levels of nodes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Words are the main nodes in the network, with connections to the conceptual words and then to sounds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The spreading activation principle is bidirectional, permitting interactions between semantic and phonological units. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>During the planning of a sentence, several nodes will be activated at four different levels. They will remain activated for a while but will eventually degraded to zero activation. </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Connectionist Models
  27. 27. <ul><li>The End </li></ul><ul><li>Thanks. </li></ul>