NOVEL WASTEMINIMIZATION FOR STEEL   MANUFACTURING      N O V E M B E R 2 7 TH, 2 0 1 2                             Adriano...
OVERVIEW    1.    Integrated Steel Mill Waste Management Plan    2.    Glacius’ Proposal    3.    Key Unit: Reactor    4. ...
INTEGRATED STEEL MILL    WASTE MANAGEMENT PLAN      US Steel Canada      Steel-making Process2
Objectives    1. Maximize the amount of waste utilized from       an integrated steel mill    2. Reduce the costs associat...
US Steel Canada – Hamilton Works Plant    Formerly Stelco Inc.                                                            ...
Integrated Steel Mill                                         Recycled                                                    ...
Integrated Steel Mill                                  Regeneration                                                       ...
The Proposal        Utilize two major waste streams from the steel mill        to make a significant value added product  ...
Background    Stelco Inc. initially proposes idea    Preliminary lab studies conducted     Results show idea is feasible ...
GLACIUS’ PROPOSAL        Design Philosophy        Process Schedule        Background Chemistry        Product Specific...
Design Philosophy     Simplicity      Ease of operation     Economic Return      Minimize capital and operating costs   ...
De-icing Fluid Production Schedule                                                                     Basic Oxygen   Fini...
Main Chemical Reactions             Steel Slag               De-icing Fluid Water                     Waste Pickle Liquor ...
Reaction Data Assumptions     Limited Access to Preliminary Research      Pilot studies required     Literature for Simil...
Product Quality     Minimize amount of heavy metals      pH = 9.5      Control with neat HCl      Retrieved from Dyer, J...
Final Product Specifications (De-icing Fluid)                                        MgCl2    Trace       Trace Metals    ...
By-Product Specifications (Sediment)                 Trace                         Trace (wt%)           Cr     10%       ...
KEY UNIT: REACTOR         Design         Recirculation System         Internal Design         External Design17
Plant Layout             WPL                                                            Back-Up            Tanks          ...
Reactor Design     Batch reactor                          2.0 m   1.0 m   2.0 m     Sloped walls                          ...
3-D Reactor Layout       1.Background 2.Process Description20        3.Reactor 4.Equipment 5.Hazards           6.Economics...
Recirculation Process                                            Benefits                                             Inc...
Stop Logs     Stacked     Removable     Manual or Automatic     Stop Logs vs. Pumps      Gravity vs. electricity       oH...
SETTLING & STORAGE SITES         Sediment Pond         Reservoirs         Covering Structure23
Sediment Pond                 Sediment                   Pond       1.Background 2.Process Description24        3.Reactor ...
Sediment Pond     Purpose      To settle the solids     Material      Carbon steel lined       with Reinforced       Pol...
Settling Rate & Drainage Time     Settling rate                           Drainage Time      The settling rate is        ...
Reservoirs                                             Backup                                            Reservoir        ...
Main Reservoir     Purpose      To store       deicing fluid     Dimensions      51m x 60m x 3m     Capacity      9200m...
Backup Reservoir     Purpose      When reservoir is full       & for maintenance      To store extra       production   ...
Materials of Reservoirs     Body                                   Lining     1. Vegetation                          1. Re...
Covering Structure     Purpose              Covering Structure      To cover product       from rain     Dimension      ...
Hazard Mitigation           WPL          Tanks                                          Reactors       HCL     Storage    ...
ECONOMICS         Comparison Between Existing and Proposed Plan         Cash Flow and Sensitivity Analysis         Curr...
Replacing Regeneration Process     De-Icing Fluid Production: 11,000 tonnes per year     De-Icing Fluid Unit Price: $300 p...
Cash Flow Analysis      Total capital investment: $8.6M                           Payback period: 6 years      Annual o...
Sensitivity of Project                                                                 Internal Rate of Return vs.        ...
Current Market for De-icing Agents     Ontario usage       500,000 to 600,000        tonnes of salt per year     De-icing...
City of Hamilton – Cost of Materials     Road salt                                De-icing fluid        Unit price: $50 p...
Cost Savings & Benefits     Environmentally friendly material       Zero release of ferrocyanide       Introduction of c...
RECOMMENDATIONS &     CONCLUSIONS         Market Expansion         International Implementation         Paramagnetic Ir...
Recommendations     Market Expansion      Scale-up production      Solid product     Global Implementation      Minimiz...
Conclusions     Maximized amount of waste used     Converted to a marketable product     Cost savings of $2,300,000/year  ...
Acknowledgements     Henry Miyamoto     Jill Lam     Donald Kirk     Graeme Norval     Rosanna Kronfli     Lydia Wilkinson43
QUESTIONS44
Overview Back-up Slides     Slide 5845
Reactor Dimensions with Reactant Levels46
Mass Balance     Per Set of 2 Batch Reactors (Weekly basis)47
P&ID48
pH Control                                         Reactors                                   A                           ...
Concentration Control50
Recirculation – P&ID51
Loading Reactor – P&ID52
Time to Drain Calculation53
Settling Time Calculation54
Reactor Flow rate & Pump Required55
Solubility of Heavy Metals      Retrieved from Dyer, J. A., Scrivner, N. C. and Dentel, S. K. (1998), A practical guide fo...
Production Schedule     Reactor                   Sediment               Reservoir                               Pond     ...
HCl Price      Current price of HCl $250      Maximum HCl price when regeneration process       becomes preferred: $28458
Vacuum Truck     Datasheet     3000 gallons (us), Stainless tank, D.O.T. 407/412     6400 cfm, 27 Hg., high vacuum pump   ...
Total Capital Investment                                 Total Capital Investment         A. Direct Cost         1. Equipm...
Total Capital Investment                                      Plant Initial Investment Detailed Spreadsheet 1/2     A. Dir...
2. Instrumentation and Controls     Normal Solid-fuild Chemical Processing 13% of Purchased-equipment         $     238,98...
Production Annual Cost                                                       Total Production Cost                        ...
Top Steel Producers vs.     Top Calcium Chloride Consumers              Country           Steel Production                ...
Alternate Uses Of Calcium Chloride Solution                Source: http://www.calciumchloride.com/market.shtml65
Paramagnetic Iron Oxide Recovery     Magnetite     • 3 Fe(OH)2 → Fe3O4 + 2 H2O + H2     Separation     • Wet low intensity...
Material Selection Process        Corrosion     Mechanical    Economic        Resistance    Reliability    Viability67
Process Equipment Materials          Equipment       Body                     Lining                        Advantages    ...
Secondary Equipment Materials        Piping                 Body         Lining    Advantages              WPL            ...
Equipment Sizing                                               Table 13: Process Equipment Sizing 1 of 2            Produc...
Equipment Sizing Continued                                           Table 14: Process Equipment Sizing 2 of 2 HCl Supply ...
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  • IntroductionTeam name & membersToday we will be presenting a novel, and innovative waste management plan for the steel manufacturing industry
  • Our plan for this afternoon will be to:First, talk about the current waste management plan at a typical steel mill andSecondly we will be presenting ourproposal to minimize wastes and in more detail we will talk about our the key unit and also the settling and storage sites that we have proposedFollowing the technical details we will be going over the plant economics and will close off with a few recommendations for our proposal
  • First off you might be wondering:what exactly are we trying to do? 1. Minimize the amount of waste produced at an integrated steel mill2. Reduce the costs associated with waste managementAnd so the proposal that will be presented today is an innovative approach to try to accomplish these two objectives
  • To demonstrate our plan we have chosen a local steel mill, the Hamilton Works plant formerly known as StelcoThe plant in Hamilton has an annual production capacity of 2.6M tonnes of steel product which represents approx. 2% of the world’s production of crude steel
  • So, what wastes are we dealing with and where do they come from?To identify the wastes, I’ll briefly go over the basic steel making process… To make steel:1. Raw materials (IO,C,LS) charged into blast furnace2. Blast furnace heats these materials to approx. 1500°C where 2 products are formed: pig iron (later used to make steel) and a by-product called blast furnace slag3. Even though BFS is a byproduct, not a waste because 100% of it can be used in other applicationsConcrete aggregateRoad baseMake cement4. Back to the main process, pig iron that is produced is sent to another furnace. Depending on the plant, it is either the BO or EAF where o2,LS, and RecySteel is added.5. Again 2 products are formed: molten steel and another byproduct called Steel Slag. Unlinke BFS, steel slag has limited uses and generally just accumulates on site for use as a fill or railroad ballast. For this reason Steel slag will be a waste that we will have to deal with.
  • Add spray roaster backup slideMoving along the production line the molten steel is further refined, casted, and rolled into various shapes that make up the steel products.When the steel cools an oxide layer is formed and to ensure good surface quality the oxide layer must be removed. Typically a 30% Hydrochloric acid solution called pickle liquor is used in an acid bath. After the steel has been immersed in the bath, the resulting solution is called waste pickle liquor.Currently steel mills all over the world employ a regeneration process to recycle the waste pickle liquor but this process can be costly depending on the price of neat HCl and is also very energy intensive. Even though there is a process to regenerate the waste pickle liquor, this area presents itself as an opportunity for cost savings.So how are we minimizing the wastes and reducing the costs?
  • Our plan is to utilize the steel slag and waste pickle liquor to make a de-icing fluid that is used to prevent ice formation on roads.
  • Stelco hadinitially proposed the ideaand they also performed preliminary lab studies.The results they had obtained confirmed the feasibility of the idea however in 2007, Stelco went into receivership and from then on the project was suspended.This is where our team comes in. Glacius Inc. has chosen to further pursue this project by developing a process to turn steel slag and waste pickle liquor to produce a de-icing fluid. I will now pass it on to my colleague Sonia who will describe the process in more detail.
  • Say what is on the slide – emphasis on the fact that its not main production of steel mill and needs to be a process that can make money without causing too much problems.
  • WPL from mill collects in tanksSteel slag from mill collects in stock pileSet 1 begins – consists of 2 batch reactorsWPL gets added (pumped), then steel slag gets added (wheel loader and slag shute)Undergoes mixing process – recirculation – for 1 weekEnd of week cycle settles for 1 weekSimultaneously Set 2 is loading and undergoes mixing processTo filter solid/liquid, Set 1 is drained to sediment pond, sediment vacuum pump, sent to steel mill (high in iron content)End of week 3, sediment pond is drained into reservoir Process repeatsEnd of year, sediment collected in sediment pond is removed
  • Show what is created through the reaction(Fairly straight forward)Acid/Base ReactionsExothermic = heat will be releasedSince open to atmosphere – maximum change in temperature will be approx. 200C
  • Even though Stelco performed preliminary research on reaction, we do not have access to this information and could not design accordingly.We had to base our design on research from other studies in literature. – give magnitudeAccording to this data for a similar reactor at ideal conditions will take anywhere from 0 to 31 hours to react. However this is according to a particle size as small as 1 to 10mmSince pilot studies for this reaction are still required, buffering time is allotted in the design to allow a particle size from up to 35mm to react
  • State final compositions – 30wt%De-icing strength - approx. -25oC
  • Sediment is mostly iron and silicate – some trace metals-ideal for use in steel millCompare soil for understanding of concentrations
  • Here I will go through the plant layout listing off the components and equipment
  • State it is a batch reactor and that it is open to atmosphere - say that this design is to accommodate how we are discharging the productExplain the purpose of the sloped walls - to make sure the solids always settle towards the bottomGo over the total capacity that the reactor can holdList dimensionsMentions the 0.3m is for the distributor plate and you will talk about it in the next slide?
  • State material: Body: Carbon Steel Lining: HDPE (High Density Polyethylene)Thickness of Materials HDPE lining 5mm Steel Lining ????Slag Chutes: A242 Steel (weathering steel) - made for atmospheric conditions
  • Top to bottom recirculationSimilar to a Percolating TankThe liquid lies underneath the solidsThe liquid rises through the solid and the solid dissolves into liquid-0.5hp diaphragm pump-1 day turnover rateShow visual of distributor plateShow visual of patent design on filter units - the slots in the cylinder will allow liquid to flow through and not solid - each unit has a 4in diameter - 10 on short edge - 50 on long edge List benefits of this style of mixing shown above
  • Jill wanted a side view showing how the liquid is expelled when different logs are openedExplain what a stop log is - planks that are stack on top of each other - are removable to control the flow of liquid through the system - can either be manual or automaticCompare a stop log to a pump - it will take 50 sec to drain a 1ft log - state the pump size equivalent to drainage time of 1ft log - go over objectives - minimizes energy therefore minimizing capital cost - therefor it is less expensive - gravity is free and electricity is not - less maintenance cause solids would ruin pump
  • Section break;Highlight the objectives
  • This is where the sediment pond located in the plant
  • We’re also using stop logs at the sediment pondRPP - UV resistant
  • Solids such as silicate, Mg, Ca, Fe and trace metalsThe range of size is from 1-10mmFor the solids to settle, we calculated that the settling rate is 0.1m/hWith this rate, all solids should settle in one week before it gets transferred into the reservoir
  • A storage unitComparison???
  • Since environment canada has labeled hamilton as one of the concerned areas, and our plant is located near the water table, we have put extra thought to prevent our product from leaking into the water. Thus, this is the reason we have 5 different layers for the reservoirSlag – will be the main body of reservoir The fill dirt – to mitigate leachate from permeating into the ground water. The vegetation - encourage the binding of the fill dirt and thus reduce the incidence of erosion in case of heavy rain. The calcium bentonite clay is a self-healing material, so it will prevent any holes from forming.RPP - UV resistant
  • Cover product from heavy rain which will dilute our productIt will be used all the time, not during the rain onlyIt doesn’t look like a tent, it’ll look more like a dome due to googlesketchup limitation
  • I’m gonnaadress the major hazards in the plant and how are we mitigating themNeat hydrochloric acid spillPlastic spill pallets under each toteWheel-loader hits reactor during loading Dig a trench & angled towards the sedimentation pondWaste pickle liquor storage tank leakage/failureWe’re going to seal this area with the dikes which have the same capacity of all 3 reactors
  • Annual Production, Unit PriceComparison between the current regeneration process and our proposed de-icing venture
  • Two critical points in our sensitivity analysisRevenue decreases by 15 %And total capital investment increases by 20%
  • Ontario usage: huge market demand for de-icing agentsNew liquid de-icing trucks: new trend for de-icing agentsExisting implementation of fluid de-icing technology: spray before snowfall, decrease ice formation on roads
  • Cost savings example in city of Hamilton40% raw material savingCity of Hamilton can save up to $470,000
  • City of Hamilton exampleFerrocyanide is an additive in road salt which prevents aggregation of salt crystals. This can dissociate into cyanide ions which makes the soil toxic absorbed by soil and aquatic environment.Calcium ions can increase permeability of soil to air and water. Extremely beneficial to regions like Niagara falls where agriculture is its main venture.Reduced chlorine release onto road structures which in turn reduces corrosion.Liquid de-icers can be applied before snow storms to prevent ice formation.
  • Scale-up production with neat HCl and Lime available on-siteSolidify product using evaporative equipment – look into alternative secondary storage (Ties-in with previous point) – Large reservoirs redundant alternative stockpile or immediate shipping once settling time satisfiedTop steel producers also top calcium chloride consumers. China and North America top contenders. Top producers such as Brazil where deicing fluid not in great demand can use calcium chloride solution in other industrial applications such as petroleum, food and highway maintenance. Due to basicity and high chloride levels in reactor, iron oxides in sediment exist predominantly as magnetite, a saleable product. Used as an aggregate for heavy concrete in nuclear plants, heavy media in coal plants and in the manufacture of electronic recording media. Sells at $300/tonne and steel mill stands to gain a net benefit of up $500 000 per annum
  • Final presentation compiled v12

    1. 1. NOVEL WASTEMINIMIZATION FOR STEEL MANUFACTURING N O V E M B E R 2 7 TH, 2 0 1 2 Adriano Arnini , Amir Fakhruddin Mohamed, Anika Mohammed, Francis Bui, Xiaobo Pan, Sonia Liscio
    2. 2. OVERVIEW 1. Integrated Steel Mill Waste Management Plan 2. Glacius’ Proposal 3. Key Unit: Reactor 4. Settling and Storage Sites 5. Economics 6. Recommendations & Conclusions 1.Steel Mill Waste Management1 2.Glacius’ Proposal 3.Key Unit: Reactor 4.Settling & Storage 5.Economics 6. Recommendations &Conclusions
    3. 3. INTEGRATED STEEL MILL WASTE MANAGEMENT PLAN  US Steel Canada  Steel-making Process2
    4. 4. Objectives 1. Maximize the amount of waste utilized from an integrated steel mill 2. Reduce the costs associated with waste management 1.Background 2.Process Description3 3.Reactor 4.Equipment 5.Hazards 6.Economics 7.Conclusions
    5. 5. US Steel Canada – Hamilton Works Plant Formerly Stelco Inc. Lake Ontario Hamilton Harbor Site chosen to Hamilton Works demonstrate concept Steel production capacity: Google. (2012). Google Maps. Retrieved November 20, 2.6 Million tonnes/year 2012, from https://maps.google.ca/) 1.Background 2.Process Description4 3.Reactor 4.Equipment 5.Hazards 6.Economics 7.Conclusions
    6. 6. Integrated Steel Mill Recycled O2 Limestone Steel Iron ore Pig Iron Molten Steel Basic Oxygen Coke Blast or Electric Arc Furnace Limestone Furnace Blast Furnace Slag Steel Slag Species Composition [%wt] Species Composition [%wt] SiO2 35 SiO2 15 CaO 33 CaO 45 Al2O3 20 Al2O3 2 MgO 7 MgO 10 MnO 1 MnO 4 Fe2O3 1 Fe2O3 22 SO3 2 Trace Metals 1 Trace Metals 2 1.Background 2.Process Description5 3.Reactor 4.Equipment 5.Hazards 6.Economics 7.Conclusions
    7. 7. Integrated Steel Mill Regeneration  HCl(aq) recycle  Costs $150/tonne WPLMolten Steel Finishing Pickle Liquor  Energy intensive Pickle Liquor Processes (30% HCl(aq))  Acid bath  Refining  Strip Regeneration iron oxide layer  Casting from steel surface  Rolling Waste Pickle Liquor Species Composition [%wt] H2O 67 Steel HCl 10 Products FeCl2 20 Trace Metals 3 1.Background 2.Process Description 6 3.Reactor 4.Equipment 5.Hazards 6.Economics 7.Conclusions
    8. 8. The Proposal Utilize two major waste streams from the steel mill to make a significant value added product Waste Streams: Product: De-icing Fluid Steel Slag Waste Pickle LiquorSource: Source:http://www.betweenthelake http://www.environmentallever Source:s.com/iron/fobf_7_5_03.ht age.com/industry/steel/Steel.h http://www.mto.gov.on.ca/english/transtek/roadtalk/rm tml t16-4/index.shtml 1.Background 2.Process Description7 3.Reactor 4.Equipment 5.Hazards 6.Economics 7.Conclusions
    9. 9. Background Stelco Inc. initially proposes idea Preliminary lab studies conducted  Results show idea is feasible  Revealed no major environmental concerns US Steel Corp. purchases Stelco Inc.  Project suspended indefinitely 1.Background 2.Process Description8 3.Reactor 4.Equipment 5.Hazards 6.Economics 7.Conclusions
    10. 10. GLACIUS’ PROPOSAL  Design Philosophy  Process Schedule  Background Chemistry  Product Specifications9
    11. 11. Design Philosophy Simplicity  Ease of operation Economic Return  Minimize capital and operating costs Novel and Innovative  Patent and license opportunity  Ability to implement globally 1.Background 2.Process Description10 3.Reactor 4.Equipment 5.Hazards 6.Economics 7.Conclusions
    12. 12. De-icing Fluid Production Schedule Basic Oxygen Finishing Process Furnace Waste Pickle De-icing Fluid Liquor Steel SlagSolids to SteelMill Sediment Set 1 Reactors Set 2 Sediment PondSolids to SteelMill Reservoir 1.Background 2.Process Description 11 3.Reactor 4.Equipment 5.Hazards 6.Economics 7.Conclusions
    13. 13. Main Chemical Reactions Steel Slag De-icing Fluid Water Waste Pickle Liquor 1. CaO(s) + 2HCl(aq)  CaCl2(aq)+ H2O(l) ∆H = - 190kJ/mol ∆T = 2. 20oC MgO(s) + 2HCl(aq)  MgCl2(aq) + H2O(l) ∆H = -150kJ/mol By-Product 3. CaO(s) + FeCl2(aq)  CaCl2(aq) + FeO(s) ∆H = -720kJ/mol 1.Background 2.Process Description12 3.Reactor 4.Equipment 5.Hazards 6.Economics 7.Conclusions
    14. 14. Reaction Data Assumptions Limited Access to Preliminary Research  Pilot studies required Literature for Similar Reaction  Ideal batch reactor  0 to 31 Hours reaction  Less than 10mm particle size Buffer time allotted  Varying particle size oUp to 35mm13
    15. 15. Product Quality Minimize amount of heavy metals  pH = 9.5  Control with neat HCl Retrieved from Dyer, J. A., Scrivner, N. C. and Dentel, S. K. (1998), A practical guide for determining the solubility of metal hydroxides and oxides in water. Environ. Prog., 17: 1–8. doi: 10.1002/ep.670170112 1.Background 2.Process Description14 3.Reactor 4.Equipment 5.Hazards 6.Economics 7.Conclusions
    16. 16. Final Product Specifications (De-icing Fluid) MgCl2 Trace Trace Metals 6% Metals, CaCl2 0.003% (ppm) 24% H2O FeCl2 390 70% Fe(OH)2 0.80 Ca(OH)2 390 Mg(OH)2 40 Cr(OH)3 0.02 Ni(OH)2 0.00017 Cd(OH)2 0.11 Pb(OH)2 1.5 1.Background 2.Process Description15 3.Reactor 4.Equipment 5.Hazards 6.Economics 7.Conclusions
    17. 17. By-Product Specifications (Sediment) Trace Trace (wt%) Cr 10% 5% Fe Mn 0.04 Si 58% Al 0.020 14% Ni 0.03 Ti 0.009 S 9.0 E-04 Mg P 4.6 E-03 3% CN- 1.2 E-05 Ca As 1.5 E-05 10% Pb 0.004 Trace Metals (ppm) Forest Soil Cd <1 Cr 22 Compariso Ni 15 n Source: Pb 28 Bavrlic, K., & Quenselle, P. (2010). Monitoring Forest Integrity within the Credit River Watershed.16 Meadowvale.
    18. 18. KEY UNIT: REACTOR  Design  Recirculation System  Internal Design  External Design17
    19. 19. Plant Layout WPL Back-Up Tanks Reservoi Reactors r Loading Area HCL Storag e Shed Main Reservoi r Sedimen t Pond 1.Background 2.Process Description18 3.Reactor 4.Equipment 5.Hazards 6.Economics 7.Conclusions
    20. 20. Reactor Design Batch reactor 2.0 m 1.0 m 2.0 m Sloped walls 2.0 m Capacity = 110m3 2.0 m 0.3 m Dimensions  L = 7m  W = 5m 1.Background 2.Process Description19 3.Reactor 4.Equipment 5.Hazards 6.Economics 7.Conclusions
    21. 21. 3-D Reactor Layout 1.Background 2.Process Description20 3.Reactor 4.Equipment 5.Hazards 6.Economics 7.Conclusions
    22. 22. Recirculation Process Benefits  Increased mixing effect Unites States Patent Office. (1976). Patent #3958952. (Original work published 1974). Retrieved from oResulting solution is http://www.google.com/patents/US3958952?printsec=dra wing#v=onepage&q&f=false denser than solvent  Avoid clogging of the plate with fines Top View  Less movement of slag reduces wear on lining 1.Background 2.Process Description21 3.Reactor 4.Equipment 5.Hazards 6.Economics 7.Conclusions
    23. 23. Stop Logs Stacked Removable Manual or Automatic Stop Logs vs. Pumps  Gravity vs. electricity oHorsepower is 6hp http://www.internationalwastewater oMinimal energy .com/Products/Gates.aspx oMinimize operating cost 1.Background 2.Process Description22 3.Reactor 4.Equipment 5.Hazards 6.Economics 7.Conclusions
    24. 24. SETTLING & STORAGE SITES  Sediment Pond  Reservoirs  Covering Structure23
    25. 25. Sediment Pond Sediment Pond 1.Background 2.Process Description24 3.Reactor 4.Equipment 5.Hazards 6.Economics 7.Conclusions
    26. 26. Sediment Pond Purpose  To settle the solids Material  Carbon steel lined with Reinforced Polypropylene Dimensions  40m x 14m x 5m Capacity  2800m3 1.Background 2.Process Description25 3.Reactor 4.Equipment 5.Hazards 6.Economics 7.Conclusions
    27. 27. Settling Rate & Drainage Time Settling rate Drainage Time  The settling rate is  1 stop log = 7 minutes 0.1m/h  All solids will settle in one week 1.Background 2.Process Description26 3.Reactor 4.Equipment 5.Hazards 6.Economics 7.Conclusions
    28. 28. Reservoirs Backup Reservoir Main Reservoir 1.Background 2.Process Description27 3.Reactor 4.Equipment 5.Hazards 6.Economics 7.Conclusions
    29. 29. Main Reservoir Purpose  To store deicing fluid Dimensions  51m x 60m x 3m Capacity  9200m3 1.Background 2.Process Description28 3.Reactor 4.Equipment 5.Hazards 6.Economics 7.Conclusions
    30. 30. Backup Reservoir Purpose  When reservoir is full & for maintenance  To store extra production Dimensions  28m x 28m x 3m Capacity  2400m3 1.Background 2.Process Description29 3.Reactor 4.Equipment 5.Hazards 6.Economics 7.Conclusions
    31. 31. Materials of Reservoirs Body Lining 1. Vegetation 1. Reinforced 2. Fill Dirt polypropylene sheets 3. Steel Slag 2. Calcium bentonite clay Vegetation Fill Dirt Slag RPP Clay 1.Background 2.Process Description30 3.Reactor 4.Equipment 5.Hazards 6.Economics 7.Conclusions
    32. 32. Covering Structure Purpose Covering Structure  To cover product from rain Dimension  125m x 155m Area  19400m231
    33. 33. Hazard Mitigation WPL Tanks Reactors HCL Storage Shed 1.Background 2.Process Description32 3.Reactor 4.Equipment 5.Hazards 6.Economics 7.Conclusions
    34. 34. ECONOMICS  Comparison Between Existing and Proposed Plan  Cash Flow and Sensitivity Analysis  Current Market of De-icing Agents  Cost-saving Benefits33
    35. 35. Replacing Regeneration Process De-Icing Fluid Production: 11,000 tonnes per year De-Icing Fluid Unit Price: $300 per tonne Proposed Plan Current Process Revenue from De- $3,300,000 Regeneration of ($15,800,000) icing Fluid Waste Pickle Liquor Cost of Neat Pickle ($16,800,000) Liquor Total Cost $13,500,000 Total Cost $15,800,000 Net Benefit: $2,300,000 1.Background 2.Process Description34 3.Reactor 4.Equipment 5.Hazards 6.Economics 7.Conclusions
    36. 36. Cash Flow Analysis  Total capital investment: $8.6M  Payback period: 6 years  Annual operating cost:  Net present value: $24.7M $727,000  Annual earnings before tax and interest: $2.73M $4,000,000.00 $2,000,000.00 $- 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 $(2,000,000.00) $(4,000,000.00) $(6,000,000.00) $(8,000,000.00) $(10,000,000.00) 1.Background 2.Process Description35 3.Reactor 4.Equipment 5.Hazards 6.Economics 7.Conclusions
    37. 37. Sensitivity of Project Internal Rate of Return vs. 60 Variation of Factors Internal Rate of Return (IRR) in % 50 40 Total Capital Investment Revenue 30 Maintenance 20 MARR 10 0 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 Variation in %36
    38. 38. Current Market for De-icing Agents Ontario usage  500,000 to 600,000 tonnes of salt per year De-icing trucks  City of Hamilton already purchasing new liquid application trucks Fixed Automated Spray Technology. (n.d.). Retrieved November 18, 2012, from http://www.ibigroup.com/Pages/Project.aspx?ProjectId=430&DisciplineId=3&PracticeId=50&pageNam Infrastructure in place e=AreaOfPractice.aspx&backString=AreaOfPractice.aspxxDisciplineID=3ppracticeID=50ppage=  Fixed Automated Spray Technology (F.A.S.T) 1.Background 2.Process Description37 3.Reactor 4.Equipment 5.Hazards 6.Economics 7.Conclusions
    39. 39. City of Hamilton – Cost of Materials Road salt De-icing fluid  Unit price: $50 per tonne  Unit Price: $300 per tonne  Annual Usage:  Annual Usage: 26,000 tonnes per year 2,730 tonnes per year  Total cost: $1,300,000  Total cost: $830,000 Savings of $470,000 1.Background 2.Process Description38 3.Reactor 4.Equipment 5.Hazards 6.Economics 7.Conclusions
    40. 40. Cost Savings & Benefits Environmentally friendly material  Zero release of ferrocyanide  Introduction of calcium ions in soil Corrosion reduction  Reduced chloride release Socioeconomic benefits  Vehicular accident reduction (F.A.S.T) 1.Background 2.Process Description39 3.Reactor 4.Equipment 5.Hazards 6.Economics 7.Conclusions
    41. 41. RECOMMENDATIONS & CONCLUSIONS  Market Expansion  International Implementation  Paramagnetic Iron Oxide Recovery40
    42. 42. Recommendations Market Expansion  Scale-up production  Solid product Global Implementation  Minimizing footprint  Top steel producers & calcium chloride consumers  Alternate uses for calcium chloride solution Alternate Use for Sediment  Paramagnetic iron oxide recovery Magnetite  Potential source of greater revenue 1.Background 2.Process Description41 3.Reactor 4.Equipment 5.Hazards 6.Economics 7.Conclusions
    43. 43. Conclusions Maximized amount of waste used Converted to a marketable product Cost savings of $2,300,000/year Novel, simple, energy-efficient Adaptable to steel mills world-wide42
    44. 44. Acknowledgements Henry Miyamoto Jill Lam Donald Kirk Graeme Norval Rosanna Kronfli Lydia Wilkinson43
    45. 45. QUESTIONS44
    46. 46. Overview Back-up Slides Slide 5845
    47. 47. Reactor Dimensions with Reactant Levels46
    48. 48. Mass Balance Per Set of 2 Batch Reactors (Weekly basis)47
    49. 49. P&ID48
    50. 50. pH Control Reactors A E Turn off AES L Turn on AESH HCl Tote Metering Pump49
    51. 51. Concentration Control50
    52. 52. Recirculation – P&ID51
    53. 53. Loading Reactor – P&ID52
    54. 54. Time to Drain Calculation53
    55. 55. Settling Time Calculation54
    56. 56. Reactor Flow rate & Pump Required55
    57. 57. Solubility of Heavy Metals Retrieved from Dyer, J. A., Scrivner, N. C. and Dentel, S. K. (1998), A practical guide for determining the solubility of metal hydroxides and oxides in water. Environ. Prog., 17: 1–8. doi: 10.1002/ep.67017011256
    58. 58. Production Schedule Reactor Sediment Reservoir Pond • 1 Week • 1 Week • 10 000 of Mixing of tonnes • Recirculation Settling produced process • Sediment • 1 Week removed during of maintenance Settling • Vacuum Pumped 2 Batch Reactors per week Staggered Production  4 Reactors in total57
    59. 59. HCl Price  Current price of HCl $250  Maximum HCl price when regeneration process becomes preferred: $28458
    60. 60. Vacuum Truck Datasheet 3000 gallons (us), Stainless tank, D.O.T. 407/412 6400 cfm, 27 Hg., high vacuum pump Source: http://www.supervac2000.com/en/specialized- trucks/vacuum-truck/svpt-6400-tc-and-dot-coded-tank- 29.html59
    61. 61. Total Capital Investment Total Capital Investment A. Direct Cost 1. Equipment $ 2,415,834.91 2. Instrumentation and Controls $ 238,989.58 3. Electrical Installations $ 183,838.14 4. Building Including Services $ 128,686.70 5. Yard Improvements $ 367,676.28 6.Service Facilities $ 367,676.28 B. Indirect Cost 1. Engineering and Supervision $ 551,514.42 2. Construction Cost $ 1,295,945.66 3. Contingencies $ 888,648.45 4. Startup Expense $ 999,729.51 C. Working Capital $ 1,190,166.3960
    62. 62. Total Capital Investment Plant Initial Investment Detailed Spreadsheet 1/2 A. Direct Cost 1. Equipment Unit Cost Quantity Unit Installation Total Unit Cost HCl Units Semi Bulk Tanks/Totes $ 455.00 12 tote $ 5,460.00 Metering Pump $ 3,485.00 2 per pump $ 1,394.00 $ 9,758.00 Spill Skid $ 765.50 2 per skid $ 1,531.00 Waste Pickle Liquor Units Low Carbon Steel Tanks $ 67,400.00 3 per tank $ 30,330.00 $ 293,190.00 HDPE Liner $ 7.00 435 per m2 $ 0.33 $ 3,188.55 Centrifugal Pump $ 28,200.00 4 per pump $ 11,280.00 $ 157,920.00 Concrete Berm $ 260,000.00 1 per berm $ 260,000.00 Reactor Units Low Carbon Steel Tanks $ 53,900.00 4 per tank $ 24,255.00 $ 312,620.00 HDPE Liner $ 7.00 516 per m2 $ 1.33 $ 4,298.28 Double Piston Diaphragm Pump $ 89,300.00 5 per pump $ 35,720.00 $ 625,100.00 Settling Pond Unit Reinforced Polypropylene Liner $ 10.00 1100 per m2 $ 0.38 $ 11,418.00 Low Carbon Steel Body $ 304,200.00 1 per body $ 136,890.00 $ 441,090.00 Conveyor Belt $ 118,200.00 1 per belt $ 118,200.00 Reservoir Units Calcium Bentonite $ 300.00 25 per tonne $ 7,500.00 Reinforced Polypropylene Liner $ 10.00 4950 per m2 $ 0.38 $ 51,381.00 Sump Pump $ 20,500.00 1 per pump $ 8,200.00 $ 28,700.00 Auxiliary Units Pipe $ 36.88 330 per feet $ 16.60 $ 17,647.08 Level Indicator Controller $ 1,450.00 7 per controller $ 10,150.00 pH Controller $ 1,500.00 4 per controller $ 6,000.00 Pressure Indicator Controller $ 1,694.00 4 per controller $ 6,776.00 HDPE Pipe Reducer $ 18.00 4 per reducer $ 72.00 Check Valves $ 300.00 1 per valve $ 300.00 Butterfly Valves $ 750.00 18 per valve $ 13,500.00 3-way Valve $ 600.00 1 per valve $ 600.00 Magmeter $ 1,455.00 1 per magmeter $ 1,455.00 Flow Control Valve $ 420.00 1 per valve $ 420.00 Filter $ 560.00 22 per filter $ 420.00 $ 21,560.00 Solenoid Valves $ 2,000.00 3 per valve $ 6,000.00 Purchased Equipment Subtotal $ 1,838,381.40 $ 2,415,834.9161
    63. 63. 2. Instrumentation and Controls Normal Solid-fuild Chemical Processing 13% of Purchased-equipment $ 238,989.58 $ 238,989.58 3. Electrical Installations Electrical-installations cost 10% of Purchased-equipment $ 183,838.14 $ 183,838.14 4. Building Including Services Solid-fuild Expansion at an existing site 7% Purchased-equipment $ 128,686.70 $ 128,686.70 5. Yard Improvements Approximates 20% of Purchased-equipment $ 367,676.28 $ 367,676.28 6.Service Facilities Approximates 20% of Purchased-equipment $ 367,676.28 $ 367,676.28 Subtotal $ 3,702,701.89 Total Capital Investment Plant Initial Investment Detailed Spreadsheet 1/2 B. Indirect Cost Cost Total Cost 1. Engineering and Supervision Approximates 30% purchased-equipment $ 551,514.42 $ 551,514.42 2. Construction Cost Contractors Fee 5% $ 185,135.09 $ 185,135.09 Construction 10% of fixed capital $ 1,110,810.57 $ 1,110,810.57 3. Contingencies Approximates 8% of fixed capital $ 888,648.45 $ 888,648.45 4. Startup Expense Approximates 9% of fixed capital $ 999,729.51 $ 999,729.51 Subtotal $ 3,735,838.05 C. Fixed Capital Investment $ 7,438,539.94 D. Working Capital (10-20% of Total Capital Investment) $ 1,190,166.39 E. Total Capital Investment $ 8,628,706.3362
    64. 64. Production Annual Cost Total Production Cost Detailed Plant Annual Operating Cost Spreadsheet A. Manufacturing Cost Direct Production Cost Quantity Unit Unit Cost Total Cost 1. Raw Materials HCl 12 totes/year $ 455.00 $ 5,460.00 Waste Pickle Liquor Steel Slag 2. Operating Labor 2 operator/year $ 56,600.00 $ 113,200.00 3. Utilities Electricity 46250 kW-hr/year $ 0.08 $ 3,700.00 Fuel - Petro 17500 liter/year $ 1.30 $ 22,750.00 4. Maintenance and Repairs 0.05 of FCI $ 371,927.00 5. Operating Supplies 0.15 of Main&Rep $ 55,789.05 6. Laboratory Charges 0.15 of Op&Labor $ 16,980.00 Direct Production Cost $ 589,806.05 Fixed Costs Insurance 0.007 of FCI $ 52,069.78 Plant-overhead costs 0.6 of Op&Labor $ 67,920.00 Manufactuing Cost Total $ 709,795.83 B. General Expenses Administrative costs 0.15 of Op&Labor $ 16,980.00 Total Product Cost $ 726,775.8363
    65. 65. Top Steel Producers vs. Top Calcium Chloride Consumers Country Steel Production [million tons] China 626.7 Japan 109.6 United States 80.5 India 68.3 Russia 66.9 South Korea 58.4 Germany 43.8 Source: Badkar, M. (2011, July 26). The 10 Biggest Steel Producing Countries In Source: IHS Chemical. (2012). Calcium The World. Retrieved from Business Chloride. Retrieved November Insider: 2012, from IHS Chemical Web Site: http://www.businessinsider.com/countrie http://www.ihs.com/products/chemical/pl s-that-produce-the-most-steel-2011- anning/ceh/calcium-chloride.aspx 7?op=164
    66. 66. Alternate Uses Of Calcium Chloride Solution Source: http://www.calciumchloride.com/market.shtml65
    67. 67. Paramagnetic Iron Oxide Recovery Magnetite • 3 Fe(OH)2 → Fe3O4 + 2 H2O + H2 Separation • Wet low intensity magnetic separators Source: http://www1.southafricacrusher.com/optional Potential Iron in Solid Waste: 2,300 tonne/year -equipment/low-intensity-magnetic- separator.php Alternative Price Revenue ($/tonne) ($/ year) Magnetic Iron Oxide Recovery $320 $736,000 Sintering Plant $120 $276,000 Difference $200 $460,000 Source: (Iron Ore: Market Outlook to 2020, 7th edition 2012, 2012)66
    68. 68. Material Selection Process Corrosion Mechanical Economic Resistance Reliability Viability67
    69. 69. Process Equipment Materials Equipment Body Lining Advantages Reactor A242 Steel HDPE -A242 highly resistant to atmospheric corrosion (Brockenbrough, 2006) - HDPE chemically inert to reactants & products and highly resistant to wear; widely used with abrasive slurries (Gabriel, 2001) Settling Pond A242 Steel Reinforced PP -RPP highly resistant to UV exposure (Western Environmental Liner, 2009) Reservoir 1st layer : Steel Slag 1st layer : Reinforced PP -RPP resistant to UV 2nd layer: Fill Dirt Lining Sheets exposure 3rd layer: 2 nd layer: Calcium bentonite - Clay is a self-healing pond Vegetation clay sealant to provide extra safety against leaks (Moine- Ledoux, 2000) Stop logs Carbon Steel HDPE -HDPE lining chemically inert - With EPDM seals and epoxy to reactants & products painted steel guides -EPDM weathering, UV and chemically resistant (Rubber- Cal, 1999) -Epoxy paint protects steel from corrosion by chloride ions68
    70. 70. Secondary Equipment Materials Piping Body Lining Advantages WPL A242 Steel HDPE -A242 highly resistant to atmospheric corrosion HCl -HDPE chemically inert to reactants & products and Recirculation highly resistant to wear; widely used with abrasive De-icing fluid slurries Flush (Water) Piping Pumps Body Lining Advantages Diaphragm Carbon Natural -Steel provides structural strength (Recirculation) Steel Rubber -Natural Rubber excellent resistance to severe Centrifugal abrasion, chemically resistant and low cost (Soft Metering Natural Rubber, 2012) Sump Valves Body Lining Advantages Butterfly PVC EPDM -PVC is low cost and mechanically strong (Curbell Solenoid Plastics, 2012) Check -EPDM provides chemically and UV resistant seal Flow Control 3-way69
    71. 71. Equipment Sizing Table 13: Process Equipment Sizing 1 of 2 Product Mass Density Actual % Volume Design Width Depth Height Comments Stop Logs [kg] [kg/m3] Volume Volume [m] [m] [m] [m] [m3] [m3] Reactor WPL 107000 1450 74.3 0.74 (1 unit) HCl 378 1490 0.25 0.00 Holds half a 7x0.3048 Water 0.00 1000 0.00 0.00 batch of raw 3x0.1524 materials Slag 37000 3750 9.88 0.10 Total 84.4 100 5 6.875 4 Settling Liquid 4210000 1380 304 0.11 Pond Holds 1 yr solids 14x 0.3048 Solids 3990000 2020 1980 0.72 + 2 liquid 4x0.1524 batches Total 2280 2740 40 13.9 5 Reservoi Liquid 10500000 1380 7600 0.83 r Holds 1 yr of Solids 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 product - Total 7600 9120 60 51 370
    72. 72. Equipment Sizing Continued Table 14: Process Equipment Sizing 2 of 2 HCl Supply Mass Balance Vol. with OD [m3] Dimensions [m] of Design Vol. [m3] Comments Vol. [m3] OD Radius= 0.5 &Height 0.51 0.61 =1 Holds 2 batches 455.69 535 (Total) - - Holds 3 weeks of WPL Radius = 3 & Height WPL Supply - 178 (1/3 of Total) =7 198 Holds 1 week of WPLBack-UpReservoir - 9120/4 = 2280 28 x 28 x 3 2352 Holds ¼ of main reservoir71
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