Mesoamerica Olmecs & Teotihuacanos

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Early Mesoamerica

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Mesoamerica Olmecs & Teotihuacanos

  1. 1. Early  Civiliza+ons  in  Mesoamerica   Henry  Lesperance  Alvarez   1  
  2. 2. Major  Mesoamerican  Civiliza+ons    •  The  Olmec    1200  B.C.  to  400  B.C.  •  Teo+huacan    100  A.D.  to  650  A.D.  •  The  Mayan          250  A.D.  to  900  A.D.      •  The  Toltec              900  A.D.  to  1200  A.D.    •  The  Aztec            1300  A.D.  to  1521  A.D.          
  3. 3. 3  
  4. 4. 4  
  5. 5.    Mesoamerica     5  
  6. 6. CRITERIA       MANIFISTATION   PERIOD   DATE  PaNern  of   Sedentary   PRECLASSIC  EARLY   2500  B.C.  Subsistence   Agricultural  Produc+on  Rela+on   Social  Stra+fica+on   PRECLASSIC  MIDDLE   1200  B.C.  Regional  Economic   Powerful  Capitals   PRECLASSIC  LATE   400  B.C.  &  Poli+cal  Rela+ons    Dis+nc+on  between   Urbanism   CLASSIC  EARLY   150/200  A.D.  City  and  Fields    Intraregional   Decline  of  Large   CLASSIC  LATE   650  A.D.  Economic  and   Hegemonic  States  Poli+cal  Rela+ons   and  Prolifera+on  of   Regional  Capitals      Hegemonic  Poli+cal   Forma+on  of     POSTCLASSIC  EARLY   900  A.D.  Rela+ons   Alliances  Among   States      Poli+cal  Rela+ons  of   End  of  Alliances   POSTCLASSIC  LATE   1200  A.D.  Central  Control  End  of  Mesoamerica   Conquist   COLONIAL   1521  A.D.   6  
  7. 7. Na+ve  Language  Groups  of  Mexico  at  the  +me     of  the  Spanish  Conquest     7  
  8. 8.  Prehispanic  Trading  Routes     8  
  9. 9. Casas  Grandes  and  the  Northern  Trade  Route  •  Central  to  any   interac+on  with  the   southwest  during  this   period  would  have  been   Casas  Grandes,   Chihuahua,  not  far   south  of  the  border   with  New  Mexico.    
  10. 10. Casas  Grandes,  (Chihuahua)   •  Warehouses  filled  with   rare  Southwestern   minerals,  such  as   turquoise,  were  found  at   the  site.  A  substan+al   amount  of  these  must   have  found  its  way  south,   where  turquoise  grow  in   importance  for  the   Tarascans  and  other   Mesoamericans.      
  11. 11. What  Traveled  North?  •  The  Pueblo  Indians   have  a  deep  ritual   need  for  feathers   from  tropical  birds   like  parrots  and   macaws,  since  they   symbolize  fer+lity   and  the  heat  of  the   summer  sun.       Codex  Mendoza  
  12. 12. The  World  System  in  1519  •  Mesoamerica  was  an  interconnected  world   that  was  integrated  and  in  which  events  taking   place  in  one  social  unit  affected  those  in   another  over  an  extended  region.    
  13. 13. 14  
  14. 14. Olmec  Archeological  Sites     15  
  15. 15. The  Olmec  1200  B.C.  to  400  B.C.  •  The  mysterious  “rubber  people”  describe  by   the  Aztec  informants  as  inhabi+ng  jungle   country  of  the  Gulf  Coast;  Thus  the  name   became  established.    •  All  later  civiliza+ons  in  Mesoamerica,  whether   Mexican  or  Maya,  ul+mately  rest  on  the   Olmec  base     16  
  16. 16. •  While  linguis+c  diversity  and  regional  varia+ons   persisted,  common  cultural  elements  can  be  traced   back  to  the  Olmec  civiliza+on.  •  They  include  polytheis+c  religions  in  which  dei+es  had   dual  (male/female)  natures,  •  Rulers  who  exercised  both  secular  and  religious  roles,  •  Use  of  warfare  for  obtaining  sacrificial  vic+ms,  •  And  the  belief  that  bloodlehng  was  necessary  for  a   society’s  survival  and  prosperity.       17  
  17. 17. •  The  use  of  ritual  as  well  as  solar  calendars,  •  The  construc+on  of  monumental  architecture  including   pyramids,  •  The  employment  of  a  numerical  system  that  used   twenty  as  its  base,  •  Emphasis  on  a  Jaguar  deity,  •  And  the  ubiquity  of  ball  courts  in  which  a  game  using  a   solid  rubber  ball  was  played  were  addi+onal   characteris+cs  of  complex  Mesoamerican  socie+es.       18  
  18. 18. Ball  Game    •  In  el  Mana+,   rubber  balls   found  confirm   that  the  ball   game  is  at  least   as  old  as  the   Olmec  civiliza+on     19  
  19. 19. Olmec  Were-­‐Jaguar   20  
  20. 20. La  Venta   21  
  21. 21. Stela  C,  Tres  Zapotes   22  
  22. 22. San  Lorenzo     23  
  23. 23. 24  
  24. 24. 25  
  25. 25. 26  
  26. 26. Teo+huacan  100  A.D.  to  650  A.D.  •  It  may  have  housed  more  than  150,000   inhabitants,  making  it  the  largest  city  in  the   world-­‐-­‐outside  of  China.  •  Following  the  decline  of  the  Olmecs  the  city  of   Teo+huacan  exercised  enormous  influence  in   the  development  and  spread  of   Mesoamerican  culture.       27  
  27. 27. Teo+huacán  “City  of  the  Gods”     28  
  28. 28. Piramide  del  Sol     29  
  29. 29. Piramide  de  La  Luna   30  
  30. 30. Templo  de  Quetzalcoatl   31  
  31. 31. 32  
  32. 32. Palacio  de  Te+tla   33  
  33. 33. Decora+on  Found  in  the  Palace   34  
  34. 34. 35  
  35. 35. Teo+huacano  Worrier     36  
  36. 36. 37  
  37. 37. Vaso  Ceremonial  Teo+huacan     38  
  38. 38. 39  

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