The Maya Classic Era 250 A.D. to 900 A.D. • The Maya experimented with intensive forms of agriculture, dug irrigaEon canals and reclaimed wetlands by construcEng raised ﬁelds. 4
The Mayan Kingdom • During the late classic period, Tikal, a kingdom of around 50,000 people, was the largest known Mayan center. It covered about 14 square miles and included more than 3,000 structures. 5
Tikal, Guatemal 6
Mayan Ball Player 11
Maya Numerical System • = 1 • What is so signiﬁcant of ____ = 5 developing the concept Shell = 0 of zero?
Mayan Numerical System 13
Mayan Calendar • As true throughout Mesoamerica, two calendars tracked the ritual cycle (260 days into 18 months of 20 days) and a solar calendar (365 days divided into 18 months with 5 unfavorable days at the end of the year) • The Maya believed that the concurrence of these two calendars every ﬁy-‐two years to be especially ominous. (giving the impression that something bad or unpleasant is going to happen) 14
Mayan Society Mural in Bonampak, Palenque 17
Tajin 650 A.D. to 900 A.D.
• The impressive religious imagery that decorated the façades of the main public structures drama8cally demarcated the diﬀerences between the principle architectural components of temples. (e.g. Plaza vs. Plataforma Superior). In this sense the architecture and iconography conglomerated with splendor, condi8oning and valida8ng the public ac8on and the protagonist of the ceremonies who occupied the space within the structure. (arriba-‐abajo, inferior-‐ superior, muchos-‐pocos). In this way the divine power enjoyed by the governors and elite was jus8ﬁed. 28
Zapotec CivilizaEon “Guiengola” 30
Contemporary Zapotecan Language & Culture 32
Diﬀerent Languages • How can we account for the variety of Languages in America?
Other CivilizaEons Included: • The Zapoteca • The Mixteca • The Tolteca • The Tarasco 35