Age of exploration and new encounters
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Age of exploration and new encounters

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Age of exploration and new encounters in the Americas.

Age of exploration and new encounters in the Americas.

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Age of exploration and new encounters Age of exploration and new encounters Presentation Transcript

  • Age  of  Explora-on  &  New  Encounters  •  What  influenced  people  to  explore  distant  places?    
  • •  Traveling  to  distant  lands   involved  overcoming  the   fear  of  confron-ng   unknown  obstacles  such   as  the  great  sea  monsters   that  where  believed  lived   within  the  depths  of  the   oceans.    
  • Why  Colonize?  •  Mercan-lism,  is  the  philosophy  which  held   that  the  purpose  of  a  colony  was  to  make  the   mother  country  stronger  and  more  self-­‐ sufficient.      •  Demands  for  raw  materials.  •  Need  for  markets.    •  Commerce,  Chris-anity,  Civiliza-on.    
  • Colonial  Powers  
  • Spanish  Empire    
  • The  Reconquest    •  Although  Chris-ans  and  Muslims  struggled   intermiNently  to  control  Iberia,  from  about   718  to  1492,  the  most  ac-ve  years  were   between  850  and  1250.  •  During  this  -me,  Chris-an  knights  and  seNlers   pushed  south  from  their  ini-al  redoubt  in  the   mountains  of  northern  Spain.    
  • Mesquita,  Cordova  
  • •  In  1479,  the  marriage  of  Queen  Isabela  and  King   Fernando  united  the  kingdoms  of  Cas-le  and   Aragon,  and  in  1492,  they  conquered  the  last   Moorish  kingdom,  Granada.  •  Conveniently,  the  Chris-ans  saw  their  triumph  as   evidence  that  their  God  ac-vely  supported  their   cause,  a  belief  that  they  carried  into  baNle   against  the  na-ve  civiliza-ons  of  the  Americas      
  • •  Because  of  its  expulsion  of  the  Muslims  in  Spain   and  its  discovery  of  the  New  World,  the  Spanish   crown  was  granted  extraordinary  privileges  by  the   papacy.  •  Thus,  the  Spanish  conquest  undoubtedly  was   fueled  by  a  desire  for  status  and  wealth,  but  it   was  legally  jus-fied  by  its  Chris-an  mission-­‐-­‐the   saving  of  souls.  
  • La  Alhambra,  Granda  
  • •  With  three  ships  an  fewer  than  ninety  men,   Columbus  sailed  first  to  Canary  Islands.  He   set  forth  again  in  early  September  with  an   year’s  provisions.  Aber  sailing  for  three   thousand  nau-cal  miles,  on  October  12,   1492,  Columbus  and  his  men  sighted  an   Island  in  the  chain  later  named  the   Bahamas.    
  • Christopher  Columbus  Arrival  to  What  he   Believed  Was  the  West  Indies  
  • Indigenous  Popula-on  in  the  Americas  •  The  hemisphere’s  indigenous  popula-on  at   the  moment  of  contact  in  1492  was  probably   between  thirty-­‐five  and  fiby-­‐five  million.    
  • The  Encounter  of  Two  Worlds    
  • In  1492,  Columbus  landed  in  what  are  now  the  islands  of  the  Caribbean.  When  he  could  not  find  sufficient  gold  and  wealth,  he  turned  to  trading  slaves.  In  1495  he  rounded  up  1,500  Tainos  (Arwaks),  selec-ng  500  of  the  best  specimens,  and  set  sail  to  Spain.  Only  300  na-ves  survived.    
  • •  In  his  second  voyage  of  1493,  Christopher  Columbus   introduced  cane  plants  to  the  Caribbean.  Columbus   knew  that  sugar  and  slavery  were  inseparable  and   that  tremendous  profits  could  be  goNen  from  sugar.    
  • •  By  the  early  sixteenth   century  the  sugar  industry   thrived  on  Santo  Domingo,   then  on  Cuba,  and  soon   aber  on  Puerto  Rico.