Technical English 2
Universidad de San Carlos de
Discover the Technical English
T-4 building, 2nd. Floor
Estudiantes de la Facultad de Ingeniería
Conscientes del vertiginoso avance de la globalización nos damos cuenta de la
necesidad de mantener una comunicación adecuada en el comercio, industria y
mercadotecnia dentro de nuestra sociedad y considerando el desarrollo de
competencias adecuado, se ha construido un novedoso programa para contribuir a
que la Gloriosa Tricentenaria Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala se mantenga
con ese alto nivel que la ha distinguido durante años.
Este proyecto nació a principios del año 2008 con el afán de lograr que todo
estudiante egresado de la Facultad de Ingeniería tenga conocimiento de Inglés Técnico
para poder aplicarlo tanto en sus estudios como en su desempeño profesional.
Demostrando que hoy y siempre SOMOS LOS LIDERES de la ingeniería y
pioneros en el cumplimiento de las necesidades de formación de nuestros
profesionales, dedicamos este trabajo a todos aquellos estudiantes a quienes les
interese mejorar competentemente la aplicación de los procedimientos de ingeniería y
tengan el deseo de aprender nuevas técnicas desarrollando habilidades
constantemente expanden la efectividad y campos de aplicación de Ingeniería. Esta
primera edición de este folleto fue creado para cumplir y llenar los requisitos del
programa cuyo objetivo es contribuir a la preparación integral para llenar de los
perfiles de los profesionales de hoy.
Logrando el cambio propuesto.
ING. MURPHY OLIMPO PAIZ RECINOS
Students of Engineering School
Conscious of the vertiginous advance of the globalization we realize the
necessity to maintain an adapted communication in commerce, industry and
marketing research within our society and considering the development of
appropriated competences, we have developed a novel program to contribute that the
Glorious Tricentennial University of San Carlos of Guatemala stays with that high level
that has distinguished it during years.
This project started the first semester 2008 with the eagerness to obtain that all
withdrawn students of the Faculty of Engineering have knowledge of Technical
English, becoming it a necessity that the students apply this knowledge in their
studies as in their professional performance.
Demonstrating that today and always WE ARE LEADERS of engineering,
pioneers in the fulfilment of the necessities of formation of our professionals, we
present to all students who, by their competent application of engineering procedures
and their readiness to learn new techniques and to develop skills that constantly
expand the effectiveness and fields of application of engineering. The First Edition of
this booklet was created to carry out and to fill the requirements of the program which
objective is to contribute to the integral preparation of the students in order to fill the
profiles of nowadays professionals.
Reaching goals through change.
MURPHY OLIMPO PAIZ RECINOS
ENGINEERING SCHOOL DEAN
AWARENESS / ACKNOWLEDGMENT
Information contained in this work has been obtained by
gathering information from sources believed to be reliable. However,
neither the sites or the authors guarantees the accuracy or
completeness of any information published herein and neither the
Technical Language Area not its assistants shall be responsible for
any errors, omissions, or damages arising out of use of this
information. This work is gathered with the understanding that the
topics are supplying information but are not attempting to render
engineering or other professional services. If such services are
required, the assistance of an appropriate professional should be
The third edition of the Technical English Booklet was collected as
a guide to fulfill the objectives proposed in the restructuring of the
curriculum of the course. This new curriculum was developed by
Engineer Soraya Martínez with the help of the different contributors
that has worked as teachers and assistants of the area. Each of the
assistants has a different specialization in the field of engineering, so it
helped to work in a multidisciplinary environment.
After it was finished, it was reviewed and authorized by the Board
of Directors of the Engineering School who decided to implement the
new curriculum since the first semester 2008.
It is advice to make a revision every two years, and thanks to the
flexibility of the program, it will allow to make different changes in the
It has been interesting to look at the real applications this new
curriculum can lead. It wakes up the creativity, reasoning, and
awareness of development in different areas of engineering. It is done
through problem solving proposed in classes and developed in their field
of work, enhancing engineering techniques.
SYLLABUS AND APPROACH
The technical English booklet uses high interest themes to
integrate speaking, grammar, vocabulary, pronunciation, listening,
reading, and writing. There is a strong focus on both accuracy and
fluency. It includes real life situation that leads to a meaningful
The themes were selected based in the analysis of the curriculum
of each career, and selecting the courses in common. The Booklet No. I
covers the basic sciences or the common area. The Booklets No. II and
III cover the courses of the mid term curriculum, it means the courses
of the fourth, fifth and sixth semester. The Booklet IV covers courses of
the professional areas specially the ones focused to the Administrative
Bachelor which is proposed to the different careers in the school.
Every theme is organized around grammatical topics. It is tried to
present grammar in context.
This section includes new technical words that the students have
to learn for each reading.
It includes lectures, technical language from various contexts.
Listening strategies that include summarizing main ideas, making
inferences, give opinions.
The listening activities are selected according to the different
topics covered in this booklet.
It emphasizes reading strategies such as skimming, scanning,
guessing meaning from context, understanding the structure and
organization of a text, increasing reading speed.
It helps to use correct form and mechanics, use coherent
structure, edition, and revision to create a final draft.
TO THE TEACHERS
It is important for teachers to adapt the course materials to the
needs, interest, and learning styles of their students.
Assessment must be done through oral quizzes, written quizzes
and development of projects.
Discuss this questions:
What is Ecology?
Which responsibilities does it imply?
What should be known about it?
Is Global Warming related to Ecology? Explain.
Mention some keywords related to Ecology.
Guess the answers of the following quiz.
Ecology is the study of
non-living parts of the world
The discipline that has as objective to follow the energy and material used throughout the
process of fabrication in order to improve the efficiency of manufacturing is
Ecology includes the analysis and study of
living parts of the world
The area of ecology that focuses on attempting to understand how natural selection develop
the structure and function of the organism and ecosystems is
the economy of nature
Which is the principal objective of most ecologists
Read and check your previous answers. How well did you do?
Ecology is the study of environmental systems, or as it is sometimes called, the economy of
nature. "Environmental" usually means relating to the natural, versus human-made world; the
"systems" means that ecology is, by its very nature, not interested in just the components of nature
individually but especially in how the parts interact. The subject matter of ecology is normally
divided onto four broad categories or levels: Physiological Ecology, having to do with the response
of single species to environmental conditions such as temperature or light; Population Ecology,
usually focusing on the abundance and distribution of individual species and the factors that cause
such distribution; Community Ecology, having to do with the number of species found at given
location and their interactions; and Ecosystems Ecology, having to do with the structure and
function of the entire suite of microbes, plants, and animals, and their abiotic environment, and
how the parts interact to generate the whole. It often focuses on the energy and nutrient flows
of ecosystems, and when this approach is combined with computer analysis and simulation we often
call it systems ecology. Evolutionary ecology, which may operate at any of these levels but most
commonly at the physiological or population level, is a rich and dynamic area of ecology focusing on
attempting to understand how natural selection developed the structure and function of the
organisms and ecosystems at any of these levels.
Ecology is usually considered from the perspective of the specific geographic environment
that is being studied at the moment: tropical rain forest, temperate grassland, arctic
tundra, benthic marine, the entire biosphere, and so on. The subject matter of ecology is the entire
natural world, including both the living and the non living parts. Biogeography focuses on the
observed distribution of plants and animals and the reasons behind it. More recently ecology has
included increasingly the human-dominated world of agriculture, grazing lands for domestic
animals, cities, and even industrial parks. Industrial ecology is a discipline that has recently been
developed, especially in Europe, where the objective is to follow the energy and material use
throughout the process of, e.g., making an automobile with the objective of attempting to improve
the material and energy efficiency of manufacturing. For any of these levels or approaches there are
some scientists that focus on theoretical ecology, which attempts to derive or apply theoretical or
sometimes mathematical reasons and generalities for what is observed in nature, and empirical
ecology, which is concerned principally with measurement. Applied ecology takes what is found
from one or both of these approaches and uses it to protect or manage nature in some way. Related
to this discipline is conservation biology. Plant ecology, animal ecology, and microbial ecology have
Ecology should be more than just a set of ideas and principles that one might learn in a
classroom or book but rather more a way of looking at the world which emphasizes the assessment
and understanding of how the pieces fit together, how each influences and is influenced by the other
pieces and how the whole operates in ways not really predictable from them. When we are lucky we
are able to capture these relations in conceptual, mathematical or, increasingly, computer models that
allow us some sense of truly understanding the great complexity of nature, including as it is impacted
by human activity. This is the goal of most ecologists.
From the previous text identify what the words italicized refer to.
Read the text.
There are 6 (six) types of pollution that are
going to be discussed in this site, namely air, water,
noise, land, radioactive, and thermal pollution.
Air pollution is
of particles that
this situation can
be created by:
Excess emission of gases/vapors into
Rate of dissipation < (smaller than) rate of
absorption through various cycles (i.e.
Carbon and nitrogen cycle)
Emergence of new chemical reactions of
Global warming, acid rain, smog, ozone
depletion are some effects of air pollution. The
major sources that lead to air pollution are the
Motor vehicle exhaust
Heat and power generation facilities
Solid waste disposal
Electrical components manufacturing
Extraction of metals
Water pollution is contamination of water by
foreign matter that deteriorates the quality of the
water. Water pollution covers pollutions in liquid
forms like ocean pollution and river pollution. As
the term applies, liquid pollution occurs in the
oceans, lakes, streams, rivers, underground water
and bays, in short liquid-containing areas. It
involves the release of toxic substances, pathogenic
germs, substances that require much oxygen to
decompose, easy-soluble substances, radioactivity,
etc. that become deposited upon the bottom and
their accumulations will interfere with the condition
of aquatic ecosystems. For example, the
eutrophication: lack of oxygen in a water body
caused by excessive algae growths because of
enrichment of pollutants.
Water Cycle and Pollution
Water cycle is, simply saying, the circulation of
water in earth. In fact, the water in the earth's
biosphere is used and reused again and again. This
is called water cycle or continuous movement of
water between the earth and the atmosphere. It
involves the following mechanisms:
Evaporation: changing of water from liquid
Transpiration: Release of water vapor from
Condensation: Changing of vapor to liquid
Precipitation: Water that returns to the
earth (water droplets in clouds become
large enough and there comes the rain).
In a small scale, both inorganic and organic
pollutants safely decompose throughout the stream,
their concentration decrease in the sea, and they
don't harm the sea ecosystem and its distribution.
But in an excessive scale, communities in beach and
estuary will be affected by the pollutants, and can
heavily harm them.
Sources and Methods
We can classify major sources that lead to water
pollution to the following categories:
Synthetic agricultural chemicals
Excess organic matter
What's the relation of water cycle and
According to the water cycle, naturally, water
around us will be absorbed to the land (soil) and
rivers will stream from the upstream to the
downstream and released to the sea. In normal
situation organic pollutants are biodegraded by
microbes and converted to a form that brings
benefits to the aquatic life. And for the inorganic
pollutants, in the same situation, don't bring to
much hazards because they are widely dispersed
and have almost no effect to the environment
which they are released to.
Revered to as soil pollution, land pollution
involves the following mechanism:
Deposition of solid waste
Accumulation of non-biodegradable
Toxification of chemicals into poisons
Alteration of soil chemical composition
(imbalance of chemical equilibrium to
The causes for such devastation are generally
due to 2 (two) forms of malpractices:
Unhealthy soil management methods;
Non-maintenance of a proper supply of organic
matter in the soil from the imbalance
composition of the reserves of organic matter
especially nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur
unplenished supply after cultivation of
vegetation, living the soil prone to soil
infertility, unable to stabilize the soil physicality
which ultimately let to desertification
Irregular maintenance of a proper nutrient
supply of trace elements gives rise to the use of
excessive synthetic fertilizers, which are non
biodegradable and accumulate in the soil system
which eventually destroys useful organisms
such as bacteria, fungi and other organisms
Improper maintenance of the correct soil
acidity which ultimately disrupt the adaptation
of various crops and native vegetation of
different soils as the solubility of minerals
present will be affected. In a more acidic soil,
minerals tend to be more soluble and washed
away during rainfall while alkaline soil, minerals
are more insoluble which form complex
minerals unable to be absorbed into the flora
system physiological usage.
Improper irrigation practices;
Poorly drained soil result in salt deposits
leading to high soil salinity that inhibit
plant growth and may lead to crop failure
Unirrigated land giving rise to stagnation of
agriculture waste products whichaccumulates
and increases land toxicity and also decreasing
Irregular irrigation leads to decreasing
moisturization of land for soil medium and
replenishments of solvents for minerals
We can classify major sources that lead to land
pollution to the following categories:
Mining and quarrying
Demolitions and constructions
This particular pollution is ever increasing with
due to the rise in the utilization of heavy duty
machineries of industrial facilities and vehicles,
synonymous to the increase in the standard of
living in most countries. We make sounds
practically every seconds of our day, but to the
extend it has reached an unfavorable high intensity
which had cause many disturbances and irritation to
others emotionally that has adverse effects on our
Noise levels can be measured by decibel
Decibel - one tenth of a bel where
one bel represents a difference in level between
two intensities I1, I0 where one is ten times greater
than the other.
Thus, the intensity level is the comparison of one
intensity to another and may be expressed:
Sources and Methods
Intensity level = 10 log10 (I1/I0) (dB)
For instance, the difference between intensities
of 10-8watts/m2 and 10-4 watts/m2, an actual
difference of 10,000 units, can be expressed as a
difference of 4 bels or 40 decibels.
These are the few examples of threshold
decibels of noises made:
Threshold of hearing
Quiet whisper (3 feet)
Loud singing (3 feet)
Automobile (25 feet)
Motorcycle (30 feet
Diesel truck (30 feet)
Power mower (3 feet)
Pneumatic riveter (3 feet)
Chainsaw (3 feet)
Amplified Rock and Roll (6 feet)
Jet plane (100 feet)
Nuclear energy is a form of energy that’s
released by the splitting of atoms. Since scientists
have found a way to make use of the energy, it has
also been used to generate electricity. Nuclear
energy has been recognized as a clean energy
because it doesn’t release pollutants such as CO2 to
the atmosphere after its reaction that could damage
our environment. It's also known that nuclear
energy has reduced the amount of greenhouse gas
emission, reducing emissions of CO2 for about 500
million metric tons of carbon.
The 40's was the era where the first nuclear
bomb is being developed, and that's why it's called
the nuclear era. However, nuclear energy has
already researched back since 1900. Nuclear era
reached its greatest peak in the world war, by
showing its massive ability of destroying things.
Food blender (3 feet)
Sources and Methods
We can classify major sources that lead to noise
pollution to the following categories:
Road traffic noise
Neighborhood and domestic noise
Incompatible land use
Despite the advantage of nuclear as a clean
energy, the big concern is the waste resulted from
nuclear reaction, which is a form of pollution,
called radioactivity. Radioactivity is a form of
radiation (a form of energy that travels through
space). Some elements in this world are naturally
radioactive while some others are made to be.
Radioactivity is emitted when a radioactive element
become unstable and begin to decay in the attempt
to regain their molecular stability. When an element
decays, it emits energy and small particles. If it’s still
radioactive, it will repeat the process, until it finally
regains its molecular stability and stop
decaying. The time that it takes for half way of
decaying process is called half-life, and this differs
for each radioactive element. It possibly takes up to
4.5 billion years (Uranium 238) and as short as 8
days (Iodine 131). This process constantly remains,
not considering external factors such as pressure or
temperature. This process is expressed in units
called becquerels. One becquerel is equal to one
disintegration of nuclei per second.
There are commonly three types of radiation,
Alpha particles, can be blocked by a
piece of paper and human skin.
Beta particles can penetrate through
skin, while can be blocked by some
pieces of glass and metal.
Gamma rays can penetrate easily to
human skin and damage cells on its way
through, reaching far, and can only be
blocked by a very thick, strong, massive
piece of concrete.
Sources and Methods
We can classify major sources that lead to
radioactive pollution to the following categories:
Nuclear power plants
Disposal of nuclear waste
This has become an increasing and the most
current pollution, owing to the increasing call of
globalization everywhere. Heat produced from
industries is a major contribution to the pollution,
much to the operation of the heavy industries
which produces high amount of heat energy.
Measurements of atmospheric temperature are
done by meteorological center of the weather
forecast annually, and the graph to detect the
temperature trend from a period of 10 years will be
compared with the previous batch of period. Thus
we may be able to know the rate of temperature
increase overall and make reference to the standard
level of heat that should be maintain in the
atmosphere to avoid large deviation of heat in the
Sources and Methods
We can classify major sources that lead to
thermal pollution to the following categories:
Power plants creating electricity from
Water as a cooling agent in industrial
Deforestation of the shoreline
Match the methods of contamination of water with their sources
Excess Organic Matter
Synthetic Agricultural Chemicals
Accidental spills from ships, tanker trucks, pipelines
and leaky underground storage tanks.
Accumulation of chemicals in plants and animals when
Emission of oxides of lead from tractors and machineries
used during mining or in industries which dissolves in
Improper refinery processes with the production of toxic
Improper storage of heavy metals in storage containers
Improper treatment of waste which are still toxic upon
Old and faulty machineries in industrial factories which
Stimulate algae growth and during decomposition of
Unfiltered industrial discharge which flows into water
Read the text.
There is little doubt that the planet is warming. Over the last century, the planets temperature has risen
by around 1 degree Fahrenheit (0.6 of a degree Celsius). The warmest since the mid 1800’s was the 1990s. The
hottest years recorded were 1997, 1998, 2001, 2002, 2003. The United Nations panel on climate change
projects that the global temperatures will rise 3-10 degrees Fahrenheit by the century’s end, enough to have the
polar caps melted. If the ice caps melt, a vast majority of our countries borders will be under water. Monuments
and great buildings, as well as homes and lives will be under water, including New York City.
How can we do to help save the planet? The answer is simpler than you may think. You don’t have to
go miles away from home to protest, or spend masses of money. If you try to follow the few simple steps that I
shall now give you, you will have started to help us all. Firstly, plant a tree; this could be easier than it sounds.
Trees, when fully grown, will help keep the planet cooler. Something as simple as walking instead of taking the
car will help reduce pollution. As well as stopping pollution, you are giving yourself exercise, something
important for our bodies. So the next time you get into your car, or your motorbike, think – do I have to make
this journey by vehicle or can I walk?- When you are at home, and your getting a little cold, only put a jumper
on and do not adjust the heating. The extra heat produced by our homes also affects the planet. So try wearing
an extra layer in winter. If possible use solar energy, after all it is free; all you need to buy is the equipment. You
can get much of your hot water and heating from the sun and even generate electricity. Reduce, reuse and
recycle; only buy what you need; reuse whatever you can, like containers and paper, and recycle what you
cannot reuse. It really is as simple as that. Finally turning off unused sources of power such as televisions and
heaters will help the environment, as well as save you money. If everybody stuck to these rules, we would be
doing a great thing by protecting the earth. So please take into consideration what I have written and try to do
your part. After all, it will be our next generation that will feel the effects.
Answer the following questions:
Is the passage describing the Global Warming? _______________________________________
Which is the principal objective of the passage? ______________________________________
Look up the following words:
Read the following sentences. Complete each sentence with one of the words in
_________________ is the environmental science sub-discipline that melds the fields
of ecology and toxicology.
_________________ is the introduction of chemicals, particulate matter, or microscopic
organisms into the atmosphere; in particular, when concentrations of those substances cause
adverse metabolic change to humans or other species.
The most common and widespread air _________________ include carbon monoxide, sulfur
dioxide, nitrogen oxides and particulate matter.
Indoor air pollution is a significant source of human death and disease —mortality and
_________________— through indoor burning of wood and charcoal (especially in
developing countries), tobacco smoking, radon trapping and a host of chemical substances
found in paints, printing supplies and cleaning products.
Thermal pollution is the act of altering the _________________ of a natural water body, which
may be a river, lake or ocean environment.
The concept is most frequently discussed in the context of elevating natural water
temperature, but may also be caused by the release of cooler water from the base of
_________________ into warmer rivers.
Elevated river temperatures can also arise from _________________ or urbanization that can
There can be significant environmental consequences of thermal pollution with respect to
surface receiving waters such as rivers and lakes; in particular, decrease
in _________________ and creation of an environment hospitable to alien aquatic
species may occur.
An alien species is an organism that finds itself in a new geographic location
or _________________. Many of these species arrive in the new location due to inadvertent
human activities such as shipping or agriculture, although many are purposefully introduced
for food cultivation or for attempts (usually misguided) at ecological intervention.
Water pollution is the _________________ of natural water bodies by chemical, physical,
radioactive or pathogenic microbial substances.
Widespread consequences of water pollution upon ecosystems include _________________
mortality, biodiversity reduction and loss of ecosystem services.
Some water pollution may occur from natural causes such as _________________ from
severe rainfall events; however, natural causes, including volcanic eruptions and algae blooms
from natural causes constitute a minute amount of the instances of worldwide water
The most problematic of water pollutants are microbes that induce disease, since their
sources may be construed as natural, but a preponderance of these instances result from
human intervention in the environment (such as discharge of raw _________________) or
human overpopulation phenomena.
One of the chief causes of water pollution is agricultural activity where _________________
practices, fertilizer, pesticide and herbicide use create massive amounts of sedimentation and
chemical discharge to natural waters.
Are you concern about global warming?
How do you help the planet?
Do you and your family classify garbage at home?
Study the following reading
Water is one of the earth’s most valuable resources, and conservation of water
is necessary. By saving water you can help protect wildlife that live in rivers and
wetlands as the more water that is used in our homes, the less there is available in
rivers, lakes and wetlands. For example, when water levels in rivers fall, food sources
for birds can be lost, and oxygen levels can fall dangerously low for fish. In 2005,
groundwater levels were lower than they have been for 20 years. The energy impact
with the use of water is also high as heating water accounts for a lot of the energy used
in homes, so the more water used, the more energy that is needed.
Saving water at home does not require any significant cost outlay; in fact you
save money when you and your family save water. For saving water inside the house
you can check your faucets, pipes and toilet for leaks; these leaks can waste about 20 gallons of water per day.
Take shorter showers and turn off the water when soaping and after that turn it back on to rinse. It is not
necessary to keep the water running while brushing your teeth, Just wet your brush and fill a glass for mouth
rinsing. Use your dishwasher and clothes washer for only full loads. Water conservation at home is one of the
easiest measures to put in place, and saving water should become part of everyday family practice. It comes
naturally when everyone in the family is aware of its importance, take the time to teach children these simple
water-saving methods around the home and you will make a big difference.
What is the main purpose of these paragraphs?
How many sentences are there in the first paragraph? _________________________________
How many sentences are there in the second paragraph? ______________________________
How many sentences or clauses are in imperative form? _______________________________
Underline the subject of each sentence.
Highlight each verb in the paragraphs. How many modal verbs are there? ________________
In the 2nd sentence of paragraph 1, which is the principal verb? _________________________
How many gerunds are there in the paragraphs? _____________________________________
How many of these gerunds are being used as subjects? _______________________________
What tense is the passage mainly written in? _________________________________________
What type of reading is it? ______ _________________________________________________
“The properties of any material depend not only on what it's made of, but also how the
atoms and molecules within it are arranged.”
Discuss this questions:
What are materials?
Where do we obtain materials?
What is Material Science?
Which are the forms of the matter?
What is an atom?
Which is the difference between metals and ceramics?
Match the following words with its definition.
Anything that has weight and that takes up space.
Solid, Liquid, Gas
It is the smallest particle of matter that retains the same properties
of that matter.
This substance can be broken down into two or more simpler
It is the smallest part of a substance that retains the same properties
of that substance and cannot be broken down any further.
6. Forms of Matter
It is the smallest particle of an element which retains the distinct
structure characteristic of an element.
7. Compound Substance
The free atom is composed of electrons, protons, and neutrons.
Read the following passage.
WHAT IS MATERIALS SCIENCE
Materials have been central to the growth, prosperity, security, and quality of life of humans since
the beginning of history. Only in the last 25 years, and especially in the last decade, has the intellectual
foundation of the field that we call materials science and engineering begun to take shape and to achieve
recognition. This has occurred just as the field itself is expanding greatly and contributing significantly to
society. Without new materials and their efficient production, our world of modern devices, machines,
computers, automobiles, aircraft, communication equipment, and structural products could not exist.
Materials scientists and engineers will continue to be at the forefront of these and other areas of science
and engineering in the service of society as they achieve new levels of understanding and control of the
basic building blocks of materials: atoms, molecules, crystals, and noncrystalline arrays.
WHAT ARE MATERIALS, EXACTLY?
That's a big question - because materials are the basic substances that make up, well, you name it!
Materials can be natural - like wood, or human-made - like plastic. There are now about 300,000 different
known materials (if you named one every second, it would take you more than three whole days and nights
just to get through the list!). And as materials scientists create and combine materials in new ways, the
number's almost infinite. Most materials fit into a few big, general categories:
Whole periods of human civilization - such as the Bronze and Iron ages - are named for
metals. These were the first materials to be "engineered," that is, people changed them to fit
what they needed to do, rather than just letting their natural properties determine what they
could be used for. These days, materials scientists are using metals in ways no one could
have pictured even a few years ago - for example, shaping copper into tiny wires a thousand
times skinnier than a strand of your hair!
Think about a china teapot - that's one type of ceramic. But ceramics can also be used
to create bone and tooth replacements, super-strong cutting tools, or to conduct
electricity. With the addition of oxygen or nitrogen, metals become ceramics, too.
One of these materials - silicon - is making it possible for you to read these words right
now! That's because silicon is the essential material in an electronic computer chip.
"Semiconductor" means a material can conduct electricity with a bit of help in the form
of added "impurities." Your CD, DVD player, and telephone - all depend on
Polymers are just very big molecules made of smaller molecules linked together into long,
repeating chains. You may not know it, but you're in touch with polymers every day more
than any other kind of material. Rubber bands are made of polymers, so are paints and every
kind of plastic. And by the way, most of the food you eat is made of natural polymers!
Composites are combinations of materials, which can be as simple as concrete
reinforced with steel bars or as leading edge as an ultralight, carbon-fiber bicycle. The
places where different materials meet - the "interfaces" - often produce new
properties that are radically different, and better, than those in any single material.
Every part of your body is a material! Bone, muscles, fingernails, hair, and
skin are all examples of different types of materials found in your body with
remarkable properties that help you survive - from keeping you upright,
and protecting you from heat or cold, to cutting and grinding your food.
Some scientists try to mimic nature's designs to create materials for other uses, such as using
the foam structure of bone as an inspiration for designing materials that are lightweight and
Exotic and Strange Materials
Materials scientists are discovering and creating entirely new types of materials - such
as buckyballs and nanotubes, which are very tiny spheres or cylinders made of
carbon atoms. Then there are aerogels, which are extremely lightweight porous
materials made almost entirely of air! Nanotechnology is taking materials science
into a new dimension, as scientists create new materials atom-by-atom and moleculeby-molecule - leading to properties and performance never before imagined.
Answer the following questions, investigate if it is necessary.
1. When did the materials science started to be recognize?
2. Why is important to study materials science in your career?
3. Are new materials helping to the development of technology? Explain your answer.
4. Mention at least 5 types of metals
5. According to your experience, which is the principal characteristic of ceramics?
6. Additionally to the silicon, which other semiconductor is used to fabricate electronic devices.
7. Mention five everyday products made with polymers.
8. Why biomaterials are important nowadays?
Watch the videos in these links and answer the questions
What is materials science according to Dr. Ross?_____________________________________
What are boats made of? _______________________________________________________
What do materials scientists do? _________________________________________________
Read the following topic
All matter is considered to be composed
of unit substances known as chemical elements.
These are the smallest units that are
distinguishable on the basis of their chemical
activity and physical properties. The elements are
composed of atoms which have distinct structure
characteristic of each element. An atom consists
of a minute positively charged nucleus
surrounded by a sufficient number of electrons
(negative charges) to keep the atom as a whole
neutral. The electron and proton have equal but
opposite electrical charge, so the neutral atom
must contain an equal number of electrons and
There are two types of bonds:
Primary bonds are the strongest bonds which
hold atoms together. The three types of primary
Metallic Bonds: In a metal, the outer
electrons are shared among all the atoms
in the solid. Each atom gives up its outer
electrons and becomes slightly positively
charged. The negatively charged electrons
hold the metal atoms together. Since the
electrons are free to move, they lead to
good thermal and electrical conductivity.
Covalent Bonds: Some atoms like to
share electrons to complete their outer
shells. Each pair of shared atoms is called
a covalent bond.
Ionic Bonds: Atoms like to have a filled
outer shell of electrons. Sometimes, by
transferring electrons from one atom to
another, electron shells are filled. The
donor atom will take a positive charge,
and the acceptor will have a negative
charge. The charged atoms or ions will be
attracted to each other, and form bonds.
Secondary bonds are much weaker than primary
bonds. They often provide a "weak link" for
deformation or fracture. Examples for secondary
Hydrogen Bonds: Hydrogen bonds are
common in covalently bonded molecules
which contain hydrogen, such as water
Van der Waals Bonds: Van der Waals
bonds are very weak compared to other
types of bonds. These bonds are
especially important in noble gases which
are cooled to very low temperatures.
Describe how the material supports applied
forces, including forces of tension, compression,
impact, cyclic fatigue, or forces at high
temperatures. Then you mention are defined
Toughness: The property of certain
deforming or breaking sudden efforts
that apply to them.
Flexibility: It consists in the ability of
some materials to recover their shape
and size of primitive when it ceases the
effort that had given deformation.
Hardness: The resistance a material
opposes the penetration.
Fragility: A material is brittle when
broken easily by the action of a shock.
Plasticity: Ability of some solid material
to acquire permanent deformation
under the action of an external force or
pressure without rupture.
The above mechanical properties are measured
accurately by mechanical tests:
Test drive: Provides a rough idea of the
tenacity and elasticity of a material.
Hardness Testing: allows knowing the
hardness of the material.
Testing Shock: The practice allows us to
know the fragility and tenacity of a
Testing technology: They show the
features of plasticity that has a material to
carry out his forge, bending, stamping,
Rely on the structure and material
processing. Describe features such as color,
electrical or thermal conductivity, magnetic and
optical behavior, usually not altered by force
acting on the material. They can be divided into
electrical, magnetic and optical.
properties of matter are categorized as either
Intensive or Extensive:
Mass - A measurement of the amount
of matter in a object (grams).
Intensive - Properties that do not depend on
the amount of the matter present.
Weight - A measurement of the
gravitational force of attraction of the
earth acting on an object.
Luster - How shiny a substance is.
Malleability - The ability of a substance
to be beaten into thin sheets.
Volume - A measurement of the
amount of space a substance occupies.
Ductility - The ability of a substance to
be drawn into thin wires.
Conductivity - The ability of a
substance to allow the flow of energy or
Hardness - How easily a substance can
Boiling Point - The temperature at
which the vapor pressure of a liquid is
equal to the pressure on the liquid
(generally atmospheric pressure).
Reactivity: It is when two substances
cause any reaction together, when a
reaction happen you can see bubbling,
fizzing, color change; but it can create
sound, light, color or heat.
Reactivity can be created mixing a
element with oxygen, water or acid.
Density - The mass of a substance
divided by its volume
These describe the substances and their
abiolity to change into a new substance with
Ability to burn.
Melting/Freezing Point - The
temperature at which the solid and
liquid phases of a substance are in
equilibrium at atmospheric pressure.
Extensive - Properties that do depend on the
amount of matter present.
Prepare a summary of the previous reading.
Write the name of 2 materials that present the following properties.
Select a material and describe their physical properties.
Melting/Freezing Point ___________________________________________________
Van der Waals Bond
Discuss the following
Why are radiators important in vehicles?
What’s the function of the ozono layer in the atmosphere?
How does a microwave works?
How is chicken soup made?
What happen if I leave a bowl with water in the open air in a really sunny day?
READING / WRITING
Look and study the following notes.
Thermodynamics is a physical science that studies the effects on material bodies, and on radiation
in regions of space, of transfer of heat and of work done on or by the bodies or radiation. It interrelates
macrosqcopic variables, such as temperature, volume and pressure, which describe physical properties of
material bodies and radiation, which in this science are called thermodynamic systems.
Historically, thermodynamics developed out of a desire to increase the efficiency of early steam
engines, particularly through the work of French physicist Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot (1824) who
believed that the efficiency of heat engines was the key that could help France win the Napoleonic Wars.
Scottish physicist Lord Kelvin was the first to formulate a concise definition of thermodynamics in 1854:
“Thermo-dynamics is the subject of the relation of heat to
forces acting between contiguous parts of bodies, and the
relation of heat to electrical agency.”
Write one or two paragraphs that summarize the passage and the picture above.
Look and study the following picture.
Conduction, Convection, or Radiation?
Walking across hot sand burns your feet.
When nothing is touching the object.
You accidentally touch a hot stove.
An iron is used to iron your clothes.
The doctor takes an X-ray of your body.
How you get a sunburn.
The metal part of your seatbelt burns your
leg when you sit on it after the car sat in
the sun all day.
You sit near a campfire.
Between a stove and a pot.
In a microwave.
Read the following passage.
The four laws of thermodynamics
summarize the most important facts of
thermodynamics. They define fundamental
physical quantities, such as temperature, energy,
and entropy, to describe thermodynamic systems
and they describe the transfer of energy as heat
and work in thermodynamic processes.
Experimentally reproducible distinction between
heat and work is at the heart of thermodynamics,
and about processes in which this distinction
cannot be made, thermodynamics has nothing to
The zeroth law implies that thermal
equilibrium, viewed as a binary relation, is a
Euclidean relation. If we assume that the binary
relationship is also reflexive, then it follows that
thermal equilibrium is an equivalence relation.
Equivalence relations are also transitive and
symmetric. The symmetric relationship allows
one to speak of two systems being "in thermal
equilibrium with each other", which gives rise to
a simpler statement of the zeroth law:
If two systems are in
with a third, they are in
with each other
However, this statement requires the
implicit assumption of symmetry and reflexivity,
rather than reflexivity alone.
The law is also a statement about
measurability. To this effect the law allows the
establishment of an empirical parameter, the
temperature, as a property of a system such that
systems in equilibrium with each other have the
same temperature. The notion of transitivity
permits a system, for example a gas thermometer,
to be used as a device to measure the temperature
of another system.
Although the concept of thermodynamic
equilibrium is fundamental to thermodynamics,
the need to state it explicitly as a law was not
widely perceived until Fowler and Planck stated it
in the 1930s, long after the first, second, and
third law were already widely understood and
recognized. Hence it was numbered the zeroth
law. The importance of the law as a foundation
to the earlier laws is that it allows the definition
of temperature in a non-circular way without
reference to entropy, its conjugate variable.
The first law of thermodynamics may be
expressed by several forms of the fundamental
A change in the internal
energy of a closed
thermodynamic system is
equal to the difference
between the heat supplied
to the system and the
amount of work done by
the system on its
For a thermodynamic cycle the net heat
supplied to the system equals the net work done
by the system. The net change in internal energy
is the energy that flows in as heat minus the
energy that flows out as the work that the system
performs on its environment. Work and heat are
not defined as separately conserved quantities;
they refer only to processes of exchange of
These statements entail that the internal
energy obeys the principle of conservation of
energy. The principle of conservation of energy
may be stated in several ways:
Energy can be neither
created nor destroyed. It
can only change forms.
In any process in an isolated system, the
total energy remains the same.
The second law of thermodynamics
asserts the existence of a quantity called the
entropy of a system and further states that.
When two isolated systems in separate
but nearby regions of space, each in
thermodynamic equilibrium in itself (but not
necessarily in equilibrium with each other at first)
are at some time allowed to interact, breaking the
isolation that separates the two systems, allowing
them to exchange matter or energy, they will
eventually reach a mutual thermodynamic
equilibrium. The sum of the entropies of the
initial, isolated systems is less than or equal to the
entropy of the final combination of exchanging
systems. In the process of reaching a new
thermodynamic equilibrium, total entropy has
increased, or at least has not decreased.
It follows that the entropy of an isolated
macroscopic system never decreases. The second
law states that spontaneous natural processes
increase entropy overall, or in another
formulation that heat can spontaneously be
conducted or radiated only from a highertemperature region to a lower-temperature
region, but not the other way around.
The second law refers to a wide variety of
processes, reversible and irreversible. Its main
import is to tell about irreversibility.
The prime example of irreversibility is in
the transfer of heat by conduction or radiation. It
was known long before the discovery of the
notion of entropy that when two bodies of
different temperatures are connected with each
other by purely thermal connection, conductive
or radiative, then heat always flows from the
hotter body to the colder one. This fact is part of
the basic idea of heat, and is related also to the
so-called zeroth law, though the textbooks'
statements of the zeroth law are usually reticent
about that, because they have been influenced by
Carathéodory's basing his axiomatics on the law
of conservation of energy and trying to make
heat seem a theoretically derivative concept
instead of an axiomatically accepted one. Šilahvý
(1997) notes that Carathéodory's approach does
not work for the description of irreversible
processes that involve both heat conduction and
conversion of kinetic energy into internal energy
by viscosity (which is another prime example of
irreversibility), because "the mechanical power
and the rate of heating are not expressible as
differential forms in the 'external parameters'".
The second law tells also about kinds of
irreversibility other than heat transfer, and the
notion of entropy is needed to provide that wider
scope of the law.
According to the second law of
thermodynamics, in a reversible heat transfer, an
element of heat transferred, δQ, is the product of
the temperature (T), both of the system and of
the source or destination of the heat, with the
increment (dS) of the system's conjugate variable,
its entropy (S)
The second law defines entropy, which
may be viewed not only as a macroscopic variable
of classical thermodynamics, but may also be
viewed as a measure of deficiency of physical
information about the microscopic details of the
motion and configuration of the system, given
only predictable experimental reproducibility of
bulk or macroscopic behavior as specified by
macroscopic variables that allow the distinction
to be made between heat and work. More exactly,
the law asserts that for two given macroscopically
specified states of a system, there is a quantity
called the difference of entropy between them.
The entropy difference tells how much additional
microscopic physical information is needed to
specify one of the macroscopically specified
states, given the macroscopic specification of the
other, which is often a conveniently chosen
reference state. It is often convenient to
presuppose the reference state and not to
explicitly state it. A final condition of a natural
specifiable effects which are not fully and exactly
predictable from the macroscopic specification of
the initial condition of the process. This is why
entropy increases in natural processes. The
entropy increase tells how much extra
microscopic information is needed to tell the
final macroscopically specified state from the
initial macroscopically specified state.
spontaneously flow from
a colder location to a
The third law of thermodynamics is
usually stated as follows:
The entropy of a perfect
crystal at absolute zero
is exactly equal to zero.
This is explained in statistical mechanics
by the fact that a perfect crystal has only one
possible microstate (microscopic state) at
extremely low temperatures: The locations and
energies of every atom in a crystal are known and
fixed. (In quantum mechanics, the location of
each atom is not exactly fixed, but the wave
function of each atom is fixed in the unique
ground state for its position in the crystal.)
Entropy is related to the number of possible
microstates, and with only one microstate, the
entropy is exactly zero.
The third law is also stated in a form that
includes non-crystal systems, such as glasses:
zero, the entropy of a
system approaches a
The minimum, not necessarily zero, is
called the residual entropy of the system.
Write a well-structure paragraph with title LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS. (Summarize
the previous reading in two or three paragraphs)
Unscramble the words and match them with their definitions.
The branch of physical science concerned with the interrelationship and interconversion of different forms of energy and
the behavior of macroscopic systems in terms of certain basic
quantities, such as pressure or temperature.
A quantitative measure of the amount of thermal energy not
available to do work.
A state in which all parts of a system are at the same
A collection of ordered pairs of elements.
A relationship of characteristic correspondence, equivalence,
or identity among constituents of an entity or between
The property of a binary relation that expresses the fact that
the relation holds between an object and its “mirror image.”
The quality of being measurable
A relationship between three elements such that if the
relationship holds between the first and second elements and
between the second and third elements, it necessarily holds
between the first and third elements.
The total heat o system
A system that cannot exchange matter or energy with its
The temperature at which molecular activity is at a minimum.
Emission and propagation and emission of energy in the form
of rays or waves.
A physical system that does not interact with other systems.
Heat transfer in a gas or liquid by the circulation of currents
from one region to another.
Force applied uniformly over a surface, measured as force per
unit of area.
Principle of Conservation of
Third Law of Thermodynamics
First Law of Thermodynamics
Second Law of Thermodynamics
Transfer of Heat
Discuss the following
Where does the sugar come from?
If you would have money for investing in a home-made product, which product would you
Which are the materials used for producing wooden tables and chairs?
How are chocobananas made?
Which process is described in the picture.
Look at the picture.
What’s the picture about? _______________________________________________________
According to the picture, which are the materials needed for manufacturing tires.
Describe the process of tire fabrication.
Read the following passage and make a sketch of self study applying a notetaking
Manufacturing is the use of machines, tools and labor to produce goods for use or sale. The term
may refer to a range of human activity, from handicraft to high tech, but is most commonly applied to
industrial production, in which raw materials are transformed into finished goods on a large scale. Such
finished goods may be used for manufacturing other, more complex products, such as aircraft, household
appliances or automobiles, or sold to wholesalers, who in turn sell them to retailers, who then sell them to
end users – the "consumers".
Modern manufacturing includes all intermediate processes required for the production and
integration of a product's components. Some industries, such as semiconductor and steel manufacturers
use the term fabrication instead.
Craft or Guild System
A guild is an association of craftsmen in a particular trade. The earliest types of guild were formed
as confraternities of workers. They were organized in a manner something between a trade union, a cartel,
and a secret society. A lasting legacy of traditional guilds is the guildhalls constructed and used as meeting
The putting-out system was a means of subcontracting work. It was also known as the workshop
system. In putting-out, work was contracted by a central agent to subcontractors who completed the work
in their own facilities, usually their own homes. The domestic system was a popular system of cloth
production in Europe.
Mass production, flow production, repetitive flow production, series production, or serial
production, is the production of large amounts of standardized products, including and especially on
assembly lines. The concepts of mass production are applied to various kinds of products, from fluids and
particulates handled in bulk (such as food, fuel, chemicals, and mined minerals) to discrete solid parts (such
as fasteners) to assemblies of such parts (such as household appliances and automobiles).
Just In Time manufacturing
Just-in-Time (JIT) is a production strategy that strives to improve a business' return on investment
by reducing in-process inventory and associated carrying costs. This production method is also called the
Toyota Production System. To meet JIT objectives, the process relies on signals or Kanban (看板,
Kanban) between different points in the process, which tell production when to make the next part.
Kanban are usually 'tickets' but can be simple visual signals, such as the presence or absence of a part on a
shelf. Implemented correctly, JIT focuses on continuous improvement and can improve a manufacturing
organization's return on investment, quality, and efficiency. To achieve continuous improvement key areas
of focus could be flow, employee involvement and quality.
Quick notice that stock depletion requires personnel to order new stock is critical to the inventory
reduction at the center of JIT. This saves warehouse space and costs. However, the complete mechanism
for making this work is often misunderstood.
Lean manufacturing, lean enterprise, or lean production, often simply, "Lean," is a production
practice that considers the expenditure of resources for any goal other than the creation of value for the
end customer to be wasteful, and thus a target for elimination. Working from the perspective of the
customer who consumes a product or service, "value" is defined as any action or process that a customer
would be willing to pay for.
Lean manufacturing is a variation on the theme of efficiency based on optimizing flow; it is a
present-day instance of the recurring theme in human history toward increasing efficiency, decreasing
waste, and using empirical methods to decide what matters, rather than uncritically accepting pre-existing
A flexible manufacturing system (FMS) is a manufacturing system in which there is some amount
of flexibility that allows the system to react in the case of changes, whether predicted or unpredicted. This
flexibility is generally considered to fall into two categories, which both contain numerous subcategories.
The first category, machine flexibility, covers the system's ability to be changed to produce new product
types, and ability to change the order of operations executed on a part. The second category is called
routing flexibility, which consists of the ability to use multiple qmachines to perform the same operation
on a part, as well as the system's ability to absorb large-scale changes, such as in volume, capacity, or
The main advantages of an FMS are its high flexibility in managing manufacturing resources like
time and effort in order to manufacture a new product. The best application of an FMS is found in the
production of small sets of products like those from a mass production.
Mass customization, in marketing, manufacturing, call centers and management, is the use of
flexible computer-aided manufacturing systems to produce custom output. Those systems combine the low
unit costs of mass production processes with the flexibility of individual customization.
Agile manufacturing is a term applied to an organization that has created the processes, tools, and
training to enable it to respond quickly to customer needs and market changes while still controlling costs
Direct digital manufacturing, sometimes called additive, rapid, direct, instant, or on-demand
manufacturing, is a manufacturing process which creates physical parts directly from 3D CAD files or data
using computer-controlled additive and subtractive fabrication and machining techniques with minimal
human intervention. When a small, low-cost device is used, it is called desktop or personal manufacturing.
Prefabrication is the practice of assembling components of a structure in a factory or other
manufacturing site, and transporting complete assemblies or sub-assemblies to the construction site where
the structure is to be located. The term is used to distinguish this process from the more conventional
construction practice of transporting the basic materials to the construction site where all assembly is
This term refers to building metal structures by cutting, bending, and assembling. The cutting part
of fabrication is via sawing, shearing, or chiseling, torching with handheld torches (such as oxy-fuel torches
or plasma torches); and via CNC cutters (using a laser, torch, or water jet). The bending is via hammering
or via press brakes and similar tools. The assembling is via welding, binding with adhesives, riveting,
threaded fasteners, or even yet more bending in the form of a crimped seam. Structural steel and sheet
metal are the usual starting materials for fabrication, along with the welding wire, flux, and fasteners that
will join the cut pieces. As with other manufacturing processes, both human labor and automation are
commonly used. The product resulting from fabrication may be called a fabrication. Shops that specialize
in this type of metal work are called fab shops. The end products of other common types of metalworking,
such as machining, metal stamping, forging, and casting, may be similar in shape and function, but those
processes are not classified as fabrication.
Paragraph No. 1
Read the following passage and write the main idea of each paragraph.
Additionally write next to the picture the number of paragraph that correspond to
the each step of the process.
Paragraph No. 2
Portland Cement is a carefully blended
combination of lime, silica, alumina and iron
oxide. These components are found in
materials which fall into two main categories;
calcareous (or lime bearing), such as
limestone, and argillaceous (or clay-like) such
The main raw material component of cement
is Limestone, which is obtained from our
Kleins Point Quarry on the Yorke Peninsula
and shipped across St. Vincent Gulf on the
Company’s ship M.V. Accolade II, to our
Paragraph No. 3
Paragraph No. 4
The reclaimed limestone is then transported
via belt conveyors to the weigh building
where other raw materials, known as ‘fringe’
materials, such as shale, sand and iron oxide
are added to the limestone. This blend of
materials is fed into a ring roller mill, where it
is dried and crushed to a fine state.
Paragraph No. 7
Paragraph No. 6
A reclaimer (pictured in the diagram to the
right) moves back and forth along the heap
scraping a cross section of the limestone. As
the newer raw material is stacked on top of
older material, the cross-sectioned reclaiming
process ensures an even blend of material is
Paragraph No. 5
Once the Accolade II reaches the Birkenhead
plant, the Limestone is transported via
conveyor belts to the Limestone Pre-blend
Building, where it is stockpiled into preblended heaps of around 25,000 tonnes.
This material is now referred to as raw meal
and is the feed for the kiln. The drying
process in the raw mill uses the hot gases
from the kiln, which also transport the raw
meal through large electrofilters which
separate the solid particles from the gas,
allowing the clean gasses to pass into the
The raw meal is then extracted from the
electrofilters and conveyed to the 6,000 tonne
blending silo. This silo serves, not only as a
storage silo, but also thoroughly blends the
raw meal into a physically and chemically
consistent material, ensuring well controlled,
Paragraph No. 8
Paragraph No. 9
Paragraph No. 10
Paragraph No. 11
Paragraph No. 12
The raw meal travels through a preheating tower and reaches approximately 900°C before
it enters the kiln. Once the raw meal reaches the rotating kiln, it is heated further which
releases carbon dioxide from the limestone. As the heated raw meal proceeds further
down the kiln into the burning zone, temperatures reach in excess of 1400°C causing
chemical reactions which convert the raw meal into hard nodules ranging in size from 535mm in diameter known as clinker.
The clinker is then cooled, with the heat recovered from this process being re-used in the
kiln to increase energy efficiency. After cooling, the clinker is transported from the storage
area, via belt conveyers, to the cement mill.
Just before entering the mill, other additives such as gypsum and limestone are added to
the clinker in very specific quantities. The mill is a large rotating ball mill which is filled to
a certain level with steel balls ranging in size from 17-90mm in diameter. The clinker and
additives are crushed and ground between the steel balls until the desired fineness is
The resultant cement powder then exits the mill and passes through a separator, which
extracts the coarse cement powder that has not been milled to the required fineness and
returns it back into the mill for further milling. The cement meal that passes through the
separator is stored in various silos, ranging in size from 500-30,000 tonnes, where it awaits
bagging or bulk transportation.
From the bulk silo, the cement is dispatched from our plants in various ways. The
majority of our cement is loaded into bulk pneumatic tankers via 24 hour automated
weighbridges, where the driver simply drives the vehicle onto the weighbridge, weighs his
empty truck, connects the loading chute to the tank and selects the appropriate product.
Once loading is finished, the vehicle is then weighed again to determine exactly how much
product was loaded, the driver departs and the weighbridge system automatically records
the transaction for processing.
Paragraph No. 13
Some of the cement is transported from the bulk silo to the Despatch Silo where it is
packed into 20kg paper bags on the automated Rotopacker and then arranged onto pallets.
The cement is also available in 1 tonne bulk bags for manufacturing and construction
purposes and is often loaded into ships where it is transported via sea to various
destinations across Australia.
Read the following passage.
Casting is a manufacturing process by
which a liquid material is usually poured into
a mold, which contains a hollow cavity of the
desired shape, and then allowed to solidify. The
solidified part is also known as a casting, which is
ejected or broken out of the mold to complete
the process. Casting materials are usually metals
or various cold setting materials that cure after
mixing two or more components together;
examples are epoxy, concrete, plaster and clay.
Casting is most often used for making complex
shapes that would be otherwise difficult or
uneconomical to make by other methods.
Metal casting is one of the most common
casting processes. Metal patterns are more
expensive but are more dimensionally stable and
durable. Metallic patterns are used where
repetitive production of castings is required in
Plaster and other chemical setting
materials such as concrete and plastic resin may
be cast using single-use waste molds as noted
above, multiple-use 'piece' molds, or molds made
of small rigid pieces or of flexible material such as
latex rubber (which is in turn supported by an
exterior mold). When casting plaster or concrete,
the finished product is, unlike marble,
unattractive, lacking in transparency, and so it is
usually painted, often in ways that give the
appearance of metal or stone. Alternatively, the
first layers cast may contain colored sand so as to
give an appearance of stone. By casting concrete,
rather than plaster, it is possible to create
sculptures, fountains, or seating for outdoor use.
A simulation of high-quality marble may be made
using certain chemically-set plastic resins (for
example epoxy or polyester) with powdered stone
added for coloration, often with multiple colors
worked in. The latter is a common means of
making attractive washstands, washstand tops
and shower stalls, with the skilled working of
multiple colors resulting in simulated staining
patterns as is often found in natural marble or
of manufacturing by shaping pliable raw material
using a rigid frame or model called a pattern.
A mold is a hollowed-out block that is filled with
a liquid like plastic, glass, metal, or ceramic raw
materials. The liquid hardens or sets inside the
mold, adopting its shape. A mold is the
counterpart to a cast. The manufacturer who
makes the molds is called the moldmaker.
A release agent is typically used to make removal
of the hardened/set substance from the mold
easier. Typical uses for molded plastics include
molded furniture, molded household goods,
molded cases, and structural materials.
process are very complex and may involve many
varieties of stresses operating simultaneously, or
it may involve stresses which change over the
course of the operation.
Compressive forming involves those processes
where the primary means of plastic deformation
is uni - or multiaxial compressive loading.
the metalworking process of fashioning metal
parts and objects through mechanical
deformation; the workpiece is reshaped without
adding or removing material, and its mass
remains unchanged. Forming operates on
deformation, where the physical shape of a
material is permanently deformed.
Rolling, where the material is passed through
a pair of rollers.
Extrusion, where the material is pushed
through an orifice.
Die forming, where the material
is stamped by a press around or onto a die.
Forging, where the material is shaped by
localized compressive forces.
Indenting, where a tool is pressed into the
Tensile forming involves those processes where
the primary means of plastic deformation is unior multiaxial tensile stress.
Stretching, where a tensile load is applied
along the longitudinal axis of the workpiece
Expanding, where the circumference of a
hollow body is increased by tangential
Recessing, where depressions and holes are
formed through tensile loading
Combined tensile and compressive
Forming processes tend to be typified by
differences in effective stresses. These categories
and descriptions are highly simplified, since the
stresses operating at a local level in any given
This category of forming processes involves
those operations where the primary means of
plastic deformation involves both tensile stresses
and compressive loads.
This category of forming processes
involves those operations where the primary
means of plastic deformation is a bending load.
Bending is a manufacturing process that
produces a V-shape, U-shape, or channel shape
along a straight axis in ductile materials, most
commonly sheet metal. Commonly used
equipment include box and pan brakes, brake
presses, and other specialized machine presses.
Typical products that are made like this are boxes
such as electrical enclosures and rectangular duct
In press brake forming, a work piece is
positioned over the die block and the die block
presses the sheet to form a shape. Usually
bending has to overcome both tensile stresses
and compressive stresses. When bending is done,
the residual stresses cause the material to spring
back towards its original position, so the sheet
must be over-bent to achieve the proper bend
angle. The amount of spring back is dependent
on the material, and the type of forming. When
sheet metal is bent, it stretches in length.
The bend deduction is the amount the sheet
metal will stretch when bent as measured from
the outside edges of the bend. The bend
radius refers to the inside radius. The formed
bend radius is dependent upon the dies used, the
material properties, and the material thickness.
There are three basic types of bending on
a press brake; each is defined by the relationship
of the end tool position to the thickness of the
material. These three are Air Bending, Bottoming
and Coining. The configuration of the tools for
these three types of bending is nearly identical. A
die with a long rail form tool with a radiuses tip
that locates the inside profile of the bend is called
a punch. Punches are usually attached to the ram
of the machine by clamps and move to produce
the bending force. A die with a long rail form
tool that has concave or V shaped lengthwise
channel that locates the outside profile of the
form is called a die. Dies are usually stationary
and located under the material on the bed of the
machine. Note that some locations do not
differentiate between the two different kinds of
dies (punches and dies.) The other types of
bending listed use specially designed tools or
machines to perform the work.
This category of forming processes
involves those operations where the primary
means of plastic deformation is a shearing load.
Shear forming, also referred as shear
spinning, is similar to metal spinning. In shear
spinning the area of the final piece is
approximately equal to that of the flat sheet metal
blank. The wall thickness is maintained by
controlling the gap between the roller and the
mandrel. In shear forming a reduction of the wall
Before the 1950s, spinning was
performed on a simple turning lathe. When new
technologies were introduced to the field of metal
spinning and powered dedicated spinning
machines were available, shear forming started its
development in Sweden.
In shear forming, the starting workpiece
can have circular or rectangular cross sections.
On the other hand, the profile shape of the final
component can be concave, convex or a
combination of these two. A shear forming
machine will look very much like a conventional
spinning machine, except for that it has to be
much more robust to withstand the higher forces
necessary to perform the shearing operation.
The design of the roller must be
considered carefully, because it affects the shape
of the component, the wall thickness, and
dimensional accuracy. The smaller the tool nose
radius, the higher the stresses and poorest
thickness uniformity achieved.
Machining is any of various processes in
which a piece of raw material is cut into a desired
final shape and size by a controlled materialremoval process. The many processes that have
this common theme, controlled material removal,
are today collectively known as subtractive
manufacturing, in distinction from processes of
controlled material addition, which are known
as additive manufacturing.
The precise meaning of the term
"machining" has evolved over the past two
centuries as technology has advanced. During
the Machine Age, it referred to (what we today
might call) the "traditional" machining processes,
as turning, boring, drilling, milling, broaching,
In these "traditional" or
"conventional" machining processes, machine
tools, such as lathes, milling machines, drill
presses, or others, are used with a sharp cutting
tool to remove material to achieve a desired
geometry. Since the advent of new technologies
ultrasonic machining, the retronym "conventional
machining" can be used to differentiate those
classic technologies from the newer ones. In
current usage, the term "machining" without
qualification usually implies the traditional
Machining is a part of the manufacture of
many metal products, but it can also be used on
as wood, plastic, ceramic,
and composites. A person who specializes in
machining is called a machinist. A room,
building, or company where machining is done is
called a machine shop. Machining can be
a business, a hobby, or both. Much of modern
day machining is carried out by computer
numerical control (CNC), in which computers are
used to control the movement and operation of
the mills, lathes, and other cutting machines.
Turning operations are operations that
rotate the workpiece as the primary method
of moving metal against the cutting tool.
Lathes are the principal machine tool used
Milling operations are operations in which
the cutting tool rotates to bring cutting
edges to bear against the workpiece. Milling
machines are the principal machine tool
used in milling.
Drilling operations are operations in which
holes are produced or refined by bringing a
rotating cutter with cutting edges at the
lower extremity into contact with the
workpiece. Drilling operations are done
primarily in drill presses but sometimes on
lathes or mills.
cutting, orwater jet cutting to shape metal
As a commercial venture, machining is
generally performed in a machine shop, which
consists of one or more workrooms containing
major machine tools. Although a machine shop
can be a stand-alone operation, many businesses
maintain internal machine shops which support
specialized needs of the business.
Miscellaneous operations are operations
that strictly speaking may not be machining
operations in that they may not
be swarf producing operations but these
operations are performed at a typical
machine tool. Burnishing is an example of
a miscellaneous operation. Burnishing
produces no swarf but can be performed at
a lathe, mill, or drill press.
An unfinished workpiece requiring
machining will need to have some material cut
away to create a finished product. A finished
product would be a workpiece that meets the
specifications set out for that workpiece by
engineering drawings or blueprints. For example,
a workpiece may be required to have a specific
outside diameter. A lathe is a machine tool that
can be used to create that diameter by rotating a
metal workpiece, so that a cutting tool can cut
metal away, creating a smooth, round surface
matching the required diameter and surface
finish. A drill can be used to remove metal in the
shape of a cylindrical hole. Other tools that may
be used for various types of metal removal are
milling machines, saws, and grinding machines.
Many of these same techniques are used
More recent, advanced machining
machining (EDM), electro-chemical erosion, laser
Machining requires attention to many
details for a workpiece to meet the specifications
set out in the engineering drawings or blueprints.
Beside the obvious problems related to correct
dimensions, there is the problem of achieving the
correct finish or surface smoothness on the
workpiece. The inferior finish found on the
machined surface of a workpiece may be caused
by incorrect clamping, a dull tool, or
inappropriate presentation of a tool. Frequently,
this poor surface finish, known as chatter, is
evident by an undulating or irregular finish, and
the appearance of waves on the machined
surfaces of the workpiece.
There are many kinds of machining
operations, each of which is capable of generating
a certain part geometry and surface texture.
In turning, a cutting tool with a single
cutting edge is used to remove material
from a rotating workpiece to generate a
cylindrical shape. The speed motion is
provided by rotating the workpiece, and
the feed motion is achieved by moving the
cutting tool slowly in a direction parallel to
the axis of rotation of the workpiece.
Drilling is used to create a round hole. It is
accomplished by a rotating tool that
typically has two or four helical cutting
edges. The tool is fed in a direction parallel
to its axis of rotation into the workpiece to
form the round hole.
In boring, a tool with a single bent pointed
tip is advanced into a roughly made hole in
a spinning workpiece to slightly enlarge the
hole and improve its accuracy. It is a fine
finishing operation used in the final stages
of product manufacture.
In milling, a rotating tool with multiple
cutting edges is moved slowly relative to
the material to generate a plane or straight
surface. The direction of the feed motion is
perpendicular to the tool's axis of rotation.
The speed motion is provided by the
rotating milling cutter. The two basic forms
of milling are:
Welding is the fabrication or sculptural
process that joins materials, usually metals or
thermoplastics, by causing coalescence. This is
often done by melting the workpieces and adding
a filler material to form a pool of molten material
(the weld pool) that cools to become a strong
with pressure sometimes
conjunction with heat, or by itself, to produce the
weld. This is in contrast with soldering and
brazing, which involve melting a lower-meltingpoint material between the workpieces to form a
bond between them, without melting the
hazardous undertaking and precautions are
required to avoid burns, electric shock, vision
damage, inhalation of poisonous gases and
fumes, and exposure to intense ultraviolet
Until the end of the 19th century, the
only welding process was forge welding, which
blacksmiths had used for centuries to join iron
and steel by heating and hammering. Arc
welding and oxyfuel welding were among the first
processes to develop late in the century,
and electric resistance welding followed soon
after. Welding technology advanced quickly
during the early 20th century as World War I and
World War II drove the demand for reliable and
inexpensive joining methods. Following the wars,
several modern welding techniques were
like shielded metal arc welding, now one of the
most popular welding methods, as well as semiautomatic and automatic processes such as gas
metal arc welding, submerged arc welding, fluxcored arc welding and electroslag welding.
Developments continued with the invention
of laser beam welding, electron beam
welding and friction stir welding in the latter half
of the century. Today, the science continues to
advance. Robot welding is commonplace in
industrial settings, and researchers continue to
develop new welding methods and gain greater
understanding of weld quality
Many different energy sources can be
used for welding, including a gas flame,
an electric arc, a laser, an electron beam, friction,
and ultrasound. While often an industrial process,
welding may be performed in many different
environments, including open air, under water
and in outer space. Welding is a potentially
whereby a filler metal is heated above melting
point and distributed between two or more closefitting parts by capillary action. The filler metal is
brought slightly above its melting (liquidus)
temperature while protected by a suitable
atmosphere, usually a flux. It then flows over the
base metal (known as wetting) and is then cooled
to join the workpieces together. It is similar
to soldering, except the temperatures used to
melt the filler metal are higher.
A variety of alloys are used as filler metals
for brazing depending on the intended use or
application method. In general, braze alloys are
made up of 3 or more metals to form an alloy
with the desired properties. The filler metal for a
particular application is chosen based on its
ability to: wet the base metals, withstand the
service conditions required, and melt at a lower
temperature than the base metals or at a very
specific temperature. Some of the more common
types of filler metals used are
electricity along the copper for keeping
underground pipes warm in cold climates.
A fastener is
a hardware device
mechanically joins or affixes two or more objects
together. Fasteners can also be used to close a
container such as a bag, a box, or an envelope; or
they may involve keeping together the sides of an
opening of flexible material, attaching a lid to a
container, etc. There are also special-purpose
closing devices, e.g. a bread clip. Fasteners used
in these manners are often temporary, in that
they may be fastened and unfastened repeatedly.
Some types of woodworking joints make
use of separate internal reinforcements, such
as dowels or biscuits, which in a sense can be
considered fasteners within the scope of the joint
system, although on their own they are not
general purpose fasteners.
Cast iron "welding"
The "welding" of cast iron is usually a
brazing operation, with a filler rod made chiefly
of nickel being used although true welding with
cast iron rods is also available. Ductile cast iron
pipe may be also "cadwelded," a process which
connects joints by means of a small copper wire
fused into the iron when previously ground down
to the bare metal, parallel to the iron joints being
formed as per hub pipe with neoprene gasket
seals. The purpose behind this operation is to use
Items like a rope, string, wire (e.g. metal
wire, possibly coated with plastic, or multiple
parallel wires kept together by a plastic strip
coating), cable, chain, or plastic wrap may be
used to mechanically join objects; but are not
generally categorized as fasteners because they
Likewise, hinges and springs may join objects
together, but are ordinarily not considered
fasteners because their primary purpose is to
allow articulation rather than rigid affixment.
There are three major steel fasteners used
in industries: stainless steel, carbon steel,
and alloy steel. The major grade used in stainless