Booklet t2 2013


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Booklet t2 2013

  1. 1. 3rd. Edition Booklet Technical English 2 Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala Engineering School Discover the Technical English Office T-4 building, 2nd. Floor English Department
  2. 2. Estudiantes de la Facultad de Ingeniería Conscientes del vertiginoso avance de la globalización nos damos cuenta de la necesidad de mantener una comunicación adecuada en el comercio, industria y mercadotecnia dentro de nuestra sociedad y considerando el desarrollo de competencias adecuado, se ha construido un novedoso programa para contribuir a que la Gloriosa Tricentenaria Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala se mantenga con ese alto nivel que la ha distinguido durante años. Este proyecto nació a principios del año 2008 con el afán de lograr que todo estudiante egresado de la Facultad de Ingeniería tenga conocimiento de Inglés Técnico para poder aplicarlo tanto en sus estudios como en su desempeño profesional. Demostrando que hoy y siempre SOMOS LOS LIDERES de la ingeniería y pioneros en el cumplimiento de las necesidades de formación de nuestros profesionales, dedicamos este trabajo a todos aquellos estudiantes a quienes les interese mejorar competentemente la aplicación de los procedimientos de ingeniería y tengan el deseo de aprender nuevas técnicas desarrollando habilidades que constantemente expanden la efectividad y campos de aplicación de Ingeniería. Esta primera edición de este folleto fue creado para cumplir y llenar los requisitos del programa cuyo objetivo es contribuir a la preparación integral para llenar de los perfiles de los profesionales de hoy. Logrando el cambio propuesto. ING. MURPHY OLIMPO PAIZ RECINOS DECANO
  3. 3. Students of Engineering School Conscious of the vertiginous advance of the globalization we realize the necessity to maintain an adapted communication in commerce, industry and marketing research within our society and considering the development of appropriated competences, we have developed a novel program to contribute that the Glorious Tricentennial University of San Carlos of Guatemala stays with that high level that has distinguished it during years. This project started the first semester 2008 with the eagerness to obtain that all withdrawn students of the Faculty of Engineering have knowledge of Technical English, becoming it a necessity that the students apply this knowledge in their studies as in their professional performance. Demonstrating that today and always WE ARE LEADERS of engineering, pioneers in the fulfilment of the necessities of formation of our professionals, we present to all students who, by their competent application of engineering procedures and their readiness to learn new techniques and to develop skills that constantly expand the effectiveness and fields of application of engineering. The First Edition of this booklet was created to carry out and to fill the requirements of the program which objective is to contribute to the integral preparation of the students in order to fill the profiles of nowadays professionals. Reaching goals through change. MURPHY OLIMPO PAIZ RECINOS ENGINEERING SCHOOL DEAN
  4. 4. AWARENESS / ACKNOWLEDGMENT Information contained in this work has been obtained by gathering information from sources believed to be reliable. However, neither the sites or the authors guarantees the accuracy or completeness of any information published herein and neither the Technical Language Area not its assistants shall be responsible for any errors, omissions, or damages arising out of use of this information. This work is gathered with the understanding that the topics are supplying information but are not attempting to render engineering or other professional services. If such services are required, the assistance of an appropriate professional should be sought.
  5. 5. PREFACE The third edition of the Technical English Booklet was collected as a guide to fulfill the objectives proposed in the restructuring of the curriculum of the course. This new curriculum was developed by Engineer Soraya Martínez with the help of the different contributors that has worked as teachers and assistants of the area. Each of the assistants has a different specialization in the field of engineering, so it helped to work in a multidisciplinary environment. After it was finished, it was reviewed and authorized by the Board of Directors of the Engineering School who decided to implement the new curriculum since the first semester 2008. It is advice to make a revision every two years, and thanks to the flexibility of the program, it will allow to make different changes in the themes studied. It has been interesting to look at the real applications this new curriculum can lead. It wakes up the creativity, reasoning, and awareness of development in different areas of engineering. It is done through problem solving proposed in classes and developed in their field of work, enhancing engineering techniques.
  6. 6. SYLLABUS AND APPROACH The technical English booklet uses high interest themes to integrate speaking, grammar, vocabulary, pronunciation, listening, reading, and writing. There is a strong focus on both accuracy and fluency. It includes real life situation that leads to a meaningful learning. THEMES The themes were selected based in the analysis of the curriculum of each career, and selecting the courses in common. The Booklet No. I covers the basic sciences or the common area. The Booklets No. II and III cover the courses of the mid term curriculum, it means the courses of the fourth, fifth and sixth semester. The Booklet IV covers courses of the professional areas specially the ones focused to the Administrative Bachelor which is proposed to the different careers in the school. GRAMMAR Every theme is organized around grammatical topics. It is tried to present grammar in context. VOCABULARY This section includes new technical words that the students have to learn for each reading. SPEAKING It includes lectures, technical language from various contexts. Listening strategies that include summarizing main ideas, making inferences, give opinions. LISTENING The listening activities are selected according to the different topics covered in this booklet.
  7. 7. READING It emphasizes reading strategies such as skimming, scanning, guessing meaning from context, understanding the structure and organization of a text, increasing reading speed. WRITING It helps to use correct form and mechanics, use coherent structure, edition, and revision to create a final draft. TO THE TEACHERS It is important for teachers to adapt the course materials to the needs, interest, and learning styles of their students. Assessment must be done through oral quizzes, written quizzes and development of projects.
  8. 8. ECOLOGY SPEAKING A. Discuss this questions:  What is Ecology?  Which responsibilities does it imply?  What should be known about it?  Is Global Warming related to Ecology? Explain.  Mention some keywords related to Ecology. READING B. Guess the answers of the following quiz.  Ecology is the study of environmental systems  Physiological ecology non-living parts of the world both The discipline that has as objective to follow the energy and material used throughout the process of fabrication in order to improve the efficiency of manufacturing is Manufacturing Ecology  Evolutionary ecology Ecology includes the analysis and study of living parts of the world  both The area of ecology that focuses on attempting to understand how natural selection develop the structure and function of the organism and ecosystems is Ecosystems ecology  the economy of nature Industrial Ecology Processes Which is the principal objective of most ecologists ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 1
  9. 9. C. Read and check your previous answers. How well did you do? ECOLOGY 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Ecology is the study of environmental systems, or as it is sometimes called, the economy of nature. "Environmental" usually means relating to the natural, versus human-made world; the "systems" means that ecology is, by its very nature, not interested in just the components of nature individually but especially in how the parts interact. The subject matter of ecology is normally divided onto four broad categories or levels: Physiological Ecology, having to do with the response of single species to environmental conditions such as temperature or light; Population Ecology, usually focusing on the abundance and distribution of individual species and the factors that cause such distribution; Community Ecology, having to do with the number of species found at given location and their interactions; and Ecosystems Ecology, having to do with the structure and function of the entire suite of microbes, plants, and animals, and their abiotic environment, and how the parts interact to generate the whole. It often focuses on the energy and nutrient flows of ecosystems, and when this approach is combined with computer analysis and simulation we often call it systems ecology. Evolutionary ecology, which may operate at any of these levels but most commonly at the physiological or population level, is a rich and dynamic area of ecology focusing on attempting to understand how natural selection developed the structure and function of the organisms and ecosystems at any of these levels. 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 Ecology is usually considered from the perspective of the specific geographic environment that is being studied at the moment: tropical rain forest, temperate grassland, arctic tundra, benthic marine, the entire biosphere, and so on. The subject matter of ecology is the entire natural world, including both the living and the non living parts. Biogeography focuses on the observed distribution of plants and animals and the reasons behind it. More recently ecology has included increasingly the human-dominated world of agriculture, grazing lands for domestic animals, cities, and even industrial parks. Industrial ecology is a discipline that has recently been developed, especially in Europe, where the objective is to follow the energy and material use throughout the process of, e.g., making an automobile with the objective of attempting to improve the material and energy efficiency of manufacturing. For any of these levels or approaches there are some scientists that focus on theoretical ecology, which attempts to derive or apply theoretical or sometimes mathematical reasons and generalities for what is observed in nature, and empirical ecology, which is concerned principally with measurement. Applied ecology takes what is found from one or both of these approaches and uses it to protect or manage nature in some way. Related to this discipline is conservation biology. Plant ecology, animal ecology, and microbial ecology have obvious foci. 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 Ecology should be more than just a set of ideas and principles that one might learn in a classroom or book but rather more a way of looking at the world which emphasizes the assessment and understanding of how the pieces fit together, how each influences and is influenced by the other pieces and how the whole operates in ways not really predictable from them. When we are lucky we are able to capture these relations in conceptual, mathematical or, increasingly, computer models that allow us some sense of truly understanding the great complexity of nature, including as it is impacted by human activity. This is the goal of most ecologists. 2
  10. 10. D. From the previous text identify what the words italicized refer to. LINE WORD 1 LINE WORD it 21 it 3 its 27 which 8 such 29 which 9 their 30 these 10 their 30 it 11 It 31 this 13 it 36 them 13 these 38 it E. REFERS TO REFERS TO Read the text. POLLUTION There are 6 (six) types of pollution that are going to be discussed in this site, namely air, water, noise, land, radioactive, and thermal pollution. AIR POLLUTION     Air pollution is the introduction of particles that contaminates the composition of compounds in the atmosphere, this situation can be created by: Excess emission of gases/vapors into atmosphere Saturation of chemical compounds/particulates Rate of dissipation < (smaller than) rate of absorption through various cycles (i.e. Carbon and nitrogen cycle) Emergence of new chemical reactions of reactive and non-biodegradable compounds. Global warming, acid rain, smog, ozone depletion are some effects of air pollution. The 3 major sources that lead to air pollution are the following:  Motor vehicle exhaust  Heat and power generation facilities  Industrial processes  Auto manufacturing  Fertilizers plants  Building demolition  Solid waste disposal  Solvent evaporation  Volcanic eruption  Fuel production  Roadway construction  Electrical components manufacturing  Extraction of metals  Forest fires WATER POLLUTION Water pollution is contamination of water by foreign matter that deteriorates the quality of the water. Water pollution covers pollutions in liquid forms like ocean pollution and river pollution. As the term applies, liquid pollution occurs in the oceans, lakes, streams, rivers, underground water and bays, in short liquid-containing areas. It involves the release of toxic substances, pathogenic
  11. 11. germs, substances that require much oxygen to decompose, easy-soluble substances, radioactivity, etc. that become deposited upon the bottom and their accumulations will interfere with the condition of aquatic ecosystems. For example, the eutrophication: lack of oxygen in a water body caused by excessive algae growths because of enrichment of pollutants. Water Cycle and Pollution Water cycle is, simply saying, the circulation of water in earth. In fact, the water in the earth's biosphere is used and reused again and again. This is called water cycle or continuous movement of water between the earth and the atmosphere. It involves the following mechanisms:  Evaporation: changing of water from liquid to gas  Transpiration: Release of water vapor from plant leaves  Condensation: Changing of vapor to liquid (cooled down)  Precipitation: Water that returns to the earth (water droplets in clouds become large enough and there comes the rain). In a small scale, both inorganic and organic pollutants safely decompose throughout the stream, their concentration decrease in the sea, and they don't harm the sea ecosystem and its distribution. But in an excessive scale, communities in beach and estuary will be affected by the pollutants, and can heavily harm them. Sources and Methods We can classify major sources that lead to water pollution to the following categories:  Petroleum products  Synthetic agricultural chemicals  Heavy metals  Hazardous wastes  Excess organic matter  Sediment  Infectious organisms  Air pollution  Thermal pollution  Soil pollution SOIL POLLUTION What's the relation of water cycle and pollution? According to the water cycle, naturally, water around us will be absorbed to the land (soil) and rivers will stream from the upstream to the downstream and released to the sea. In normal situation organic pollutants are biodegraded by microbes and converted to a form that brings benefits to the aquatic life. And for the inorganic pollutants, in the same situation, don't bring to much hazards because they are widely dispersed and have almost no effect to the environment which they are released to. 4 Revered to as soil pollution, land pollution involves the following mechanism:  Deposition of solid waste  Accumulation of non-biodegradable materials  Toxification of chemicals into poisons  Alteration of soil chemical composition (imbalance of chemical equilibrium to soil medium) Causes The causes for such devastation are generally due to 2 (two) forms of malpractices:  Unhealthy soil management methods;
  12. 12. Non-maintenance of a proper supply of organic matter in the soil from the imbalance composition of the reserves of organic matter especially nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur unplenished supply after cultivation of vegetation, living the soil prone to soil infertility, unable to stabilize the soil physicality which ultimately let to desertification Irregular maintenance of a proper nutrient supply of trace elements gives rise to the use of excessive synthetic fertilizers, which are non biodegradable and accumulate in the soil system which eventually destroys useful organisms such as bacteria, fungi and other organisms Improper maintenance of the correct soil acidity which ultimately disrupt the adaptation of various crops and native vegetation of different soils as the solubility of minerals present will be affected. In a more acidic soil, minerals tend to be more soluble and washed away during rainfall while alkaline soil, minerals are more insoluble which form complex minerals unable to be absorbed into the flora system physiological usage.  Improper irrigation practices; Poorly drained soil result in salt deposits leading to high soil salinity that inhibit plant growth and may lead to crop failure Unirrigated land giving rise to stagnation of agriculture waste products whichaccumulates and increases land toxicity and also decreasing Irregular irrigation leads to decreasing moisturization of land for soil medium and replenishments of solvents for minerals We can classify major sources that lead to land pollution to the following categories:  Agriculture  Mining and quarrying  Sewage sludge  Dredged spoils  Household  Demolitions and constructions  Industrial NOISE POLLUTION This particular pollution is ever increasing with due to the rise in the utilization of heavy duty machineries of industrial facilities and vehicles, synonymous to the increase in the standard of living in most countries. We make sounds practically every seconds of our day, but to the extend it has reached an unfavorable high intensity which had cause many disturbances and irritation to others emotionally that has adverse effects on our daily activities. Noise levels can be measured by decibel method: Decibel - one tenth of a bel where one bel represents a difference in level between two intensities I1, I0 where one is ten times greater than the other. Thus, the intensity level is the comparison of one intensity to another and may be expressed: Sources and Methods 5 Intensity level = 10 log10 (I1/I0) (dB)
  13. 13. For instance, the difference between intensities of 10-8watts/m2 and 10-4 watts/m2, an actual difference of 10,000 units, can be expressed as a difference of 4 bels or 40 decibels. These are the few examples of threshold decibels of noises made: Threshold of hearing 0 dB Rustling leaves Quiet whisper (3 feet) Quiet home Quiet street Normal conversation Inside car Loud singing (3 feet) 20 dB 30 dB 40 dB 50 dB 60 dB 70 dB 75 dB Automobile (25 feet) Motorcycle (30 feet 94 dB Diesel truck (30 feet) 100 dB Power mower (3 feet) 107 dB Pneumatic riveter (3 feet) 115 dB Chainsaw (3 feet) 117 dB Amplified Rock and Roll (6 feet) Jet plane (100 feet) 120 dB 130 dB Nuclear energy is a form of energy that’s released by the splitting of atoms. Since scientists have found a way to make use of the energy, it has also been used to generate electricity. Nuclear energy has been recognized as a clean energy because it doesn’t release pollutants such as CO2 to the atmosphere after its reaction that could damage our environment. It's also known that nuclear energy has reduced the amount of greenhouse gas emission, reducing emissions of CO2 for about 500 million metric tons of carbon. 90 dB Subway (inside) The 40's was the era where the first nuclear bomb is being developed, and that's why it's called the nuclear era. However, nuclear energy has already researched back since 1900. Nuclear era reached its greatest peak in the world war, by showing its massive ability of destroying things. 80 dB 88 dB Food blender (3 feet) RADIOACTIVE POLLUTION Sources and Methods We can classify major sources that lead to noise pollution to the following categories:  Road traffic noise  Air traffic  Rail traffic  Neighborhood and domestic noise  Incompatible land use  Industrial noises 6 Despite the advantage of nuclear as a clean energy, the big concern is the waste resulted from nuclear reaction, which is a form of pollution, called radioactivity. Radioactivity is a form of radiation (a form of energy that travels through space). Some elements in this world are naturally radioactive while some others are made to be. Radioactivity is emitted when a radioactive element become unstable and begin to decay in the attempt to regain their molecular stability. When an element decays, it emits energy and small particles. If it’s still radioactive, it will repeat the process, until it finally regains its molecular stability and stop decaying. The time that it takes for half way of decaying process is called half-life, and this differs for each radioactive element. It possibly takes up to 4.5 billion years (Uranium 238) and as short as 8 days (Iodine 131). This process constantly remains, not considering external factors such as pressure or temperature. This process is expressed in units
  14. 14. called becquerels. One becquerel is equal to one disintegration of nuclei per second. There are commonly three types of radiation, namely:  Alpha particles, can be blocked by a piece of paper and human skin.  Beta particles can penetrate through skin, while can be blocked by some pieces of glass and metal.  Gamma rays can penetrate easily to human skin and damage cells on its way through, reaching far, and can only be blocked by a very thick, strong, massive piece of concrete. Sources and Methods We can classify major sources that lead to radioactive pollution to the following categories:  Nuclear power plants  Nuclear weapon  Transportation  Disposal of nuclear waste  Uranium mining 7 THERMAL POLLUTION This has become an increasing and the most current pollution, owing to the increasing call of globalization everywhere. Heat produced from industries is a major contribution to the pollution, much to the operation of the heavy industries which produces high amount of heat energy. Measurements of atmospheric temperature are done by meteorological center of the weather forecast annually, and the graph to detect the temperature trend from a period of 10 years will be compared with the previous batch of period. Thus we may be able to know the rate of temperature increase overall and make reference to the standard level of heat that should be maintain in the atmosphere to avoid large deviation of heat in the system. Sources and Methods We can classify major sources that lead to thermal pollution to the following categories:  Power plants creating electricity from fossil fuel  Water as a cooling agent in industrial facilities  Deforestation of the shoreline  Soil erosion
  15. 15. F. Match the methods of contamination of water with their sources Sources a. b. c. d. e. f. g. Excess Organic Matter Hazardous wastes Heavy metals Infectious Organisms Petroleum Products Sediments Synthetic Agricultural Chemicals Methods __________ Accidental spills from ships, tanker trucks, pipelines and leaky underground storage tanks. __________ Accumulation of chemicals in plants and animals when die. __________ __________ Emission of oxides of lead from tractors and machineries used during mining or in industries which dissolves in water Improper refinery processes with the production of toxic byproducts __________ Improper storage of heavy metals in storage containers __________ Improper treatment of waste which are still toxic upon release Leak pipelines __________ __________ __________ G. Old and faulty machineries in industrial factories which are inefficient Stimulate algae growth and during decomposition of algae Unfiltered industrial discharge which flows into water sources Read the text. GLOBAL WARMING There is little doubt that the planet is warming. Over the last century, the planets temperature has risen by around 1 degree Fahrenheit (0.6 of a degree Celsius). The warmest since the mid 1800’s was the 1990s. The hottest years recorded were 1997, 1998, 2001, 2002, 2003. The United Nations panel on climate change projects that the global temperatures will rise 3-10 degrees Fahrenheit by the century’s end, enough to have the polar caps melted. If the ice caps melt, a vast majority of our countries borders will be under water. Monuments and great buildings, as well as homes and lives will be under water, including New York City. 8
  16. 16. How can we do to help save the planet? The answer is simpler than you may think. You don’t have to go miles away from home to protest, or spend masses of money. If you try to follow the few simple steps that I shall now give you, you will have started to help us all. Firstly, plant a tree; this could be easier than it sounds. Trees, when fully grown, will help keep the planet cooler. Something as simple as walking instead of taking the car will help reduce pollution. As well as stopping pollution, you are giving yourself exercise, something important for our bodies. So the next time you get into your car, or your motorbike, think – do I have to make this journey by vehicle or can I walk?- When you are at home, and your getting a little cold, only put a jumper on and do not adjust the heating. The extra heat produced by our homes also affects the planet. So try wearing an extra layer in winter. If possible use solar energy, after all it is free; all you need to buy is the equipment. You can get much of your hot water and heating from the sun and even generate electricity. Reduce, reuse and recycle; only buy what you need; reuse whatever you can, like containers and paper, and recycle what you cannot reuse. It really is as simple as that. Finally turning off unused sources of power such as televisions and heaters will help the environment, as well as save you money. If everybody stuck to these rules, we would be doing a great thing by protecting the earth. So please take into consideration what I have written and try to do your part. After all, it will be our next generation that will feel the effects. H. Answer the following questions:  Is the passage describing the Global Warming? _______________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________  Which is the principal objective of the passage? ______________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ VOCABULARY I. Look up the following words:  Abiotic ________________________________________________________________  Benthic ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________  Ecosystem ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________  Grazing lands ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________  Microbe ________________________________________________________________  Pollution ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________  Projects ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________  Sewage ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________  9 Temperate ________________________________________________________________
  17. 17. J. Read the following sentences. Complete each sentence with one of the words in the box. biodiversity sewage pollutants deforestation contamination reservoirs morbidity streams habitat species Air Pollution Ecotoxicology tillage sedimentation temperature  _________________ is the environmental science sub-discipline that melds the fields of ecology and toxicology.  _________________ is the introduction of chemicals, particulate matter, or microscopic organisms into the atmosphere; in particular, when concentrations of those substances cause adverse metabolic change to humans or other species.  The most common and widespread air _________________ include carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and particulate matter.  Indoor air pollution is a significant source of human death and disease —mortality and _________________— through indoor burning of wood and charcoal (especially in developing countries), tobacco smoking, radon trapping and a host of chemical substances found in paints, printing supplies and cleaning products.  Thermal pollution is the act of altering the _________________ of a natural water body, which may be a river, lake or ocean environment.  The concept is most frequently discussed in the context of elevating natural water temperature, but may also be caused by the release of cooler water from the base of _________________ into warmer rivers.  Elevated river temperatures can also arise from _________________ or urbanization that can reduce _________________.  There can be significant environmental consequences of thermal pollution with respect to surface receiving waters such as rivers and lakes; in particular, decrease in _________________ and creation of an environment hospitable to alien aquatic species may occur.  An alien species is an organism that finds itself in a new geographic location or _________________. Many of these species arrive in the new location due to inadvertent human activities such as shipping or agriculture, although many are purposefully introduced for food cultivation or for attempts (usually misguided) at ecological intervention.  Water pollution is the _________________ of natural water bodies by chemical, physical, radioactive or pathogenic microbial substances. 10
  18. 18.  Widespread consequences of water pollution upon ecosystems include _________________ mortality, biodiversity reduction and loss of ecosystem services.  Some water pollution may occur from natural causes such as _________________ from severe rainfall events; however, natural causes, including volcanic eruptions and algae blooms from natural causes constitute a minute amount of the instances of worldwide water pollution.  The most problematic of water pollutants are microbes that induce disease, since their sources may be construed as natural, but a preponderance of these instances result from human intervention in the environment (such as discharge of raw _________________) or human overpopulation phenomena.  One of the chief causes of water pollution is agricultural activity where _________________ practices, fertilizer, pesticide and herbicide use create massive amounts of sedimentation and chemical discharge to natural waters. EXTENDING SKILLS K. Activity 1  Are you concern about global warming?   L. How do you help the planet? Do you and your family classify garbage at home? Activity 1  Study the following reading WASTING WATER Water is one of the earth’s most valuable resources, and conservation of water is necessary. By saving water you can help protect wildlife that live in rivers and wetlands as the more water that is used in our homes, the less there is available in rivers, lakes and wetlands. For example, when water levels in rivers fall, food sources for birds can be lost, and oxygen levels can fall dangerously low for fish. In 2005, groundwater levels were lower than they have been for 20 years. The energy impact with the use of water is also high as heating water accounts for a lot of the energy used in homes, so the more water used, the more energy that is needed. Saving water at home does not require any significant cost outlay; in fact you save money when you and your family save water. For saving water inside the house you can check your faucets, pipes and toilet for leaks; these leaks can waste about 20 gallons of water per day. Take shorter showers and turn off the water when soaping and after that turn it back on to rinse. It is not necessary to keep the water running while brushing your teeth, Just wet your brush and fill a glass for mouth rinsing. Use your dishwasher and clothes washer for only full loads. Water conservation at home is one of the 11
  19. 19. easiest measures to put in place, and saving water should become part of everyday family practice. It comes naturally when everyone in the family is aware of its importance, take the time to teach children these simple water-saving methods around the home and you will make a big difference.  What is the main purpose of these paragraphs? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________  How many sentences are there in the first paragraph? _________________________________  How many sentences are there in the second paragraph? ______________________________  How many sentences or clauses are in imperative form? _______________________________  Underline the subject of each sentence.  Highlight each verb in the paragraphs. How many modal verbs are there? ________________  In the 2nd sentence of paragraph 1, which is the principal verb? _________________________  How many gerunds are there in the paragraphs? _____________________________________  How many of these gerunds are being used as subjects? _______________________________  What tense is the passage mainly written in? _________________________________________  What type of reading is it? ______ _________________________________________________ GLOSSARY Abiotic Ecotoxicology Pollution Air pollution Enviroment Population ecology Air Pollution Evolutionary ecology Projects Alien species Global Warming Projects Applied ecology Grazing lands Radioactive Pollution Benthic Industrial ecology Sewage Biogeography Microbe Soil Pollution Community ecology Morbidity Temperate Ecology Noise Pollution Thermal Pollution Ecosystem ecology Physiological ecology Tillage Ecosystems Pollutants Water pollution 12
  20. 20. MATERIALS SCIENCE “The properties of any material depend not only on what it's made of, but also how the atoms and molecules within it are arranged.” SPEAKING A. Discuss this questions:  What are materials?  Where do we obtain materials?  What is Material Science?  Which are the forms of the matter?  What is an atom?  Which is the difference between metals and ceramics? VOCABULARY Match the following words with its definition. 1. Atomic Structure Anything that has weight and that takes up space. 2. Molecule Solid, Liquid, Gas 3. Atom It is the smallest particle of matter that retains the same properties of that matter. 4. Element This substance can be broken down into two or more simpler substances. 5. Matter It is the smallest part of a substance that retains the same properties of that substance and cannot be broken down any further. 6. Forms of Matter It is the smallest particle of an element which retains the distinct structure characteristic of an element. 7. Compound Substance The free atom is composed of electrons, protons, and neutrons. 13
  21. 21. READING B. Read the following passage. WHAT IS MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING? Materials have been central to the growth, prosperity, security, and quality of life of humans since the beginning of history. Only in the last 25 years, and especially in the last decade, has the intellectual foundation of the field that we call materials science and engineering begun to take shape and to achieve recognition. This has occurred just as the field itself is expanding greatly and contributing significantly to society. Without new materials and their efficient production, our world of modern devices, machines, computers, automobiles, aircraft, communication equipment, and structural products could not exist. Materials scientists and engineers will continue to be at the forefront of these and other areas of science and engineering in the service of society as they achieve new levels of understanding and control of the basic building blocks of materials: atoms, molecules, crystals, and noncrystalline arrays. WHAT ARE MATERIALS, EXACTLY? That's a big question - because materials are the basic substances that make up, well, you name it! Materials can be natural - like wood, or human-made - like plastic. There are now about 300,000 different known materials (if you named one every second, it would take you more than three whole days and nights just to get through the list!). And as materials scientists create and combine materials in new ways, the number's almost infinite. Most materials fit into a few big, general categories: Metals Whole periods of human civilization - such as the Bronze and Iron ages - are named for metals. These were the first materials to be "engineered," that is, people changed them to fit what they needed to do, rather than just letting their natural properties determine what they could be used for. These days, materials scientists are using metals in ways no one could have pictured even a few years ago - for example, shaping copper into tiny wires a thousand times skinnier than a strand of your hair! Ceramics Think about a china teapot - that's one type of ceramic. But ceramics can also be used to create bone and tooth replacements, super-strong cutting tools, or to conduct electricity. With the addition of oxygen or nitrogen, metals become ceramics, too. Semiconductors One of these materials - silicon - is making it possible for you to read these words right now! That's because silicon is the essential material in an electronic computer chip. "Semiconductor" means a material can conduct electricity with a bit of help in the form of added "impurities." Your CD, DVD player, and telephone - all depend on semiconductors. Polymers Polymers are just very big molecules made of smaller molecules linked together into long, repeating chains. You may not know it, but you're in touch with polymers every day more than any other kind of material. Rubber bands are made of polymers, so are paints and every kind of plastic. And by the way, most of the food you eat is made of natural polymers! 14
  22. 22. Composites Composites are combinations of materials, which can be as simple as concrete reinforced with steel bars or as leading edge as an ultralight, carbon-fiber bicycle. The places where different materials meet - the "interfaces" - often produce new properties that are radically different, and better, than those in any single material. Biomaterials Every part of your body is a material! Bone, muscles, fingernails, hair, and skin are all examples of different types of materials found in your body with remarkable properties that help you survive - from keeping you upright, and protecting you from heat or cold, to cutting and grinding your food. Some scientists try to mimic nature's designs to create materials for other uses, such as using the foam structure of bone as an inspiration for designing materials that are lightweight and strong. Exotic and Strange Materials Materials scientists are discovering and creating entirely new types of materials - such as buckyballs and nanotubes, which are very tiny spheres or cylinders made of carbon atoms. Then there are aerogels, which are extremely lightweight porous materials made almost entirely of air! Nanotechnology is taking materials science into a new dimension, as scientists create new materials atom-by-atom and moleculeby-molecule - leading to properties and performance never before imagined. C. Answer the following questions, investigate if it is necessary. 1. When did the materials science started to be recognize? _______________________________________________________________________________ 2. Why is important to study materials science in your career? _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ 3. Are new materials helping to the development of technology? Explain your answer. _______________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ 4. Mention at least 5 types of metals _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ 5. According to your experience, which is the principal characteristic of ceramics? ______________________________________________________________________________ 6. Additionally to the silicon, which other semiconductor is used to fabricate electronic devices. _______________________________________________________________________________ 15
  23. 23. 7. Mention five everyday products made with polymers. _____________________________________________________________________________ 8. Why biomaterials are important nowadays? _____________________________________________________________________________ LISTENING D. Watch the videos in these links and answer the questions 1. What is materials science according to Dr. Ross?_____________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ 2. What are boats made of? _______________________________________________________ 3. What do materials scientists do? _________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ READING E. Read the following topic MATERIAL STRUCTURE All matter is considered to be composed of unit substances known as chemical elements. These are the smallest units that are distinguishable on the basis of their chemical activity and physical properties. The elements are composed of atoms which have distinct structure characteristic of each element. An atom consists of a minute positively charged nucleus surrounded by a sufficient number of electrons (negative charges) to keep the atom as a whole neutral. The electron and proton have equal but opposite electrical charge, so the neutral atom 16 must contain an equal number of electrons and protons. ATOMIC BONDS There are two types of bonds: Primary Bonds: Primary bonds are the strongest bonds which hold atoms together. The three types of primary bonds are:
  24. 24. Metallic Bonds: In a metal, the outer electrons are shared among all the atoms in the solid. Each atom gives up its outer electrons and becomes slightly positively charged. The negatively charged electrons hold the metal atoms together. Since the electrons are free to move, they lead to good thermal and electrical conductivity. Covalent Bonds: Some atoms like to share electrons to complete their outer shells. Each pair of shared atoms is called a covalent bond. Ionic Bonds: Atoms like to have a filled outer shell of electrons. Sometimes, by transferring electrons from one atom to another, electron shells are filled. The donor atom will take a positive charge, and the acceptor will have a negative charge. The charged atoms or ions will be attracted to each other, and form bonds. Secondary Bonds: Secondary bonds are much weaker than primary bonds. They often provide a "weak link" for deformation or fracture. Examples for secondary bonds are: Hydrogen Bonds: Hydrogen bonds are common in covalently bonded molecules which contain hydrogen, such as water (H2O). Van der Waals Bonds: Van der Waals bonds are very weak compared to other types of bonds. These bonds are especially important in noble gases which are cooled to very low temperatures. PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS MECHANICAL PROPERTIES Describe how the material supports applied forces, including forces of tension, compression, impact, cyclic fatigue, or forces at high 17 temperatures. Then you mention are defined below:  Toughness: The property of certain materials to withstand, without deforming or breaking sudden efforts that apply to them.  Flexibility: It consists in the ability of some materials to recover their shape and size of primitive when it ceases the effort that had given deformation.  Hardness: The resistance a material opposes the penetration.  Fragility: A material is brittle when broken easily by the action of a shock.  Plasticity: Ability of some solid material to acquire permanent deformation under the action of an external force or pressure without rupture. The above mechanical properties are measured accurately by mechanical tests:  Test drive: Provides a rough idea of the tenacity and elasticity of a material.  Hardness Testing: allows knowing the hardness of the material.  Testing Shock: The practice allows us to know the fragility and tenacity of a material.  Testing technology: They show the features of plasticity that has a material to carry out his forge, bending, stamping, etc. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES Rely on the structure and material processing. Describe features such as color, electrical or thermal conductivity, magnetic and optical behavior, usually not altered by force acting on the material. They can be divided into electrical, magnetic and optical. Physical properties of matter are categorized as either Intensive or Extensive:
  25. 25.   Mass - A measurement of the amount of matter in a object (grams).  Intensive - Properties that do not depend on the amount of the matter present.  Color Weight - A measurement of the gravitational force of attraction of the earth acting on an object.  Odor  Luster - How shiny a substance is.  Malleability - The ability of a substance to be beaten into thin sheets.  Volume - A measurement of the amount of space a substance occupies.  Ductility - The ability of a substance to be drawn into thin wires.  Length  Conductivity - The ability of a substance to allow the flow of energy or electricity.  Hardness - How easily a substance can be scratched.  Boiling Point - The temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid is equal to the pressure on the liquid (generally atmospheric pressure).  Reactivity: It is when two substances cause any reaction together, when a reaction happen you can see bubbling, fizzing, color change; but it can create sound, light, color or heat. Reactivity can be created mixing a element with oxygen, water or acid. Density - The mass of a substance divided by its volume   These describe the substances and their abiolity to change into a new substance with different properties.  Flammability: Ability to burn. Melting/Freezing Point - The temperature at which the solid and liquid phases of a substance are in equilibrium at atmospheric pressure.  CHEMICAL PROPERTIES Extensive - Properties that do depend on the amount of matter present. F. Prepare a summary of the previous reading. G. Write the name of 2 materials that present the following properties.  Toughness __________________________________________________________  Flexibility: __________________________________________________________  Hardness: __________________________________________________________  Fragility: __________________________________________________________  Plasticity: __________________________________________________________  Ductility: __________________________________________________________  Malleability: __________________________________________________________ 18
  26. 26.  H. Flammability: __________________________________________________________ Select a material and describe their physical properties.  Material __________________________________________________________  Color __________________________________________________________  Odor __________________________________________________________  Luster __________________________________________________________  Malleability __________________________________________________________  Ductility __________________________________________________________  Conductivity __________________________________________________________  Hardness __________________________________________________________  Melting/Freezing Point ___________________________________________________  Boiling Point __________________________________________________________  Density __________________________________________________________ GLOSSARY Atom Ductility Melting Point Atomic Bond Element Metallic Bond Atomic Structure Flammability Metals Biomaterial Flexibility Molecule Boiling Point Fragility Plasticity Bond Hardness Polymer Ceramics Hydrogen Bond Reactivity Composite Ionic Bond Semiconductor Compound Substance Length Toughness Conductivity Malleability Van der Waals Bond Covalent Bond Mass Volume Density Matter Weight 19
  27. 27. THERMODYNAMICS SPEAKING A. Discuss the following  Why are radiators important in vehicles?  What’s the function of the ozono layer in the atmosphere?  How does a microwave works?  How is chicken soup made?  What happen if I leave a bowl with water in the open air in a really sunny day? READING / WRITING B. Look and study the following notes. Thermodynamics is a physical science that studies the effects on material bodies, and on radiation in regions of space, of transfer of heat and of work done on or by the bodies or radiation. It interrelates macrosqcopic variables, such as temperature, volume and pressure, which describe physical properties of material bodies and radiation, which in this science are called thermodynamic systems. Historically, thermodynamics developed out of a desire to increase the efficiency of early steam engines, particularly through the work of French physicist Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot (1824) who believed that the efficiency of heat engines was the key that could help France win the Napoleonic Wars. Scottish physicist Lord Kelvin was the first to formulate a concise definition of thermodynamics in 1854: “Thermo-dynamics is the subject of the relation of heat to forces acting between contiguous parts of bodies, and the relation of heat to electrical agency.” 20
  28. 28. C. Write one or two paragraphs that summarize the passage and the picture above. _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ D. Look and study the following picture. 21
  29. 29. E. Conduction, Convection, or Radiation? 1. ____________________________ 2. Walking across hot sand burns your feet. ____________________________ 3. When nothing is touching the object. ____________________________ 4. You accidentally touch a hot stove. ____________________________ 5. An iron is used to iron your clothes. ____________________________ 6. The doctor takes an X-ray of your body. ____________________________ 7. How you get a sunburn. ____________________________ 8. The metal part of your seatbelt burns your leg when you sit on it after the car sat in the sun all day. ____________________________ 9. You sit near a campfire. ____________________________ 10. F. Between a stove and a pot. In a microwave. ____________________________ Read the following passage. LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS The four laws of thermodynamics summarize the most important facts of thermodynamics. They define fundamental physical quantities, such as temperature, energy, and entropy, to describe thermodynamic systems and they describe the transfer of energy as heat and work in thermodynamic processes. 22 Experimentally reproducible distinction between heat and work is at the heart of thermodynamics, and about processes in which this distinction cannot be made, thermodynamics has nothing to say.
  30. 30. ZEROTH LAW The zeroth law implies that thermal equilibrium, viewed as a binary relation, is a Euclidean relation. If we assume that the binary relationship is also reflexive, then it follows that thermal equilibrium is an equivalence relation. Equivalence relations are also transitive and symmetric. The symmetric relationship allows one to speak of two systems being "in thermal equilibrium with each other", which gives rise to a simpler statement of the zeroth law: If two systems are in thermal equilibrium with a third, they are in thermal equilibrium with each other However, this statement requires the implicit assumption of symmetry and reflexivity, rather than reflexivity alone. The law is also a statement about measurability. To this effect the law allows the establishment of an empirical parameter, the temperature, as a property of a system such that systems in equilibrium with each other have the same temperature. The notion of transitivity permits a system, for example a gas thermometer, to be used as a device to measure the temperature of another system. Although the concept of thermodynamic equilibrium is fundamental to thermodynamics, 23 the need to state it explicitly as a law was not widely perceived until Fowler and Planck stated it in the 1930s, long after the first, second, and third law were already widely understood and recognized. Hence it was numbered the zeroth law. The importance of the law as a foundation to the earlier laws is that it allows the definition of temperature in a non-circular way without reference to entropy, its conjugate variable. FIRST LAW The first law of thermodynamics may be expressed by several forms of the fundamental thermodynamic relation: A change in the internal energy of a closed thermodynamic system is equal to the difference between the heat supplied to the system and the amount of work done by the system on its surroundings For a thermodynamic cycle the net heat supplied to the system equals the net work done by the system. The net change in internal energy is the energy that flows in as heat minus the energy that flows out as the work that the system performs on its environment. Work and heat are
  31. 31. not defined as separately conserved quantities; they refer only to processes of exchange of energy. These statements entail that the internal energy obeys the principle of conservation of energy. The principle of conservation of energy may be stated in several ways: Energy can be neither created nor destroyed. It can only change forms. In any process in an isolated system, the total energy remains the same. SECOND LAW The second law of thermodynamics asserts the existence of a quantity called the entropy of a system and further states that. When two isolated systems in separate but nearby regions of space, each in thermodynamic equilibrium in itself (but not necessarily in equilibrium with each other at first) are at some time allowed to interact, breaking the isolation that separates the two systems, allowing them to exchange matter or energy, they will eventually reach a mutual thermodynamic equilibrium. The sum of the entropies of the initial, isolated systems is less than or equal to the entropy of the final combination of exchanging systems. In the process of reaching a new 24 thermodynamic equilibrium, total entropy has increased, or at least has not decreased. It follows that the entropy of an isolated macroscopic system never decreases. The second law states that spontaneous natural processes increase entropy overall, or in another formulation that heat can spontaneously be conducted or radiated only from a highertemperature region to a lower-temperature region, but not the other way around. The second law refers to a wide variety of processes, reversible and irreversible. Its main import is to tell about irreversibility. The prime example of irreversibility is in the transfer of heat by conduction or radiation. It was known long before the discovery of the notion of entropy that when two bodies of different temperatures are connected with each other by purely thermal connection, conductive or radiative, then heat always flows from the hotter body to the colder one. This fact is part of the basic idea of heat, and is related also to the so-called zeroth law, though the textbooks' statements of the zeroth law are usually reticent about that, because they have been influenced by Carathéodory's basing his axiomatics on the law of conservation of energy and trying to make heat seem a theoretically derivative concept instead of an axiomatically accepted one. Šilahvý (1997) notes that Carathéodory's approach does not work for the description of irreversible processes that involve both heat conduction and conversion of kinetic energy into internal energy by viscosity (which is another prime example of irreversibility), because "the mechanical power and the rate of heating are not expressible as differential forms in the 'external parameters'". The second law tells also about kinds of irreversibility other than heat transfer, and the notion of entropy is needed to provide that wider scope of the law. According to the second law of thermodynamics, in a reversible heat transfer, an element of heat transferred, δQ, is the product of
  32. 32. the temperature (T), both of the system and of the source or destination of the heat, with the increment (dS) of the system's conjugate variable, its entropy (S) The second law defines entropy, which may be viewed not only as a macroscopic variable of classical thermodynamics, but may also be viewed as a measure of deficiency of physical information about the microscopic details of the motion and configuration of the system, given only predictable experimental reproducibility of bulk or macroscopic behavior as specified by macroscopic variables that allow the distinction to be made between heat and work. More exactly, the law asserts that for two given macroscopically specified states of a system, there is a quantity called the difference of entropy between them. The entropy difference tells how much additional microscopic physical information is needed to specify one of the macroscopically specified states, given the macroscopic specification of the other, which is often a conveniently chosen reference state. It is often convenient to presuppose the reference state and not to explicitly state it. A final condition of a natural process always contains microscopically specifiable effects which are not fully and exactly predictable from the macroscopic specification of the initial condition of the process. This is why entropy increases in natural processes. The entropy increase tells how much extra microscopic information is needed to tell the final macroscopically specified state from the initial macroscopically specified state. Heat cannot spontaneously flow from 25 a colder location to a hotter location. THIRD LAW The third law of thermodynamics is usually stated as follows: The entropy of a perfect crystal at absolute zero is exactly equal to zero. This is explained in statistical mechanics by the fact that a perfect crystal has only one possible microstate (microscopic state) at extremely low temperatures: The locations and energies of every atom in a crystal are known and fixed. (In quantum mechanics, the location of each atom is not exactly fixed, but the wave function of each atom is fixed in the unique ground state for its position in the crystal.) Entropy is related to the number of possible microstates, and with only one microstate, the entropy is exactly zero. The third law is also stated in a form that includes non-crystal systems, such as glasses: As temperature approaches absolute zero, the entropy of a system approaches a minimum. The minimum, not necessarily zero, is called the residual entropy of the system.
  33. 33. G. Write a well-structure paragraph with title LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS. (Summarize the previous reading in two or three paragraphs) _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ 26
  34. 34. VOCABULARY H. Unscramble the words and match them with their definitions. 1. The branch of physical science concerned with the interrelationship and interconversion of different forms of energy and the behavior of macroscopic systems in terms of certain basic quantities, such as pressure or temperature. 2. Ryefilxevit A quantitative measure of the amount of thermal energy not available to do work. 3. Etnyrpo A state in which all parts of a system are at the same temperature. 4. Tdherycmiosnaam A collection of ordered pairs of elements. 5. Tyratvnsitii A relationship of characteristic correspondence, equivalence, or identity among constituents of an entity or between different entities. 6. Itseolad symstse The property of a binary relation that expresses the fact that the relation holds between an object and its “mirror image.” 7. Ybnria rtienlao The quality of being measurable 8. Meaytsiulriab A relationship between three elements such that if the relationship holds between the first and second elements and between the second and third elements, it necessarily holds between the first and third elements. 9. Smyrmyet The total heat o system 10. Tamhler Eiqruimliubm A system that cannot exchange matter or energy with its Surroundings. 11. Nte htae The temperature at which molecular activity is at a minimum. 12. Dcseol Semsty Emission and propagation and emission of energy in the form of rays or waves. 13. Cntnioveoc A physical system that does not interact with other systems. 14. Rpssreue Heat transfer in a gas or liquid by the circulation of currents from one region to another. 15. 27 Bsaoluet rzoe Rdaiatoin Force applied uniformly over a surface, measured as force per unit of area.
  35. 35. GLOSSARY Absolute Zero Insulator Thermodynamic Equilibrium Closed System Isolated System Thermodynamic System Conduction Pressure Thermodynamics Conductor Principle of Conservation of Energy Third Law of Thermodynamics Convection Efficiency Entropy First Law of Thermodynamics Heat Engines Radiation Residual Entropy Second Law of Thermodynamics Steam Engines Thermal Equilibrium 28 Transfer of Heat Work Zeroth Law Thermodynamics of
  36. 36. MANUFACTURING A. Discuss the following  Where does the sugar come from?    If you would have money for investing in a home-made product, which product would you produce? Which are the materials used for producing wooden tables and chairs?  29 How are chocobananas made? Which process is described in the picture.
  37. 37. WRITING B. Look at the picture. 1. What’s the picture about? _______________________________________________________ 2. According to the picture, which are the materials needed for manufacturing tires. _____________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ 3. Describe the process of tire fabrication. _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ 30
  38. 38. READING C. Read the following passage and make a sketch of self study applying a notetaking system. MANUFACTURING Manufacturing is the use of machines, tools and labor to produce goods for use or sale. The term may refer to a range of human activity, from handicraft to high tech, but is most commonly applied to industrial production, in which raw materials are transformed into finished goods on a large scale. Such finished goods may be used for manufacturing other, more complex products, such as aircraft, household appliances or automobiles, or sold to wholesalers, who in turn sell them to retailers, who then sell them to end users – the "consumers". Modern manufacturing includes all intermediate processes required for the production and integration of a product's components. Some industries, such as semiconductor and steel manufacturers use the term fabrication instead. MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS Craft or Guild System A guild is an association of craftsmen in a particular trade. The earliest types of guild were formed as confraternities of workers. They were organized in a manner something between a trade union, a cartel, and a secret society. A lasting legacy of traditional guilds is the guildhalls constructed and used as meeting places. Putting-out system The putting-out system was a means of subcontracting work. It was also known as the workshop system. In putting-out, work was contracted by a central agent to subcontractors who completed the work in their own facilities, usually their own homes. The domestic system was a popular system of cloth production in Europe. Mass production Mass production, flow production, repetitive flow production, series production, or serial production, is the production of large amounts of standardized products, including and especially on assembly lines. The concepts of mass production are applied to various kinds of products, from fluids and particulates handled in bulk (such as food, fuel, chemicals, and mined minerals) to discrete solid parts (such as fasteners) to assemblies of such parts (such as household appliances and automobiles). Just In Time manufacturing Just-in-Time (JIT) is a production strategy that strives to improve a business' return on investment by reducing in-process inventory and associated carrying costs. This production method is also called the Toyota Production System. To meet JIT objectives, the process relies on signals or Kanban (看板, Kanban) between different points in the process, which tell production when to make the next part. Kanban are usually 'tickets' but can be simple visual signals, such as the presence or absence of a part on a shelf. Implemented correctly, JIT focuses on continuous improvement and can improve a manufacturing 31
  39. 39. organization's return on investment, quality, and efficiency. To achieve continuous improvement key areas of focus could be flow, employee involvement and quality. Quick notice that stock depletion requires personnel to order new stock is critical to the inventory reduction at the center of JIT. This saves warehouse space and costs. However, the complete mechanism for making this work is often misunderstood. Lean manufacturing Lean manufacturing, lean enterprise, or lean production, often simply, "Lean," is a production practice that considers the expenditure of resources for any goal other than the creation of value for the end customer to be wasteful, and thus a target for elimination. Working from the perspective of the customer who consumes a product or service, "value" is defined as any action or process that a customer would be willing to pay for. Lean manufacturing is a variation on the theme of efficiency based on optimizing flow; it is a present-day instance of the recurring theme in human history toward increasing efficiency, decreasing waste, and using empirical methods to decide what matters, rather than uncritically accepting pre-existing ideas. Flexible manufacturing A flexible manufacturing system (FMS) is a manufacturing system in which there is some amount of flexibility that allows the system to react in the case of changes, whether predicted or unpredicted. This flexibility is generally considered to fall into two categories, which both contain numerous subcategories. The first category, machine flexibility, covers the system's ability to be changed to produce new product types, and ability to change the order of operations executed on a part. The second category is called routing flexibility, which consists of the ability to use multiple qmachines to perform the same operation on a part, as well as the system's ability to absorb large-scale changes, such as in volume, capacity, or capability. The main advantages of an FMS are its high flexibility in managing manufacturing resources like time and effort in order to manufacture a new product. The best application of an FMS is found in the production of small sets of products like those from a mass production. Mass customization Mass customization, in marketing, manufacturing, call centers and management, is the use of flexible computer-aided manufacturing systems to produce custom output. Those systems combine the low unit costs of mass production processes with the flexibility of individual customization. Agile manufacturing Agile manufacturing is a term applied to an organization that has created the processes, tools, and training to enable it to respond quickly to customer needs and market changes while still controlling costs and quality. Rapid manufacturing Direct digital manufacturing, sometimes called additive, rapid, direct, instant, or on-demand manufacturing, is a manufacturing process which creates physical parts directly from 3D CAD files or data 32
  40. 40. using computer-controlled additive and subtractive fabrication and machining techniques with minimal human intervention. When a small, low-cost device is used, it is called desktop or personal manufacturing. Prefabrication Prefabrication is the practice of assembling components of a structure in a factory or other manufacturing site, and transporting complete assemblies or sub-assemblies to the construction site where the structure is to be located. The term is used to distinguish this process from the more conventional construction practice of transporting the basic materials to the construction site where all assembly is carried out. Fabrication This term refers to building metal structures by cutting, bending, and assembling. The cutting part of fabrication is via sawing, shearing, or chiseling, torching with handheld torches (such as oxy-fuel torches or plasma torches); and via CNC cutters (using a laser, torch, or water jet). The bending is via hammering or via press brakes and similar tools. The assembling is via welding, binding with adhesives, riveting, threaded fasteners, or even yet more bending in the form of a crimped seam. Structural steel and sheet metal are the usual starting materials for fabrication, along with the welding wire, flux, and fasteners that will join the cut pieces. As with other manufacturing processes, both human labor and automation are commonly used. The product resulting from fabrication may be called a fabrication. Shops that specialize in this type of metal work are called fab shops. The end products of other common types of metalworking, such as machining, metal stamping, forging, and casting, may be similar in shape and function, but those processes are not classified as fabrication. Paragraph No. 1 Read the following passage and write the main idea of each paragraph. Additionally write next to the picture the number of paragraph that correspond to the each step of the process. Paragraph No. 2 D. 33 Portland Cement is a carefully blended combination of lime, silica, alumina and iron oxide. These components are found in materials which fall into two main categories; calcareous (or lime bearing), such as limestone, and argillaceous (or clay-like) such as shale. Main Idea The main raw material component of cement is Limestone, which is obtained from our Kleins Point Quarry on the Yorke Peninsula and shipped across St. Vincent Gulf on the Company’s ship M.V. Accolade II, to our Birkenhead plant. Main Idea
  41. 41. Paragraph No. 3 Paragraph No. 4 The reclaimed limestone is then transported via belt conveyors to the weigh building where other raw materials, known as ‘fringe’ materials, such as shale, sand and iron oxide are added to the limestone. This blend of materials is fed into a ring roller mill, where it is dried and crushed to a fine state. Main Idea Paragraph No. 7 Paragraph No. 6 A reclaimer (pictured in the diagram to the right) moves back and forth along the heap scraping a cross section of the limestone. As the newer raw material is stacked on top of older material, the cross-sectioned reclaiming process ensures an even blend of material is reclaimed. Main Idea Paragraph No. 5 Once the Accolade II reaches the Birkenhead plant, the Limestone is transported via conveyor belts to the Limestone Pre-blend Building, where it is stockpiled into preblended heaps of around 25,000 tonnes. Main Idea 34 This material is now referred to as raw meal and is the feed for the kiln. The drying process in the raw mill uses the hot gases from the kiln, which also transport the raw meal through large electrofilters which separate the solid particles from the gas, allowing the clean gasses to pass into the atmosphere. Main Idea The raw meal is then extracted from the electrofilters and conveyed to the 6,000 tonne blending silo. This silo serves, not only as a storage silo, but also thoroughly blends the raw meal into a physically and chemically consistent material, ensuring well controlled, quality product. Main Idea
  42. 42. Paragraph No. 8 Paragraph No. 9 Paragraph No. 10 Paragraph No. 11 Paragraph No. 12 35 The raw meal travels through a preheating tower and reaches approximately 900°C before it enters the kiln. Once the raw meal reaches the rotating kiln, it is heated further which releases carbon dioxide from the limestone. As the heated raw meal proceeds further down the kiln into the burning zone, temperatures reach in excess of 1400°C causing chemical reactions which convert the raw meal into hard nodules ranging in size from 535mm in diameter known as clinker. Main Idea The clinker is then cooled, with the heat recovered from this process being re-used in the kiln to increase energy efficiency. After cooling, the clinker is transported from the storage area, via belt conveyers, to the cement mill. Main Idea Just before entering the mill, other additives such as gypsum and limestone are added to the clinker in very specific quantities. The mill is a large rotating ball mill which is filled to a certain level with steel balls ranging in size from 17-90mm in diameter. The clinker and additives are crushed and ground between the steel balls until the desired fineness is attained. Main Idea The resultant cement powder then exits the mill and passes through a separator, which extracts the coarse cement powder that has not been milled to the required fineness and returns it back into the mill for further milling. The cement meal that passes through the separator is stored in various silos, ranging in size from 500-30,000 tonnes, where it awaits bagging or bulk transportation. Main Idea From the bulk silo, the cement is dispatched from our plants in various ways. The majority of our cement is loaded into bulk pneumatic tankers via 24 hour automated weighbridges, where the driver simply drives the vehicle onto the weighbridge, weighs his empty truck, connects the loading chute to the tank and selects the appropriate product. Once loading is finished, the vehicle is then weighed again to determine exactly how much product was loaded, the driver departs and the weighbridge system automatically records the transaction for processing. Main Idea
  43. 43. Paragraph No. 13 E. Some of the cement is transported from the bulk silo to the Despatch Silo where it is packed into 20kg paper bags on the automated Rotopacker and then arranged onto pallets. The cement is also available in 1 tonne bulk bags for manufacturing and construction purposes and is often loaded into ships where it is transported via sea to various destinations across Australia. Main Idea Read the following passage. MANUFACTURING PROCESSES Casting Casting is a manufacturing process by which a liquid material is usually poured into a mold, which contains a hollow cavity of the desired shape, and then allowed to solidify. The solidified part is also known as a casting, which is ejected or broken out of the mold to complete the process. Casting materials are usually metals or various cold setting materials that cure after mixing two or more components together; examples are epoxy, concrete, plaster and clay. Casting is most often used for making complex shapes that would be otherwise difficult or uneconomical to make by other methods. Metal casting is one of the most common casting processes. Metal patterns are more expensive but are more dimensionally stable and durable. Metallic patterns are used where repetitive production of castings is required in large quantities. 36 Plaster and other chemical setting materials such as concrete and plastic resin may be cast using single-use waste molds as noted above, multiple-use 'piece' molds, or molds made of small rigid pieces or of flexible material such as latex rubber (which is in turn supported by an exterior mold). When casting plaster or concrete, the finished product is, unlike marble, unattractive, lacking in transparency, and so it is usually painted, often in ways that give the appearance of metal or stone. Alternatively, the first layers cast may contain colored sand so as to give an appearance of stone. By casting concrete, rather than plaster, it is possible to create sculptures, fountains, or seating for outdoor use. A simulation of high-quality marble may be made using certain chemically-set plastic resins (for example epoxy or polyester) with powdered stone added for coloration, often with multiple colors worked in. The latter is a common means of making attractive washstands, washstand tops and shower stalls, with the skilled working of multiple colors resulting in simulated staining patterns as is often found in natural marble or travertine. Molding Molding is the process of manufacturing by shaping pliable raw material using a rigid frame or model called a pattern. A mold is a hollowed-out block that is filled with a liquid like plastic, glass, metal, or ceramic raw
  44. 44. materials. The liquid hardens or sets inside the mold, adopting its shape. A mold is the counterpart to a cast. The manufacturer who makes the molds is called the moldmaker. A release agent is typically used to make removal of the hardened/set substance from the mold easier. Typical uses for molded plastics include molded furniture, molded household goods, molded cases, and structural materials. process are very complex and may involve many varieties of stresses operating simultaneously, or it may involve stresses which change over the course of the operation. Compressive forming Compressive forming involves those processes where the primary means of plastic deformation is uni - or multiaxial compressive loading.      Forming Forming, or metal forming, is the metalworking process of fashioning metal parts and objects through mechanical deformation; the workpiece is reshaped without adding or removing material, and its mass remains unchanged. Forming operates on the materials science principle of plastic deformation, where the physical shape of a material is permanently deformed. Rolling, where the material is passed through a pair of rollers. Extrusion, where the material is pushed through an orifice. Die forming, where the material is stamped by a press around or onto a die. Forging, where the material is shaped by localized compressive forces. Indenting, where a tool is pressed into the workpiece. Tensile forming Tensile forming involves those processes where the primary means of plastic deformation is unior multiaxial tensile stress.    Stretching, where a tensile load is applied along the longitudinal axis of the workpiece Expanding, where the circumference of a hollow body is increased by tangential loading Recessing, where depressions and holes are formed through tensile loading Combined tensile and compressive forming Forming processes tend to be typified by differences in effective stresses. These categories and descriptions are highly simplified, since the stresses operating at a local level in any given 37 This category of forming processes involves those operations where the primary means of plastic deformation involves both tensile stresses and compressive loads.
  45. 45. Bending This category of forming processes involves those operations where the primary means of plastic deformation is a bending load. Bending is a manufacturing process that produces a V-shape, U-shape, or channel shape along a straight axis in ductile materials, most commonly sheet metal. Commonly used equipment include box and pan brakes, brake presses, and other specialized machine presses. Typical products that are made like this are boxes such as electrical enclosures and rectangular duct work. In press brake forming, a work piece is positioned over the die block and the die block presses the sheet to form a shape. Usually bending has to overcome both tensile stresses and compressive stresses. When bending is done, the residual stresses cause the material to spring back towards its original position, so the sheet must be over-bent to achieve the proper bend angle. The amount of spring back is dependent on the material, and the type of forming. When sheet metal is bent, it stretches in length. The bend deduction is the amount the sheet metal will stretch when bent as measured from the outside edges of the bend. The bend radius refers to the inside radius. The formed bend radius is dependent upon the dies used, the material properties, and the material thickness. There are three basic types of bending on a press brake; each is defined by the relationship of the end tool position to the thickness of the material. These three are Air Bending, Bottoming and Coining. The configuration of the tools for these three types of bending is nearly identical. A 38 die with a long rail form tool with a radiuses tip that locates the inside profile of the bend is called a punch. Punches are usually attached to the ram of the machine by clamps and move to produce the bending force. A die with a long rail form tool that has concave or V shaped lengthwise channel that locates the outside profile of the form is called a die. Dies are usually stationary and located under the material on the bed of the machine. Note that some locations do not differentiate between the two different kinds of dies (punches and dies.) The other types of bending listed use specially designed tools or machines to perform the work. Shearing This category of forming processes involves those operations where the primary means of plastic deformation is a shearing load. Shear forming, also referred as shear spinning, is similar to metal spinning. In shear spinning the area of the final piece is approximately equal to that of the flat sheet metal blank. The wall thickness is maintained by controlling the gap between the roller and the mandrel. In shear forming a reduction of the wall thickness occurs. Before the 1950s, spinning was performed on a simple turning lathe. When new technologies were introduced to the field of metal spinning and powered dedicated spinning machines were available, shear forming started its development in Sweden. In shear forming, the starting workpiece can have circular or rectangular cross sections. On the other hand, the profile shape of the final
  46. 46. component can be concave, convex or a combination of these two. A shear forming machine will look very much like a conventional spinning machine, except for that it has to be much more robust to withstand the higher forces necessary to perform the shearing operation. The design of the roller must be considered carefully, because it affects the shape of the component, the wall thickness, and dimensional accuracy. The smaller the tool nose radius, the higher the stresses and poorest thickness uniformity achieved. Machining Machining is any of various processes in which a piece of raw material is cut into a desired final shape and size by a controlled materialremoval process. The many processes that have this common theme, controlled material removal, are today collectively known as subtractive manufacturing, in distinction from processes of controlled material addition, which are known as additive manufacturing. The precise meaning of the term "machining" has evolved over the past two centuries as technology has advanced. During the Machine Age, it referred to (what we today might call) the "traditional" machining processes, such as turning, boring, drilling, milling, broaching, sawing, shaping, planning, reaming, and tapping. In these "traditional" or "conventional" machining processes, machine tools, such as lathes, milling machines, drill presses, or others, are used with a sharp cutting tool to remove material to achieve a desired geometry. Since the advent of new technologies such as electrical discharge machining, electrochemical machining, electron beam machining, photochemical machining, and ultrasonic machining, the retronym "conventional machining" can be used to differentiate those classic technologies from the newer ones. In current usage, the term "machining" without qualification usually implies the traditional machining processes. 39 Machining is a part of the manufacture of many metal products, but it can also be used on materials such as wood, plastic, ceramic, and composites. A person who specializes in machining is called a machinist. A room, building, or company where machining is done is called a machine shop. Machining can be a business, a hobby, or both. Much of modern day machining is carried out by computer numerical control (CNC), in which computers are used to control the movement and operation of the mills, lathes, and other cutting machines.    Turning operations are operations that rotate the workpiece as the primary method of moving metal against the cutting tool. Lathes are the principal machine tool used in turning. Milling operations are operations in which the cutting tool rotates to bring cutting edges to bear against the workpiece. Milling machines are the principal machine tool used in milling. Drilling operations are operations in which holes are produced or refined by bringing a rotating cutter with cutting edges at the lower extremity into contact with the workpiece. Drilling operations are done
  47. 47. primarily in drill presses but sometimes on lathes or mills. cutting, orwater jet cutting to shape metal workpieces. As a commercial venture, machining is generally performed in a machine shop, which consists of one or more workrooms containing major machine tools. Although a machine shop can be a stand-alone operation, many businesses maintain internal machine shops which support specialized needs of the business.  Miscellaneous operations are operations that strictly speaking may not be machining operations in that they may not be swarf producing operations but these operations are performed at a typical machine tool. Burnishing is an example of a miscellaneous operation. Burnishing produces no swarf but can be performed at a lathe, mill, or drill press. An unfinished workpiece requiring machining will need to have some material cut away to create a finished product. A finished product would be a workpiece that meets the specifications set out for that workpiece by engineering drawings or blueprints. For example, a workpiece may be required to have a specific outside diameter. A lathe is a machine tool that can be used to create that diameter by rotating a metal workpiece, so that a cutting tool can cut metal away, creating a smooth, round surface matching the required diameter and surface finish. A drill can be used to remove metal in the shape of a cylindrical hole. Other tools that may be used for various types of metal removal are milling machines, saws, and grinding machines. Many of these same techniques are used in woodworking. More recent, advanced machining techniques include electrical discharge machining (EDM), electro-chemical erosion, laser 40 Machining requires attention to many details for a workpiece to meet the specifications set out in the engineering drawings or blueprints. Beside the obvious problems related to correct dimensions, there is the problem of achieving the correct finish or surface smoothness on the workpiece. The inferior finish found on the machined surface of a workpiece may be caused by incorrect clamping, a dull tool, or inappropriate presentation of a tool. Frequently, this poor surface finish, known as chatter, is evident by an undulating or irregular finish, and the appearance of waves on the machined surfaces of the workpiece. There are many kinds of machining operations, each of which is capable of generating a certain part geometry and surface texture.  In turning, a cutting tool with a single cutting edge is used to remove material from a rotating workpiece to generate a cylindrical shape. The speed motion is provided by rotating the workpiece, and the feed motion is achieved by moving the cutting tool slowly in a direction parallel to the axis of rotation of the workpiece.  Drilling is used to create a round hole. It is accomplished by a rotating tool that typically has two or four helical cutting edges. The tool is fed in a direction parallel to its axis of rotation into the workpiece to form the round hole.  In boring, a tool with a single bent pointed tip is advanced into a roughly made hole in a spinning workpiece to slightly enlarge the hole and improve its accuracy. It is a fine
  48. 48.  finishing operation used in the final stages of product manufacture. In milling, a rotating tool with multiple cutting edges is moved slowly relative to the material to generate a plane or straight surface. The direction of the feed motion is perpendicular to the tool's axis of rotation. The speed motion is provided by the rotating milling cutter. The two basic forms of milling are: Joining Welding Welding is the fabrication or sculptural process that joins materials, usually metals or thermoplastics, by causing coalescence. This is often done by melting the workpieces and adding a filler material to form a pool of molten material (the weld pool) that cools to become a strong joint, with pressure sometimes used in conjunction with heat, or by itself, to produce the weld. This is in contrast with soldering and brazing, which involve melting a lower-meltingpoint material between the workpieces to form a bond between them, without melting the workpieces. hazardous undertaking and precautions are required to avoid burns, electric shock, vision damage, inhalation of poisonous gases and fumes, and exposure to intense ultraviolet radiation. Until the end of the 19th century, the only welding process was forge welding, which blacksmiths had used for centuries to join iron and steel by heating and hammering. Arc welding and oxyfuel welding were among the first processes to develop late in the century, and electric resistance welding followed soon after. Welding technology advanced quickly during the early 20th century as World War I and World War II drove the demand for reliable and inexpensive joining methods. Following the wars, several modern welding techniques were developed, including manual methods like shielded metal arc welding, now one of the most popular welding methods, as well as semiautomatic and automatic processes such as gas metal arc welding, submerged arc welding, fluxcored arc welding and electroslag welding. Developments continued with the invention of laser beam welding, electron beam welding, electromagnetic pulse welding and friction stir welding in the latter half of the century. Today, the science continues to advance. Robot welding is commonplace in industrial settings, and researchers continue to develop new welding methods and gain greater understanding of weld quality Brazing Many different energy sources can be used for welding, including a gas flame, an electric arc, a laser, an electron beam, friction, and ultrasound. While often an industrial process, welding may be performed in many different environments, including open air, under water and in outer space. Welding is a potentially 41 Brazing is a metal-joining process whereby a filler metal is heated above melting point and distributed between two or more closefitting parts by capillary action. The filler metal is brought slightly above its melting (liquidus) temperature while protected by a suitable atmosphere, usually a flux. It then flows over the base metal (known as wetting) and is then cooled to join the workpieces together. It is similar to soldering, except the temperatures used to melt the filler metal are higher.
  49. 49. A variety of alloys are used as filler metals for brazing depending on the intended use or application method. In general, braze alloys are made up of 3 or more metals to form an alloy with the desired properties. The filler metal for a particular application is chosen based on its ability to: wet the base metals, withstand the service conditions required, and melt at a lower temperature than the base metals or at a very specific temperature. Some of the more common types of filler metals used are Aluminum-silicon Copper Copper-silver Copper-zinc (brass) Gold-silver Nickel alloy Silver electricity along the copper for keeping underground pipes warm in cold climates. Fastening A fastener is a hardware device that mechanically joins or affixes two or more objects together. Fasteners can also be used to close a container such as a bag, a box, or an envelope; or they may involve keeping together the sides of an opening of flexible material, attaching a lid to a container, etc. There are also special-purpose closing devices, e.g. a bread clip. Fasteners used in these manners are often temporary, in that they may be fastened and unfastened repeatedly. Some types of woodworking joints make use of separate internal reinforcements, such as dowels or biscuits, which in a sense can be considered fasteners within the scope of the joint system, although on their own they are not general purpose fasteners. Cast iron "welding" The "welding" of cast iron is usually a brazing operation, with a filler rod made chiefly of nickel being used although true welding with cast iron rods is also available. Ductile cast iron pipe may be also "cadwelded," a process which connects joints by means of a small copper wire fused into the iron when previously ground down to the bare metal, parallel to the iron joints being formed as per hub pipe with neoprene gasket seals. The purpose behind this operation is to use 42 Items like a rope, string, wire (e.g. metal wire, possibly coated with plastic, or multiple parallel wires kept together by a plastic strip coating), cable, chain, or plastic wrap may be used to mechanically join objects; but are not generally categorized as fasteners because they have additional common uses. Likewise, hinges and springs may join objects together, but are ordinarily not considered fasteners because their primary purpose is to allow articulation rather than rigid affixment. There are three major steel fasteners used in industries: stainless steel, carbon steel, and alloy steel. The major grade used in stainless