WW2
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WW2 Presentation Transcript

  • 1. World War II
  • 2.
    • Approximately 62 million people died as a result of WWII.
      • Approximately 37 million of those people were civilians.
    • 418,500 of these people were Americans.
    Why?
  • 3. The Road to War: 1919-1939
  • 4. The Versailles Treaty
  • 5. A Weak League of Nations
  • 6. The Ineffectiveness of the League of Nations
    • No control of major conflicts.
    • No progress in disarmament.
    • No effective military force.
  • 7. III. War Debts & German Reparations
    • Allies owe US Government $9.6 billion and want US to forgive debt; US leaders refuse
    • German reparations to Allies = $33 billion
    • US fears German default, causes radicalism
    • US banks make loans to Germany; Germans pay Allies; then Allies pay US Government
    • When US banks prefer US stocks, system weakens; collapses with onset of Depression
  • 8.
    • Essentially military governments.
    • People still hold private property. Property may be forced to a national purpose, however.
    • Militarism and nationalism.
      • Hitler ’ s racism an extension of this nationalism.
    • German Fascism largely an outgrowth of Treaty of Versailles
      • Allies humiliated Germany at the end of WWI. Now a price to pay.
    Fascism rises in Europe
  • 9. The “Stab-In-The-Back” Theory German soldiers are dissatisfied.
  • 10. The Great Depression
  • 11. France – False Sense of Security? The Maginot Line
  • 12. International Agreements
    • Locarno Pact – 1925
      • France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy
        • Guarantee existing frontiers
        • Establish DMZ 30 miles deep on East bank of Rhine River
        • Refrain from aggression against each other
    • Kellog-Briand Pact – 1928
      • Makes war illegal as a tool of diplomacy
        • No enforcement provisions
  • 13. Italy Attacks Ethiopia, 1935 Emperor Haile Selassie
  • 14. Germany Invades the Rhineland March 7, 1936
  • 15.
    • Germany begins demanding more territory
      • Desires a larger Germany for all German peoples —“ Living space. ”
      • First Austria. (1938)
      • Demands parts of Czechoslovakia (Sudetenland).
      • Hitler signs “ non-aggression ” pact with Stalin (USSR) — They then divide Poland. (1939)
    German Aggression
  • 16. Appeasement: The Munich Agreement, 1938 … there has come back from Germany peace with honor. I believe it is peace in our time. British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain
    • Appeasement —Giving in rather than standing up to and resisting aggression. Sacrifice principles to pacify an aggressor.
      • Britain’s Prime Minister Chamberlain agrees to Hitler taking Sudetenland (Czechoslovakia). Hitler says he will make no more territorial claims.
  • 17. The “Problem” of the Sudetenland
  • 18. The Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact, 1939 Foreign Ministers von Ribbentrop & Molotov
  • 19. Czechoslovakia Becomes Part of the Third Reich: 1939
  • 20. Rome-Berlin Axis , 1939 The “Pact of Steel”
  • 21. The Manchurian Crisis, 1931
  • 22. Japan Invades Manchuria, 1931
  • 23.
    • Asia- Japan acting aggressively in China
      • Even sink US vessel Panay in 1937
      • FDR argues for “ quarantine ” of aggressors. Public react hostilely to this speech. Fears it will draw US into conflict. FDR backs down.
    Japanese Aggression
  • 24. The Japanese Invasion of China, 1937
  • 25. U. S. Neutrality Acts: 1934, 1935, 1937, 1939
  • 26.
    • The US had returned to isolationism after WWI
    • Diverse movement united by opposition to another war; attracts a majority of Americans
    • Nye Committee (1934–36) reflects suspicions about WWI and animosity to war industries
    • Neutrality Acts passed in US Congress—Designed to keep US out of European war
      • 1935 — Military arms embargo against all belligerents (regardless of whether aggressor or victim) (Renewed in 1936)
      • 1937 — Congress limits purchase of even non-military goods. Nations must pay in cash and carry these goods themselves. Avoid extension of credit, and potential harm to US merchant ships. (Remember WWI)
    US Isolationism
  • 27. Roosevelt’s Evolving Views
    • 1937 Act also mandates cash-and-carry trade
    • Prior to WWI, FDR was an interventionist, but after WWI, FDR shares isolationist views publicly.
    • Slowly, FDR worries that German, Italian, and Japanese aggression threatens US
    • Begins rearmament and efforts to shift public opinion on aid to Allies (in 1939 gets repeal of 1935 Neutrality Act to allow arms sales)
  • 28. America-First Committee Charles Lindbergh
  • 29.
    • New Neutrality Acts of 1939 — Cash and carry plan now extended to military goods to help Allies.
    • Destroyer Deal — FDR gave 50 old model destroyers to British in exchange for naval bases
    • Lend-Lease Law (1940) — Allies now broke. Can ’ t afford cash and carry. Congress passes law to allow lending and leasing of armaments.
      • Lend hose when neighbor ’ s house is on fire.
      • Arsenal of democracy —“ Send guns not sons. ”
      • Neutrality is dead — Germans begin attacking US ships escorting arms shipments.
    Gradual Shift in US Policy
  • 30. Great Britain.........................$31 billion Soviet Union...........................$11 billion France......................................$ 3 billion China.......................................$1.5 billion Other European.................$500 million South America...................$400 million The amount totaled: $48,601,365,000 U. S. Lend-Lease Act, 1941
  • 31. Lend-Lease
  • 32.
    • US imposes embargo on war materials going to Japan. Negotiations take place between US and Japan to possibly end embargo.
      • Japanese attack Pearl Harbor during negotiations. (Dec. 7, 1941)
      • US enters the war.
    Gradual Shift in US Policy
  • 33. Dr. Seuss Goes to War
  • 34. The War Begins!
  • 35. Mobilizing the American Home Front
    • Almost unanimous support for war; see it as fight for US way of life (democracy, family)
    • To ensure support, FDR creates Office of War Information (1942) to sell war at home
    • Why We Fight depicts war as heroes versus evil
    • Office of Price Administration (OPA) sets prices on commodities and rents to control inflation
  • 36. Mobilizing the American Home Front (cont.)
    • OPA institutes rationing of key goods, and women play vital role in OPA’s success
    • Even though profits soar, businesses resent OPA efforts to restrain price increases
    • War Production Board oversees conversion to wartime economy; War Manpower Commission recruits workers for factories
    • War demands sacrifices, offers rewards too
  • 37. Wartime Economic Boom, 1940–45
    • Depression ends as employment, GNP, wages, savings, corporate profits skyrocket
    • US debt balloons (from $49 billion to $259 billion) as US Government finances war with deficits
    • Overall industrial output triples; massive increases in key war products (planes)
    • New industries emerge because of massive government assistance (synthetic rubber)
  • 38. Government Incentives in Business & Universities
    • War Production Board (WPB) guarantees profits in “cost + fixed-fee” contracts as well as generous tax deductions
    • Big business grows bigger as 2/3 of all WPB contracts go to 100 largest businesses
    • Big government grants mobilize higher education for war (MIT and radar, Manhattan Project)
    • Universities join emerging military-industrial complex (interdependence)
  • 39. Unions; Agriculture
    • Unions grow larger and work with US Government with no strike pledge; National War Labor Board (NWLB) mediates union/management conflicts
    • Strikes occur when NWLB limits raises; Gov’t passes War Labor Disputes Act (1943)
    • War accelerates shift from family farms to large-scale, mechanized agribusiness
    • Farm populations drops by 6 million
  • 40. Growth in the Federal Government
    • Federal employment grows from 1.1 million to 3.4 million by 1945; central to war effort
    • Most dramatic growth in executive branch
    • After war, many Federal agencies continue (Office of Strategic Services to CIA)
    • Emergency of WWII stimulates trend toward bigness in government, business, labor, agriculture, and higher education
  • 41. The Military Life
    • Over 16.3 million men and women serve
    • Many suffer death, wounds, loneliness, fear, post-traumatic stress disorder, and/or problems readjusting to civilian life
    • War broadens horizons of vets; increases their skills/ambitions; many use 1944 GI Bill
    • Despite repression, some act on homosexual attraction during war
  • 42. Enemy Aliens, COs, & Japanese American Internees
    • US Government interns 14,426 Europeans on fears of spying and bans Italian Americans from California
    • Most conscientious objectors (religious who refuse draft) serve in civilian public service
    • Government interns 120,000 Japanese Americans (including 77,000 US citizens) as “enemy race”
    • None ever charged with treason; some enlist in military; internees lose homes/businesses
  • 43. African Americans; Civil Rights Movement
    • 887,000 black men and women serve in war as it offers opportunities (pilots, officers)
    • Serve in segregated units; combat units perform well, but black soldiers suffer violence by white soldiers and civilians
    • Navy disregards safety of black sailors (California, 1944), and Red Cross segregates blood
    • Some black soldiers advocate “Double V”
  • 44. African Americans; Civil Rights (cont.)
    • CORE (1942) begins nonviolent direct actions in northern cities; NAACP grows
    • New defense jobs spur 1.5 million blacks to migrate from South to cities in North and West; gain vote and join CIO unions
    • Encounter lots of white hostility, including race riots; 250 riots (1943) worst one in Detroit
    • Competition (jobs/housing) furthers tension
  • 45. Women in the War Effort
    • 354,000 serve in military as clerks/nurses
    • 38 female pilots die during war
    • Over 6 million women enter workforce for patriotic and economic reasons; unlike 1930s, women workers receive praise during war
    • Labor shortage creates opportunities for Americans; ( Map 27.1*) : 30 million people move during war, especially to West Coast
    • * A People and a Nation, Sixth Edition
  • 46. Women in War Production
    • Many women (both white and black) enter traditionally male jobs (riveters, welders)
    • Over 300,000 work in California aircraft industry
    • Characteristics of working women also shift from young and single to older and married
    • Working women suffer pay discrimination, workplace segregation, and loss of jobs in 1945
    • Public attitudes on gender do not change much
  • 47. Family Life during WWII
    • Working mothers also suffer exaggerated criticism that they neglect their children
    • Child-care a problem, but relatives and Government help; no national epidemic of child neglect
    • Children provide vital help to war effort, especially many teenagers who quit high school to take jobs
    • Rates of marriages and divorces soar; hasty marriages unable to survive strains of war
  • 48. Family Life during WWII (cont.)
    • Birth rates also increase (“goodbye babies”)
    • Some males vets have trouble accepting new independence in their wives (many of whom want to continue working)
    • Many women leave workforce in 1945 (some voluntarily; many not)
    • When these women later return to work, they find many jobs no longer open to them
  • 49. Poland Attacked: Sept. 1, 1939 Blitzkrieg [“Lightening War”]
  • 50. German Troops March into Warsaw
  • 51. The European & North African Theaters
  • 52. European Theater of Operations
  • 53. The “Phoney War” Ends: Spring, 1940
  • 54. Dunkirk Evacuated June 4, 1940
  • 55. France Surrenders June, 1940
  • 56. A Divided France Henri Petain
  • 57. The French Resistance The Free French General Charles DeGaulle The Maquis
  • 58. Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis : The Tripartite Pact September, 1940
  • 59. Now Britain Is All Alone!
  • 60. Battle of Britain: The “ Blitz ”
  • 61. Battle of Britain: The “ Blitz ”
  • 62. The London “Tube”: Air Raid Shelters during the Blitz
  • 63. The Royal Air Force
  • 64. British Prime Minister Winston Churchill
  • 65.  
  • 66. The Atlantic Charter
    • Roosevelt and Churchill sign treaty of friendship in August 1941.
    • Solidifies alliance.
    • Fashioned after Wilson’s 14 Points.
    • Calls for League of Nations type organization.
  • 67. Operation Barbarossa: Hitler’s Biggest Mistake
  • 68. Operation Barbarossa: June 22, 1941
    • 3,000,000 German soldiers.
    • 3,400 tanks.
  • 69. The “Big Three” Winston Churchill, Franklin Roosevelt, Joseph Stalin
  • 70. Axis Powers in 1942
  • 71. Battle of Stalingrad: Winter of 1942-1943 German Army Russian Army 1,011,500 men 1,000,500 men 10,290 artillery guns 13,541 artillery guns 675 tanks 894 tanks 1,216 planes 1,115 planes
  • 72. The North Africa Campaign: The Battle of El Alamein, 1942 Gen. Ernst Rommel, The “Desert Fox” Gen. Bernard Law Montgomery (“Monty”)
  • 73. The Italian Campaign [ “Operation Torch” ] : Europe’s “Soft Underbelly”
    • Allies plan assault on weakest Axis area - North Africa - Nov. 1942-May 1943
    • George S. Patton leads American troops
    • Germans trapped in Tunisia - surrender over 275,000 troops.
  • 74. The Battle for Sicily: June, 1943 General George S. Patton
  • 75. The Battle of Monte Casino: February, 1944
  • 76. The Allies Liberate Rome: June 5, 1944
  • 77. Gen. Eisenhower Gives the Orders for D-Day [ “Operation Overlord” ]
  • 78.  
  • 79. Operation Barbarossa:
  • 80. D-Day (June 6, 1944)
  • 81.  
  • 82. D-Day (June 6, 1944)
  • 83. Normandy Landing (June 6, 1944 ) Higgins Landing Crafts German Prisoners
  • 84. July 20, 1944 Assassination Plot Major Claus von Stauffenberg
  • 85. July 20, 1944 Assassination Plot 1. Adolf Hitler 2. Field Marshall Wilhelm Keitel 3. Gen Alfred von Jodl 4. Gen Walter Warlimont 5. Franz von Sonnleithner 6. Maj Herbert Buchs 7. Stenographer Heinz Buchholz 8. Lt Gen Hermann Fegelein 9. Col Nikolaus von Below 10. Rear Adm Hans-Erich Voss 11. Otto Gunsche, Hitler's adjutant 12. Gen Walter Scherff (injured) 13. Gen Ernst John von Freyend 14. Capt Heinz Assman (injured)  
  • 86. T he Liberation of Paris: August 25, 1944 De Gaulle in Triumph!
  • 87. U. S. Troops in Paris, 1944
  • 88. French Female Collaborators
  • 89. The Battle of the Bulge: Hitler’s Last Offensive Dec. 16, 1944 to Jan. 28, 1945
  • 90. Yalta: February, 1945
    • FDR wants quick Soviet entry into Pacific war.
    • FDR & Churchill concede Stalin needs buffer, FDR & Stalin want spheres of influence and a weak Germany.
    • Churchill wants strong Germany as buffer against Stalin.
    • FDR argues for a ‘United Nations’.
  • 91. Mussolini & His Mistress, Claretta Petacci Are Hung in Milan, 1945
  • 92. US & Russian Soldiers Meet at the Elbe River: April 25, 1945
  • 93. Horrors of the Holocaust Exposed
  • 94. Crematoria at Majdanek Entrance to Auschwitz Horrors of the Holocaust Exposed
  • 95. Horrors of the Holocaust Exposed Slave Labor at Buchenwald
  • 96. Horrors of the Holocaust Exposed Mass Graves at Bergen-Belsen
  • 97. Hitler’s “Secret Weapons”: Too Little, Too Late! V-1 Rocket: “Buzz Bomb” V-2 Rocket Werner von Braun
  • 98. Hitler Commits Suicide April 30, 1945 The F ü hrer’s Bunker Cyanide & Pistols Mr. & Mrs. Hitler
  • 99. V-E Day (May 8, 1945) General Keitel
  • 100. V-E Day (May 8, 1945)
  • 101. The Code Breakers of WW II Bletchley Park The German “Enigma” Machine The Japanese “Purple” [naval] Code Machine
  • 102. The Pacific Theater
  • 103. Pearl Harbor
  • 104. Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto
  • 105. Pearl Harbor from the Cockpit of a Japanese Pilot
  • 106. Pearl Harbor - Dec. 7, 1941 A date which will live in infamy!
  • 107. USS Arizona, Pearl Harbor
  • 108. Pearl Harbor Memorial 2,887 Americans Dead!
  • 109. President Roosevelt Signs the US Declaration of War
  • 110. Pacific Theater of Operations
  • 111. “ Tokyo Rose”
  • 112. Paying for the War
  • 113. Paying for the War
  • 114. Paying for the War
  • 115. Singapore Surrenders [February, 1942]
  • 116. U.S. Surrenders at Corregidor, the Philippines [March, 1942]
  • 117. Bataan Death March : April, 1942 76,000 prisoners [12,000 Americans] Marched 60 miles in the blazing heat to POW camps in the Philippines.
  • 118. Bataan: British Soldiers A Liberated British POW
  • 119. The Burma Campaign The “Burma Road” General Stilwell Leaving Burma, 1942
  • 120. Allied Counter-Offensive: “ Island-Hopping ”
  • 121. “ Island-Hopping ”: US Troops on Kwajalien Island
  • 122. Farthest Extent of Japanese Conquests
  • 123. Lt. Col. Jimmy Doolittle: First U. S. Raids on Tokyo, 1942
  • 124. Battle of the Coral Sea: May 7-8, 1942
  • 125. Battle of Midway Island: June 4-6, 1942
  • 126. Battle of Midway Island: June 4-6, 1942
  • 127. Japanese Kamikaze Planes: The Scourge of the South Pacific Kamikaze Pilots Suicide Bombers
  • 128. Gen. MacArthur “Returns” to the Philippines! [1944]
  • 129. US Marines on Mt. Surbachi, Iwo Jima [Feb. 19, 1945]
  • 130. Potsdam Conference: July, 1945
    • FDR dead, Churchill out of office as Prime Minister during conference.
    • Stalin only original.
    • The United States has the A-bomb.
    • Allies agree Germany is to be divided into occupation zones
    • Poland moved around to suit the Soviets.
    P.M. Clement President Joseph Atlee Truman Stalin
  • 131. The Manhattan Project : Los Alamos, NM Dr. Robert Oppenheimer I am become death, the shatterer of worlds! Major General Lesley R. Groves
  • 132. Tinian Island, 1945 Little Boy Fat Man Enola Gay Crew
  • 133. Col. Paul Tibbets & the A-Bomb
  • 134. Hiroshima – August 6, 1945
    • 70,000 killed immediately.
    • 48,000 buildings. destroyed.
    • 100,000s died of radiation poisoning & cancer later.
  • 135. The Beginning of the Atomic Age
  • 136. Nagasaki – August 9, 1945
    • 40,000 killed immediately.
    • 60,000 injured.
    • 100,000s died of radiation poisoning & cancer later.
  • 137. Japanese A-Bomb Survivors
  • 138. Hiroshima Memorials
  • 139. V-J Day (September 2, 1945)
  • 140. Japanese POWs, Guam
  • 141. V-J Day in Times Square, NYC
  • 142. Results of World War II
  • 143. WW II Casualties: Europe Each symbol indicates 100,000 dead in the appropriate theater of operations
  • 144. WW II Casualties: Asia Each symbol indicates 100,000 dead in the appropriate theater of operations
  • 145. WW II Casualties
    • Civilians only.
    • Army and navy figures.
    • Figures cover period July 7, 1937 to Sept. 2, 1945, and concern only Chinese regular troops. They do not include casualties suffered by guerrillas and local military corps.
    • Deaths from all causes.
    • Against Soviet Russia; 385,847 against Nazi Germany.
    • Against Soviet Russia; 169,822 against Nazi Germany.
    • National Defense Ctr., Canadian Forces Hq., Director of History.
    Country Men in war Battle deaths Wounded Australia 1,000,000 26,976 180,864 Austria 800,000 280,000 350,117 Belgium 625,000 8,460 55,513 1 Brazil 2 40,334 943 4,222 Bulgaria 339,760 6,671 21,878 Canada 1,086,343 7 42,042 7 53,145 China 3 17,250,521 1,324,516 1,762,006 Czechoslovakia — 6,683 4 8,017 Denmark — 4,339 — Finland 500,000 79,047 50,000 France — 201,568 400,000 Germany 20,000,000 3,250,000 4 7,250,000 Greece — 17,024 47,290 Hungary — 147,435 89,313 India 2,393,891 32,121 64,354 Italy 3,100,000 149,496 4 66,716 Japan 9,700,000 1,270,000 140,000 Netherlands 280,000 6,500 2,860 New Zealand 194,000 11,625 4 17,000 Norway 75,000 2,000 — Poland — 664,000 530,000 Romania 650,000 5 350,000 6 — South Africa 410,056 2,473 — U.S.S.R. — 6,115,000 4 14,012,000 United Kingdom 5,896,000 357,116 4 369,267 United States 16,112,566 291,557 670,846 Yugoslavia 3,741,000 305,000 425,000
  • 146. Massive Human Dislocations
  • 147. The U.S. & the U.S.S.R. Emerged as the Two Superpowers of the later 20 c
  • 148. The Bi-Polarization of Europe: The Beginning of the Cold War
  • 149. The Division of Germany: 1945 - 1990
  • 150. The Creation of the U. N.
  • 151. The Nuremberg War Trials: Crimes Against Humanity
  • 152. Japanese War Crimes Trials General Hideki Tojo Bio-Chemical Experiments
  • 153. 7 Future American Presidents Served in World War II
  • 154. The Race for Space
  • 155. Early Computer Technology Came Out of WW II Mark I, 1944 Admiral Grace Hooper, 1944-1992 COBOL language Colossus, 1941
  • 156. The Emergence of Third World Nationalist Movements
  • 157. The De-Colonization of European Empires
  • 158. The World We Live in Today Was Formed by the Events of World War II & its immediate aftermath!