World War I
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World War I






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World War I World War I Presentation Transcript

  • 1914-1918: The World at War
  • Causes of the War
    • Nationalism
    • Countries proud of their heritage and culture
    • Similar to patriotism- with stronger ethnic and military components
    • Ethnic groups of similar heritage wanted to free their oppressed brethren and unite their people into one country
    • Want to prove military and cultural supremecy
  • Aggressive Nationalism
  • The Alliance System Triple Entente : Triple Alliance : CAUSES OF WORLD WAR I
    • Years of European competition over trade, colonies, allies, and armaments
    • Germany (Triple Alliance) rivals England (Triple Entente) for world leadership
    The Alliance System
  • The Alliance System
    • Alliances of WWI
    • Triple Alliance/Central Powers—Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy. Others eventually joined (ie, Turkey)
    • Triple Entente/Allied Powers—France, Great Britain, Russia. Others eventually joined.
    • Austrian-Hungarian Empire controlled several ethic groups.
    • Serbian nationalists wanted to untie Serbs who lived in the Austrian-Hungarian Empire with Serbia.
    • This led to the assassination of the Archduke Franz Ferdinand.
  • Europe in 1914
    • Imperialism
    • economic and political control over other countries…
    • France, Great Britain, Germany and Russia were establishing colonies in Africa and Asia
    • these countries were in competition for colonies
  • Cartoon-European grab bag European nations competing for colonies around the world…..Imperialism COLONIAL CLAIMS BY 1900
  • Cartoon-European grab bag COLONIAL CLAIMS BY 1900
    • Militarism
    • Seek to solve problems through the military
    • Compete militarily with other nations
    • European nations began an arms race as they competed for colonies around the world……
  • Militarism & Arms Race Total Defense Expenditures for the Great Powers [Ger., A-H, It., Fr., Br., Rus.] in millions of £s. 398 289 268 154 130 94 1914 1910 1900 1890 1880 1870 1910-1914 Increase in Defense Expenditures 73% Germany 39% Russia 13% Britain 10% France
  • Economic & Imperial Rivalries
  • The “Spark”
  • ASSASSINATION OF FRANZ FERDINAND Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his family. Archduke was heir to the throne in the Austrian Hungarian Empire. His assassination June 28, 1914 eventually led to WWI. Garvillo Princip, a Serbian nationalist assassinated the Archduke. He was trying to gain allowances for his fellow Serbs who lived under Austrian rule. Franz Ferdinand’s funeral procession
  • The Assassination: Sarajevo
  • Who’s To Blame?
  • Recruitment Posters
  • Recruits of the Central Powers Austro-Hungarians A German Soldier Says Farewell to His Mother
  • Women and the War Effort
  • Financing the War
  • For Recruitment
  • Munitions Workers
  • French Women Factory Workers
  • German Women Factory Workers
  • Working in the Fields
  • A Woman Ambulance Driver
  • Red Cross Nurses
  • Women in the Army Auxiliary
  • Russian Women Soldiers
  • Spies
    • “ Mata Hari”
    • Real Name: Margareetha Geertruide Zelle
    • German Spy!
  • Posters: Wartime Propaganda
  • Australian Poster
  • American Poster
  • Financing the War
  • German Poster
  • The War of the Industrial Revolution: New Technology
  • NEW TYPES OF WEAPONS Krupp's Big Bertha
  • The Airplane
  • The Flying Aces of World War I Eddie Rickenbacher, US Francesco Barraco, It. Rene Pauk Fonck, Fr. Manfred von Richtoffen, Ger. [The “ Red Baron ”] Willy Coppens de Holthust, Belg. Eddie “Mick” Mannoch, Br.
  • Looking for the “Red Baron?”
  • The Zeppelin
  • French Renault Tank
  • U-Boats
  • Flame Throwers Grenade Launchers
  • Poison Gas Machine Gun
  • “Death is everywhere”
    • Mustard gas
      • Carried by the wind
      • Burned out soldier’s lungs
      • Deadly in the trenches where it would sit at the bottom of the trench.
  • The Western Front: A “War of Attrition ”
  • A Multi-Front War
  • The Western Front
  • Trench Warfare
  • Trench Warfare “ No Man’s Land”
  • Trench Warfare
  • Verdun – February, 1916
    • German offensive.
    • Each side had 500,000 casualties.
  • The Somme – July, 1916
    • 60,000 British soldiers killed in one day.
    • Over 1,000,000 killed in 5 months.
  • War Is HELL !!
  • Sacrifices in War
    • The Germans could not match Great Britain's superior navy.
    • Germans introduced unrestricted submarine warfare with U-Boats
    • Germans warned the world they would sink any ship they believed was carrying contraband to Great Britain.
  • The Eastern Front
  • The Gallipoli Disaster, 1915
  • Turkish Cavalry in Palestine
  • T. E. Lawrence & the “Arab Revolt”, 1916-18
  • T. E. Lawrence & Prince Faisal at Versailles, 1918-19
  • The Tsar with General Brusilov
  • The “Colonial” Fronts
  • Sikh British Soldiers in India
  • Fighting in Africa British Sikh Mountain Gunners Black Soldiers in the German Schutztruppen [German E. Africa]
  • Fighting in Africa 3 rd British Battalion, Nigerian Brigade
  • Fighting in Salonika, Greece French colonial marine infantry from Cochin, China - 1916
  • America Joins the Allies
  • US IN 1914
    • Panama Canal was completed in August of 1914 just a week before WWI began in Europe.
    • Woodrow Wilson became President in 1912.
    • Americans were shocked by the outbreak of war but…it was in Europe.
    • US was officially NEUTRAL
  • Taking Sides
    • Wilson proclaims neutrality in war (Allies v. Central Powers); neutrality is not possible
      • 1) Ethnic groups in US take sides
      • 2) Wilson and his advisers hold pro-Allied views: see Germany as threat to civilization
      • 3) US-England trade (arms, loans) grows; US-German trade drops; Germany sees US trade with England as unneutral
      • 4) Wilsonianism: set of ideas Wilson assumes will spread if Allies win
  • Taking Sides (cont.)
    • US will lead nations toward peaceful world of free trade, capitalism, democracy, open diplomacy, fewer arms, and no empires
    • Wilson proclaims US destiny is to save the world
    • Ideals benefit US, mix idealism with realism
    • Wilson is willing to force ideas on others
  • US initial reactions
    • Shock- surprised that “civilized” nations go to general war.
    • Glad that ocean left US in an isolated position. Felt no danger of being drawn into European war.
    • Sympathies based on ethnicity
      • 1/3 of nation were “hyphenated Americans.” Recent immigrants had emotional ties to homelands.
        • 8 million German-Americans, for example.
      • Old-line Americans supported Allied Powers (British heritage)
        • High officers of US government definitely support Allied Powers.
  • Neutrality strained
    • Wilson authorized some extensions of credit to Allies to maintain trade. By 1915, all restrictions lifted on credit. $2B in credit to Allies before war ends. Only $27M to Germany.
    • US believed
      • It had the right to trade with the warring nations
      • Warring nations must respect our neutrality
      • in the freedom of the seas
    • German submarine warfare and British blockade violated our neutrality
    • Effects of Allied blockade
    • 1914, $70 million in trade with Central powers
    • 1916, trade reduced to $1.3 million
    • Allied trade
    • Grew from $825 million to $3.2 billion in same time period
    • WWI transformed the US from a debtor to a creditor nation
  • British Violations; German Submarines
    • Wilson does not want to enter war, but US gets caught in crossfire between belligerents
    • England violates neutral rights by seizing US cargoes for Germany (takes property)
    • Germany tries to stop US trade with England via submarines (takes lives)
    • Wilson demands Germany comply with strict interpretation of international law
  • Peace Advocates; Unrestricted Sub Warfare
    • Many groups form, but movement remains splintered
    • Feb. 1917, Germany takes calculated risk of full sub war (defeat Allies before US entry)
    • With Zimmerman Telegram, Wilson sees Germany as greater threat to US security
    • US-Mexican tensions escalate post-1910
    • Wilson arms US ships without Congress’s consent
    • Freedom of Seas
      • US hoped to maintain.
      • British first in restricting. Declared whole North Sea a war zone and mined. Would board, search, and seize ships and goods headed for enemy ports.
    Neutrality strained
    • Germans took problems to a new level with submarines (U-Boats)
    • Area around Great Britain declared a war zone, and merchant ships liable to sinking by U-boats. Since British used neutral flags, then neutral powers were in danger.
      • No warning, or searches with subs. New danger to open seas.
    Neutrality strained
  • Neutrality strained
    • U-Boats (cont’d)
    • While merchant ships the initial target, passenger ships struck.
      • May 7, 1915 Lusitania sunk. 128 Americans, and total of 1,198 killed.
      • US public ourtraged.
      • Germans said would not sink more passenger ships.
      • More passenger ships hit, however.
      • After sinking of French ship Sussex , Germany pledged again no more. Sussex Pledge.
    • May 7, 1915, the Germans sunk the Lusitania which was British passenger liner.
    • Germans believed it was carrying contraband (weapons) to the British.
    • Killed 1,198 civilians including 128 Americans.
    • U.S. and other countries outraged towards Germany because of “unrestricted submarine warfare”.
    • US believed the Germans had violated international law of targeting civilians
    • After the sinking of the Lusitania, public opinion of most Americans was to go to war with Germany.
    • Germany promised they would not sink any more ships unless warning them first and providing safety for civilians.
    • BUT, President Wilson was able “keep us out of war” ….
  • Lusitania
  • U-Boats
    • By 1918, Germans had sunk 6,500 allied ships.
    • Two types
    • small subs with a crew of 24
    • larger subs with a crew of 60
    • 44 total U-Boats by 1918
  • war zone
  • war zone Sussex Sunk : led to Sussex Pledge in March 1916. Germany promised not to sink anymore ships. X
  • WILSON'S NEUTRALITY The effect of the war upon the United States will depend upon what American citizens say and do. Every man who really loves America will act and speak in the true spirit of neutrality , which is the spirit of impartiality and fairness and friendliness to all concerned. The people of the United States are drawn from many nations , and chiefly from the nations now at war . It is natural and inevitable that there should be the utmost variety of sympathy. Some will wish one nation, others another, to succeed in the momentous struggle . I venture, therefore, my fellow countrymen , the United States must be neutral in fact, as well as in name, during these days that are to try men's souls.
  • War for US begins
    • Wilson wins reelection in 1916. Makes a push for peace
    • “ Peace w/o Victory”: based on consent of governed, freedom of seas, disarmament, and a international league for peace.
    • As Wilson makes his push for peace, Germans have already decided to engage in unrestricted sea warfare.
      • Announced on January 31, 1917.
    • Zimmerman Telegraph (Note): German foreign secretary said that if war between Germany and US, Germany would support Mexico. Germany would divert US and Mexico could take back territory in Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona.
    • March, 1917, Germany sinks 5 American merchant ships.
    • April 6, 1917, war declared.
  • zimmerman code
  • zimmerman cartoon
  • April 8, 1917, the US declares war on Germany. The new German policy has swept every restriction aside. Vessels of every kind….have been ruthlessly sent to the bottom without warning and without thought of help or mercy for those on board…. The present German submarine war ….. is a war against all nations …. Our motive will not be revenge or the victorious assertion of the physical might of the nation, but on the vindication of right, of human right…. We are…..the sincere friends of the German people…..We shall, happily, still have an opportunity to prove that friendship in our daily attitude and actions towards the millions of men and women of Wilson's War Speech
  • Wilson's War Speech German birth and native sympathy who live amongst us and share our life…... There are……many months of fiery trial and sacrifice ahead of us. It is a fearful thing to lead this great peaceful people into war, into the most terrible and disastrous of all wars, civilization itself seeming to be in the balance. But the right is more precious than peace , and we shall fight for the things which we have always carried nearest our hearts……democracy , for the right of those who submit to authority to have a voice in their own Governments, for the rights and liberties of small nations, for a universal dominion of right….. as shall bring peace and safety to all nations and make the world safe for democracy.
  • To such a task we can dedicate our lives and our fortunes, everything that we are and everything that we have, with the pride of those who know that the day has come when America is privileged to spend her blood and her might for the principles that gave her birth and happiness and the peace which she has treasured. Wilson's War Speech
  • kaiser defies I Dare you to come, 1917 ……The Kaiser defies American rights, national honor, freedom of the seas and international law……….
  • America at war
    • Draft imposed- about 3 million drafted. About 2 million actually reached Europe before war’s end.
    • Numbers and enthusiasm of Americans helped turn the tide. Europeans were battle weary.
    • New weaponry to be used in large scale: poison gas, tanks, machine guns.
    • Casualties
      • US casualties: 325,000
      • Allied total: 18.9 million
  • AMERICAN EXPEDTIONARY FORCES General John J. Pershing , commanding general of the AEF . Referred to as the Doughboys and Yanks . 2 million in France by Sept. 1918
  • Americans in the Trenches
  • Americans in the Trenches
  • America at war
    • Homefront-
    • War Industries Board: Organized production for war goods. Allocated resources.
    • War bonds to finance the war. Huge effort to promote the sales.
    • Civil Liberties in danger
      • Anti-immigrant fever
      • Hamburger becomes “liberty sandwiches”, and dachshunds become “liberty pups”
      • Espionage and Sedition Acts: Could be fined up to $10,000 and jailed for up to 20 years for interfering with draft, obstructing sale of bonds, or saying anything disloyal, profane, or abusive about the US, its allies, and war effort.
  • War to end all wars?
    • Fourteen Points: Wilson’s speech to address the causes of war, deal with boundary disputes, and support the creation of a League of Nations.
      • Allies reject his plan- want to make Germany pay.
    • Treaty of Versailles
      • Established nine new nations
      • Demilitarized Germany
      • Ordered German reparations
      • Demilitarization and reparations damaged Germany economically and humiliated Germany. A problem that helped to cause WWII.
      • Established League of Nations
  • War to end all wars?
    • US rejects the Treaty of Versailles
    • Wilson comes home from Paris w/ treaty, but Congress and US is in an isolationist mood.
    • Wilson fights for the treaty and the league,
    • Some in Senate are “irreconcilables” and will not accept League at all.
    • Others are willing to consider League with adjustments so that US is not pulled into war in future.
    • Wilson will not try to accommodate
    • Senate fails to ratify. Wilson suffers stroke and suffers political defeat.
  • Costs of the War
  • 11 a.m., November 11, 1918
  • 1918 Flu Pandemic: Depletes All Armies 50,000,000 – 100,000,000 died
  • 9,000,000 Dead
  • The Somme American Cemetary, France 116,516 Americans Died