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    Ch03 Ch03 Presentation Transcript

    • A PEOPLE & A NATION SIXTH EDITION Norton • Katzman • Blight • Chudacoff • Paterson • Tuttle • Escott Chapter 3: American Societies Take Shape, 1640–1720
    • Ch. 3: American Societies Take Shape,1640–1720 • 80 years establish economic & political patterns for 1700s⎯ever greater European, African, & American interaction • Slavery develops in English colonies, & colonies active in Atlantic trade • England reforms colonial administration • Greater conflict between English & Native Americans as well as w/ other Europeans in N. America
    • I. The Restoration Colonies • Civil War & Interregnum (1642−1660) between King & Parliament affect colonies • Charles II, restored Stuart king, grants 6 “proprietorships” to royal supporters • Vests land & government in a small group • New York granted to Duke of York (1664), easily conquers Dutch settlements
    • I. The Restoration Colonies (cont.) • NY Population is heterogeneous: Dutch, English, German, Native American, African, & others • Duke moves cautiously to impose control; eventually allows elected legislature (1683) • Duke grants land to Carteret & Berkeley for New Jersey (1664), & unlike Duke, they successfully promote migration w/ promises of land, religious toleration & a legislature
    • I. The Restoration Colonies (cont.) • Quakers (radical egalitarians) move to Jersey (1680s) to escape persecution • Pennsylvania founded as Quaker haven (1681) by Penn who promoted migration w/ policies similar to New Jersey • Jersey & especially Pennsylvania grow quickly, & like New York, heterogeneous • Unlike others, Penn treats Indians fairly
    • I. The Restoration Colonies (cont.) • Carolina founded (1663) to block Spanish & produce valuable products • Quickly divides: north settled by Virginian tobacco planters & south settled by English from Barbados⎯split formalized in 1729 • Like other early colonies, South Carolina initially depends on Native Americans for survival
    • II. 1670−1680: A Decade of Crisis • Key conflicts between Europeans & Native Americans • To expand into Great Lakes & Mississippi, New France weakens Iroquois through war • Found New Orleans (1718) to dominate fur trade in interior • French settlements are small & accommodate local Native Americans
    • II. 1670−1680: A Decade of Crisis (cont.) • Pueblo Revolt (1680) caused by Spanish brutality⎯most successful Indian uprising • Spanish regain colony by 1692, but forced to be accommodating • Expand into California & Gulf of Mexico⎯ extend practices from New Mexico • English tension w/ Native Americans are mostly over land, not trade or religion
    • II. 1670−1680: A Decade of Crisis (cont.) • Population & territorial expansion in New England lead Pokanoket chief, Philip, to attack (1675) w/ help from other tribes • Tide turns (1676) as Philip’s forces lack supplies & English ally w/ key Indian tribes • Exhausting war for both sides • After King Philip’s War, power of coastal tribes in New England is broken
    • II. 1670−1680: A Decade of Crisis (cont.) • Virginians attack Native Americans for land (1676), but governor does not support them • Bacon, a recent immigrant, leads rebellion against governor & war against Indians • He is supported by former indentured servants • Rebellion collapses, but takes much Native American land & shows problem w/ lots of former indentured servants
    • III. Introduction of African Slavery • Chesapeake planters need labor, but fewer English migrating as indentured servants • Less population pressure (England) & better opportunities in Restoration colonies • Adopt slavery model created by Portuguese & imported to America & Caribbean • Pre-1660, few Africans in Chesapeake & status varied: free, indentured, or slave
    • III. Introduction of African Slavery (cont.) • Mostly Atlantic creoles—mixed race & came to North America from West Hemisphere • Ambiguities in Chesapeake laws reflect gradual move toward perpetual bondage • Economics spur move to African slavery, but as it spreads, concepts of “race” & “slave” defined in all colonies
    • IV. The Web of Empire & the Atlantic Slave Trade • 1492-1770, over 10 million Africans taken to America, mostly Brazil & Caribbean • Atlantic trade very complex & different regions had distinct roles • Slavery linchpin: trading slaves, products made by them, or slave food fuel system • New England profits by exporting food & wood products to Caribbean sugar plantations
    • IV. The Web of Empire & the Atlantic Slave Trade (cont.) • Restoration colonies copy New England & some northerners become slave traders • Transatlantic slave trade is brutal for slaves (10–20% die en route); e.g. Equiano • Europeans die too—exchange of disease • W. African rulers are vital middlemen; capture Africans in exchange for European goods
    • IV. The Web of Empire & the Atlantic Slave Trade (cont.) • Trade causes political centralization & gender imbalance in West Africa • Shifts European trade & prosperity to Atlantic, away from Mediterranean & China • Europeans compete for slave trade: first Portuguese; then Dutch; then English • English government tries to tax this extensive & profitable trade
    • IV. The Web of Empire & the Atlantic Slave Trade (cont.) • Navigation Acts (1651–73) & mercantilism • Assume competition for finite wealth; goal is self-sufficiency w/ positive trade balance • Colonies important to England—market for products & source of raw materials • Acts center colonial trade on England – only English or colonialists can trade;
    • IV. The Web of Empire & the Atlantic Slave Trade (cont.) • Acts center colonial trade on England (cont.) – limit sale of “enumerated”colonial goods to England or colonies; – all colonial imports go through England • Effect on colonies is mixed, but English still face evasions—create new courts without juries to try smugglers (1696) • Board of Trade (1696) improves oversight, but British administration still haphazard
    • V. Enslavement in North America • Late 1600s, massive influx of Africans (mostly male) to Chesapeake • Slaves cost twice as much as indentures— increase gap betw. rich & poor planters • South Carolinian planters extensively import slaves & use their expertise (rice, indigo)—key to economic growth there
    • V. Enslavement in North America (cont.) • W/ so many there, more W. African culture survives; task system allows some autonomy • Indians enslaved, especially in Carolinas • Brutality of trade causes Yamasee War (1715), but colonists win w/ reinforcements & Indian allies • Slavery not extensive in either Spanish or French North America
    • V. Enslavement in North America (cont.) • While most slaves are in southern English colonies, significant numbers in north • Most Atlantic creoles are from West Indies • Some in urban areas (especially New York), but like south, most work in agriculture
    • VI. Colonial Political Development • Despite variety, some common elements – Elected or appointed governor & council – Elected lower legislature or House – Local: towns (New England), counties (Penn), or justice of peace (southern) – Strong tradition of local political autonomy & consent—free adult men w/ property expect a voice in politics (taxes)
    • VII. Imperial Reorganization • Besides economic control (Navigation Acts), England increase political control • Dominion of New England (1686)—most drastic attempt—dissolves assemblies & gives Andros immense power • Ended after Glorious Revolution (1688–89), but MA is a royal colony w/ appointed governor (NJ, NC, SC are also royal colonies)
    • VIII. Witchcraft Crisis • Late 1600s, time of economic & political uncertainly, tension w/ Native Americans, & new war w/ France (King William’s War, 1689–97) • Context for Crisis (1692); most severe in Salem: over 150 arrested, 20 killed • End because (1) key ministers question evidence; (2) new charter ends uncertainty; (3) new governor opposes trials
    • IX. Accommodation to Empire • Colonists resent increased British control, but most adjust to it • Some colonial leaders support new British officials (court parties); others tend to oppose (country interests)
    • Summary: Discuss Legacy & How do Historians Know • Legacy of “Witch Hunts” – Communal hysteria & search for scapegoats • Africans affected by enslavement, but not completely changed • How is the survival of African culture reflected in North America (See HDHK box, p. 79*) *Norton, A People & a Nation, Sixth Edition