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Antebellum Reformers
 

Antebellum Reformers

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    Antebellum Reformers Antebellum Reformers Presentation Transcript

    • Ch. 11: Reform & Politics in the Age of Jackson, 1824–45
    • ¯ KH3 XUV W 7 XL RI3 HUI WRQ° HF L ,Q$ QW HOXP $ PHUL D HE O F
    • & K5 HI  RUP 3 ROWF L KH$ JHRI LL V QW -DF RQ NV ­ • Religious revivalism and massive social and economic changes lead to reform • Reformers eventually enter politics • Second Party System: greater organization and participation as parties compete over role of government in society and economy • Both parties push for westward expansion
    • 7 KH6 HFRQG * UHDW$ Z DNHQL QJ “Spiritual Reform From Within” [Religious Revivalism] Social Reforms & Redefining the Ideal of Equality 7 HPSHUDQFH $ E LL V ROWRQLP ( GXF L DWRQ $ V XP O : RPHQ²V 3 HQDO5 HI RUP 5L V JKW
    • 7 KH5 LHRI3 RSXO V DU5 HOJL L RQ In France, I had almost always seen the spirit of religion and the spirit of freedom pursuing courses diametrically opposed to each other; but in America, I found that they were intimately united, and that they reigned in common over the same country… Religion was the foremost of the political institutions of the United States. -- Alexis de Tocqueville, 1832
    • ¯ KH% HQHYRO ( PSL      7 HQW UH°  
    • 7 KH6 HFRQG * UHDW$ Z DNHQL QJ • Religion is the prime motivator for reformers • Itinerant evangelists at camp revivals stress emotional personal conversion to attain salvation • Religion democratized: greater lay activity • Baptists and Methodists grow, and women very active
    • 7 KH6 HFRQG * UHDW$ Z DNHQL QJ • Revivalists stress human perfectibility: all can attain salvation and all can improve • All have a moral obligation to combat evil • Evangelicals become reformers and create numerous reform groups • Try to address the many problems in rapidly changing US w/ new market economy
    • 5 HOJL JURXSVDQG UHYL V L RXV YDO
    • 6 HF * UHDW$ Z DNHQL RQG QJ 5 HYL 0 HHWQJ YDO L
    • & KDUO * ) L HV QQH  ­  
    •   The ranges of tents, the fires, reflecting light…; the candles and lamps illuminating the encampment; hundreds moving to and fro…;the preaching, praying, singing, and shouting,… like the sound of many waters, was enough to swallow up all “soul-shaking” conversion the powers of contemplation.
    • 7 KH0 RUPRQV (The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints) Joseph Smith (1805-1844) 1823 --> Golden Tablets 1830 --> Book of Mormon
    • 7 KH0 RUPRQ¯ UHN° 7
    • 7 KH0 RUPRQV (The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints) Brigham Young (1801-1877) Deseret community. Salt Lake City, UT
    • 7 KH 6 KDNHUV 0 RW KHU$ QQ/HH  
    •   If you will take up your crosses against the works of generations, and follow Christ in the regeneration, God will cleanse you from all unrighteousness. Remember the cries of those who are in need and trouble, that when you are in trouble, God may hear your cries. If you improve in one talent, God will give you more.
    • 6 KDNHU0 HHWQJ L
    • 6 KDNHU+ PQ 'Tis the gift to be simple, 'Tis the gift to be free, 'Tis the gift to come down where you ought to be, And when we find ourselves in the place just right, 'Twill be in the valley of love and delight. When true simplicity is gained To bow and to bend we shan't be ashamed, To turn, turn will be our delight, 'Till by turning, turning we come round right.
    • 6 KDNHU6 L L L PSOF W 8 WOW LL
    • 5 HI RUPHUV • Women active reformers; a new public path • Female reformers often disagreed w/ males • For example: – While men blame prostitutes, female reformers advocate punishing male patrons and helping prostitutes find decent jobs – Temperance groups formed by evangelicals (alcohol a sin) and female reformers (stress damage to families)
    • 7 HPSHUDQF RYHPHQW H0   $ PHUL DQ7 HPSHUDQF RF HW  F H6 L ¯ HPRQ5 XP° ' ) UDQF : LO HV ODUG 7 KH% HHFKHU) DPL O
    • 7 KH' UXQNDUG² 3 URJUHV V V From the first glass to the grave, 1846
    • 7 HPSHUDQF RYHPHQW H0 • American Society for the Promotion of Temperance (1826) lobbies for individual abstinence and state prohibition laws • Per capita alcohol consumption drops sharply • Many reformers are biased against immigrants
    • $ QQXDO& RQVXPSWRQRI$ ORKRO L F
    • 3 HQLHQWDU 5 HI W L RUP Dorothea Dix (1802-1887) 1821 first penitentiary founded in Auburn, NY
    • 6 RF DO5 HI L RUP 3 URVLXWRQ WW L 7 KH¯ DOHQ: RPDQ° ) O Sarah Ingraham (1802-1887) 1835 Advocate of Moral Reform Female Moral Reform Society focused on the “Johns” & pimps, not the women.
    • 7 KH$ QW0 DV F 0 RYHPHQW L RQL Freemasons Anti-Masons individual belief in elitist and secret God un-American & international un-democratic brotherhood anti- middle- and upper- republicanism class appeal
    • $ E LL V 0 RYHPHQW ROWRQLW 1816 American Colonization Society created (gradual, voluntary emancipation. % ULLK& RO ]DWRQ 6 RF HW V RO WV RQL L L PE
    • ) RUF $ JDL W6 O HV QV DYHU • Quakers- stressed brotherhood of all; their values inconsistent with slavery. • Age of Reason- as rationality replaces revelation, traditional justifications for slavery no longer so valid • Great Awakening- all could be saved • The Revolution- British actions likened to enslavement; Declaration; fear that British would use freed blacks. • Romanticism/Transcendentalism- emphasis on individuality and ethics.
    • ) RUF $ JDL W$ E LL V HV QV ROWRQLP • Southern economic dependence on the institution and economic interdependence of sections. • Social role of slavery in South • American political philosophy of independent states • White supremacy • Politicians- issues split parties, so avoided • Apathy- a remote issue to most Americans
    • $ E LL V 0 RYHPHQW ROWRQLW • Religion crucial to the movement throughout. • Begins with Quakers- but not a powerful movement because of religious prohibition on political activity. • 2nd Great Awakening contributed- – Selfishness is what sin is; slavery is ultimate form of selfishness; therefore slavery is ultimate sin.
    • $ E LL V 0 RYHPHQW ROWRQLW • 1833- American Anti-Slavery Society. Provided assistance- financial and other- to those who sought political reform, and to some underground activities. Religion integral to their activities. By late 30’s most Northern states had a branch of this society or some other.
    • $ E LL V 0 RYHPHQW ROWRQLW •1830’s- The Liberator, William Lloyd Garrison – Uncompromising – Moral persuasion by force of argument – Immediate emancipation
    • 7 KH/L HUDW E RU Premiere - January 1, 1831
    • : LODP /O * DUULRQ  
    • OL RG V   Slavery (and Masonry) undermined republican values. Immediate emancipation with NO compensation. Slavery was a moral, not an economic issue.
    • $ E LL V 0 RYHPHQW ROWRQLW • 30’s-40’s- First “Mass Media Campaign” – Mass meetings and rallies; speakers fan out across the country; former slaves used as speakers and “exhibits”. – Mailings – Petitions to Congress – Children’s lit., songbooks, adult lit., pamphlets, newspapers – Organized a political party- The Liberty Party
    • $ E LL V ROWRQLW 6 RQJV
    • $ E LL V 0 DS ROWRQLW
    • $ QW6 O L DYHU $ O HW SKDE
    • 0 DM V XHVI RULV RU$ E LL VV ROWRQLW • Equality? • Women in the movement. • Emancipation: immediate or gradual? • Politics • Violence • Colonization- “polite anti-slavery” • Slavery and slave trade in D.C. • Internal slave trade in U.S. • Expansion of slavery into the territories * Abolitionists divided over some of these issues. Churches even fell apart.
    • 7 KH7 UHHRI6 O DYHU®/RDGHG Z LK W WKH6 XP RI$ O 9 LO HV O ODQL
    • 2W KHU: KLH$ E LL VV W ROWRQLW Lewis Tappan James Birney Liberty Party. Ran for President in 1840 & 1844. Arthur Tappan
    • % O N$ E LL VV DF ROWRQLW David Walker (1785-1830) 1829 --> Appeal to the Coloured Citizens of the World Fight for freedom rather than wait to be set free by whites.
    • ) UHGHUL N' RXJO V  
    • F DV   1845 - The Narrative of the Life Of Frederick Douglass 1847 - “The North Star”
    • 6 RM RXUQHU7 UXW  
    • K   RU ,V HOD % DXPI DE O UHH 1850 --> The Narrative of Sojourner Truth
    • + DUUL 7 XE HW PDQ  
    •   “Moses” Helped over 300 slaves to freedom. $40,000 bounty on her head. Served as a Union spy during the Civil War.
    • 7 KH8 QGHUJURXQG 5 DLURDG O
    • 7 KH6 RXW KHUQ5 HDF L WRQ • At first, little reaction. Some abolitionism even politely accepted among Southerners • Gradually, politeness gave way to anger and violence- and South became its own worst enemy. – gag rule and violence in Congress – disruption of mails in South to stop Abolitionist literature – prices on the heads of Abolitionists – demands for more rigorous fugitive slave law enforcement – threats of secession
    • 5 HDF L RW WRQW KHUHDF L WRQ • Many Northerners saw in the South's behavior a threat to (white) civil liberties in America. The First Amendment and other freedoms seemed in peril. This brought sympathy by more Notherners for the movement. The result of this fear was increasing antagonism between the North and South, and, as a result, even greater paranoia by Southern politicians. A downward spiral was underway.
    • ¯ HSDUDW SKHUHV RQF 6 H6 °& HSW “Cult of Domesticity” A woman’s “sphere” was in the home (it was a refuge from the cruel world outside). Her role was to “civilize” her husband and family. An 1830s MA minister: The power of woman is her dependence. A woman who gives up that dependence on man to become a reformer yields the power God has given her for her protection, and her character becomes unnatural!
    • ( DUO   W & : K RPHQ 1. Unable to vote. 2. Legal status of a minor. 3. If single - could own her own property. 4. Married - no control over her property or her children. 5. Could not initiate divorce. 6. Couldn’t make wills, sign a contract, or bring suit in court without her husband’s permission.
    • : KDW,W: RXO % H/L G NH,I /DGL + DG 7 KHL Z Q: D HV U2
    • & XO RI' RPHVL L 6 O W WF W DYHU The 2nd Great Awakening inspired women to improve society. Lucy Stone Angelina Grimké Sarah Grimké American Women’s Suffrage Assoc. Southern Abolitionists edited Woman’s Journal
    • : RPHQ² 5 L V V JKW 1840 --> split in the abolitionist movement over women’s role in it. London --> World Anti-Slavery Convention Lucretia Mott Elizabeth Cady Stanton 1848 --> Seneca Falls Declaration of Sentiments
    • 7 UDQV HQGHQW LP F DOV
    • 7 UDQV HQGHQW LW,QW O W V ULHUV F DOV HOHF XDO: W Concord, MA 5 DO SK: DO GR + HQU ' DYL G ( PHUVRQ 7 KRUHDX Nature Self-Reliance Walden Civil (1832) (1841) (1854) Disobedience (1849) “The American Scholar” (1837)
    • 7 UDQV HQGHQW LP F DOV • “Romanticism” refers to a set of loosely connected attitudes toward nature and humankind, and NOT to romantic love. • The movement known as romanticism sprang up in both Europe and America as a reaction to everything that had come before it: – The rationalism of 18th-century Age of Reason – The strict doctrines of Puritanism
    • 7 UDQV HQGHQW LP F DOV • Romantic artists, philosophers, and writers saw the limitations of reason and celebrated instead the glories of the individual spirit, the emotions, and the imagination as basic elements of human nature. • The splendors of nature inspired the romantics more than the fear of God, and some of them felt a fascination with the supernatural. • Romantic works exhibit a preoccupation with atmosphere, sentiment and optimism.
    • 1 DW XUH • There is an essential unity of all creation. • There is a deep continuity between nature and humans. • Nature is an emblem of spiritual reality, through which one can gain access to transcendental truth. • Nature thus has deep religious meaning, but ultimately it is that which transcends nature that has deepest spiritual value.
    • : DO GHQ
    • Original Fireplace Site
    • View from Cabin to Walden Pond
    • & RQV RXV VDQG NQRZ O FL QHV HGJH • Because of the continuity of nature and spirit, to understand spiritual truths, you need to develop sensitivity to and communion with nature. • Time spent in contemplation of nature and its beauty is an essential part of the religious process.
    • 8 W DQ& RPPXQLL RSL WHV
    • 7 KH2 QHL & RPPXQL GD W New York, 1848 Millenarianism --> the 2nd coming of Christ had already occurred. Humans were no longer obliged to follow the moral rules of the past. • all residents married to each other. John Humphrey Noyes • carefully regulated (1811-1886) “free love.”
    • 6 HF DU8 W DQ XO RSL & RPPXQLL WHV Individual Demands of Conflict Freedom Community Life spontaneity discipline self-fulfillment organizational hierarchy
    • 2 UL QDO3 O I JL DQV RU1 HZ + DUPRQ,1 New Harmony in 1832
    • 1 HZ + DUPRQ ,1
    • ( GXF L 5 HI DWRQDO RUP Religious Training Secular Education MA always on the forefront of public educational reform * 1st state to establish tax support for local public schools. By 1860 every state offered free public education to whites. * US had one of the highest literacy rates.
    • + RUDF DQQ  H0  
    • “Father of American Education” children were clay in the hands of teachers and school officials children should be “molded” into a state of perfection discouraged corporal punishment established state teacher- training programs
    • 7 KH0 F XIH ( FHF L 5 HDGHUV * I O WF Used religious parables to teach “American values.” Teach middle class morality and respect for order. Teach “3 Rs” + “Protestant ethic” (frugality, hard work, sobriety)