American Revolution


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American Revolution

  1. 1. From Colonization to Revolution
  2. 2. Chapter 2 Learning Objectives <ul><li>Learning Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the characteristics of the permanent settlements established by Spain, France, and Holland on the North American mainland in the early seventeenth century. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the factors present in seventeenth-century England that led to colonization of the New World, and explain the goals and motives behind English colonization of the Chesapeake and New England areas. </li></ul><ul><li>Examine the relationship between the English settlers and American Indians of the Chesapeake and New England areas during the seventeenth century. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Chapter 2 Learning Objectives <ul><li>Learning Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Assess the impact of the environment, tobacco, the headright system, and indentured servitude on the economic, social, political, and cultural development of the Chesapeake colonies. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the beliefs of Congregationalist Puritans, and explain the impact of those beliefs on the economic, social, political, and cultural development of the New England colonies. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the similarities and differences in the lifestyles and in the patterns of family life of New England colonists, Chesapeake colonists, and New England Indians. </li></ul>
  4. 4. English Interest in Colonization <ul><li>Initial motive was same as others (profit) </li></ul><ul><li>Copy Spanish model at first; then slowly change in response to different environment </li></ul><ul><li>Unlike others, England sent large numbers of men & women who intended to stay </li></ul><ul><li>Establish farming colonies </li></ul><ul><li>Two factors explain why so many migrate </li></ul>
  5. 5. Social Change in England <ul><li>First reason: dramatic population increase </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Depressed wages, drives many off land, & accelerates urbanization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elite use colonies to preserve social order by relieving “surplus population” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many assume migration offers chance for economic advance </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. The English Reformation <ul><li>Second Factor: Religion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Henry VIII breaks w/ Roman Catholic Church & founds Church of England (1533) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>England is then influenced by Protestant Reformation from continent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Luther & Calvin reject elaborate rituals & church hierarchy; stress reading Bible & salvation by faith alone </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. The English Reformation (cont.) <ul><li>Late 1500s, Puritans form — try to purify Church of England of Catholic aspects & incorporate Protestant ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Puritans confine church membership to “saved” & assert predestination (Calvin) </li></ul><ul><li>Under James I & Charles I increasing persecution of Puritans, early 1600s </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Founding of Virginia <ul><li>Virginia Co. (1606), a joint-stock company </li></ul><ul><li>Advantage: pool resources of many investors & limit risk </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantage: colonies need massive capital & create little immediate profit </li></ul><ul><li>Found Jamestown (1607), but immediate trouble—drought, disease, & death </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Founding of Virginia (cont.) <ul><li>Men sent are not prepared to farm— expected quick profit (Spanish model) </li></ul><ul><li>1607 – 1624: 8,000 migrate; 1,300 survive </li></ul><ul><li>Powhatan’s help is vital to colony’s survival </li></ul><ul><li>Powhatan wanted English knives & guns to consolidate his confederacy; in exchange, traded food </li></ul>
  10. 10. The Founding of Virginia (cont.) <ul><li>English/Indian relations quickly deteriorate </li></ul><ul><li>Although similarities existed, each group focused on differences (role of men in agriculture, importance of hunting) </li></ul><ul><li>Both have political hierarchies, but English are more autocratic whereas Algonquians rely on consensus (chiefs less powerful) </li></ul>
  11. 11. The Founding of Virginia (cont.) <ul><li>Key differences are in concepts of property </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Algonquians assume property is held by group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>English stress individual ownership & reject Indian claims </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reflects general English refusal to respect Native American traditions </li></ul>
  12. 12. The Founding of Virginia (cont.) <ul><li>Tobacco brings key changes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Saves colony w/ a profitable export product & changes Virginia to agrarian settlement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But tobacco needs lots of land & labor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>As incentives to migrate, Co. develops Headright system (1617) & House of Burgesses (1619) </li></ul>
  13. 13. The Founding of Virginia (cont.) <ul><li>Encroachment increases tension w/ Native Americans — attack English (1622) </li></ul><ul><li>English defeat & slowly subordinate Powhatan Confederacy </li></ul><ul><li>Virginia survives, but Co. collapses (1624) </li></ul><ul><li>Becomes a royal colony; unlike other European colonies, more local self-government in English colonies </li></ul>
  14. 14. Life in the Chesapeake <ul><li>Maryland founded (1634)— first colony w/ religious freedom (haven for Catholics) </li></ul><ul><li>Parallels Virginia in economy & society—focus on tobacco & widespread settlement </li></ul><ul><li>For labor, two colonies rely on indentured servants from England </li></ul><ul><li>Indenture contract & “freedom dues” </li></ul>
  15. 15. Life in the Chesapeake (cont.) <ul><li>Difficult life (disease, harsh discipline), but some legal protections & possibility of economic advancement until late 1600s </li></ul><ul><li>Mostly men move; gender imbalance 1600s </li></ul><ul><li>Families are unstable because few females & high mortality rate for adults & children </li></ul><ul><li>Slow rate of natural increase; most settlers are immigrants—creates political instability </li></ul>
  16. 16. The Founding of New England <ul><li>Contrast w/ Virginia: different environment & key role of religion for Puritans </li></ul><ul><li>Congregationalists & Separatists </li></ul><ul><li>Pilgrims (the later) found Plymouth (1620) </li></ul><ul><li>Mayflower Compact—land is outside Virginia Co. jurisdiction & ensures Pilgrim control; local self-government </li></ul>
  17. 17. The Founding of New England (cont.) <ul><li>Like Virginia, difficult initial settlement & depends on local Native Americans </li></ul><ul><li>Pokanokets ally w/ Pilgrims for help against Narragansetts </li></ul><ul><li>Pilgrims are a small group; Congregationalist Massachusetts Bay Co. (1629) is much larger </li></ul><ul><li>Found Massachusetts (1630) & bring Co. charter; again, local self-government </li></ul>
  18. 18. The Founding of New England (cont.) <ul><li>Winthrop assumes Mass. will be hierarchical, but asserts a communal religious goal </li></ul><ul><li>Strives for public good, not private advance </li></ul><ul><li>Covenant: contract w/ God & w/ each other </li></ul><ul><li>Affect government (Mayflower Compact; Connecticut’s Orders) </li></ul>
  19. 19. The Founding of New England (cont.) <ul><li>Bay Co. transforms into a government </li></ul><ul><li>Creates a legislature </li></ul><ul><li>Like Virginia, to vote for legislature, must be male & own property </li></ul><ul><li>In Massachusetts, must be church member </li></ul><ul><li>New England distributes land differently </li></ul>
  20. 20. The Founding of New England (cont.) <ul><li>Allot land to groups of men to form a town </li></ul><ul><li>Towns hierarchical, but all men get land </li></ul><ul><li>New England settlement more compact than Chesapeake & 3 types of towns develop: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Isolated agrarian towns; coastal towns (Boston); & commercialized agrarian towns </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Increase in settlers leads to Connecticut, New Haven, & New Hampshire (1636 – 38) </li></ul>
  21. 21. The Founding of New England (cont.) <ul><li>As in Virginia, expansion increases tension w/ Native Americans (Pequots) & Puritans did not respect Indian land claims </li></ul><ul><li>Tension leads to war (1637)—English slaughtered most Pequots who were unable to form alliances w/ other Native Americans </li></ul><ul><li>Till 1670s, not much warfare, but Native Americans in New England resist English influence </li></ul>
  22. 22. The Founding of New England (cont.) <ul><li>Only a few Puritans try to convert Native Americans </li></ul><ul><li>Eliot insists converts adopt English culture—results in few converts </li></ul><ul><li>Jesuits (New France) are more successful because they accommodate Native American traditions & do not take as much land </li></ul><ul><li>Why they convert: disoriented by disruptions to native life (disease, loss of land) </li></ul>
  23. 23. The Founding of New England (cont.) <ul><li>Unlike Indians & Chesapeake English, Puritans tend to remain on initial farms </li></ul><ul><li>Form stable towns & families </li></ul><ul><li>No gender imbalance because many families, including women, migrate </li></ul><ul><li>Greater natural increase; less disease than Chesapeake; & parents exert more control </li></ul>
  24. 24. The Founding of New England (cont.) <ul><li>Church/State linked; No freedom of religion </li></ul><ul><li>All must attend church & are taxed to support church, but voting limited to members </li></ul><ul><li>Enforce morality & expel dissenters </li></ul><ul><li>Williams founds Rhode Island (1636) & like Maryland, allows religious freedom </li></ul><ul><li>Hutchinson — challenges Puritan orthodoxy & male superiority (1630s) </li></ul>
  25. 25. Slavery in America
  26. 26. Origins of slavery: <ul><li>Slavery was not an institution directly imported from Europe. Developed in America. </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish and Portugese began using slavery in their colonies as early as the 15th C. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Origins of slavery:Cont’d <ul><li>Eventually European powers in America realized that they had not been able to enslave natives in a highly successful fashion. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Many died from imported diseases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Many natives were hunters and gatherers, not suited to agricultural lifestyle. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. People are hard to enslave on their own land-- they are able to escape too easy. This is perhaps the most important reason Europeans turned elsewhere for their slaves. </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Origins of slavery:Cont’d <ul><li>A slave trade developed where Africans were kidnapped and brought to America. </li></ul><ul><li>1. Triangle Trade (Slave Trade Web). </li></ul><ul><li>2. North and South both involved. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Horrible “middle passage.” </li></ul>
  29. 29. Development of slavery as an institution in what became the U.S.: <ul><li>Contrary to what many believe, slavery did not exist as a precise legal institution from the earliest settlements. The first Africans arrived in the (future) U.S. with a status not entirely different from white indentured servants. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Slave Institution Development: Cont’d <ul><li>First Africans (20) known to arrive in 1619 in Jamestown. They became scattered around the area. All apparently became free at the end of a period of service (avg. 7 yrs.). Some became masters and landowners themselves. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Slave Institution Development: Cont’d <ul><li>Over next 20 yrs. status of Africans changed to the point where they were no longer indentured servants, but slaves for life, with their children inheriting the obligation. </li></ul><ul><li>Legal Changes... </li></ul>
  32. 32. Cont’d- Slavery in law <ul><li>1640, first clear evidence that Africans were different before the law. “Manuel”, escaped African servant and two white servants (of Virginia) were captured after an escape attempt. Whites had only a year plus community service added to their terms of service, while Manuel was ordered to serve the balance of his life. The same year, another escaped African, John Punch, of another state, received the same sentence after capture. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Cont’d- Slavery in law <ul><li>1645, first clear laws on the books that state that Africans are slaves for life, and their children as well. Slavery of children had been a custom, but became law about this time. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Cont’d- Slavery in law <ul><li>1670, laws in Virginia sought to make life bondage the normal condition for all blacks in the state. </li></ul><ul><li>1675 onward, early “black codes” appear- restricting the freedoms of free and enslaved black in areas of weapons possession (not allowed), possession of servants (free blacks not allowed to have whites as indentured servants), and trial procedures (blacks not allowed to testify against whites, for example). </li></ul>
  35. 35. Cont’d- Slavery in law <ul><li>1691, Virginia forbade owners to free blacks unless transporting them out of the state. </li></ul><ul><li>By turn of the century slavery relatively entrenched legally, socially, and economically. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Why did Slavery replace indentured servitude? <ul><li>Farmers did not want competition from freed servants- more farmers would mean lower crop prices. </li></ul><ul><li>Insufficient number of people willing to come to America as indentured servants. </li></ul><ul><li>Slaves a better long term investment: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. More expensive initially, but slaves stayed longer than servants, and produced offspring. </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Slavery and Racism: Which came first? <ul><li>Historians and other social scientists disagree on the issue of whether racism created slavery, or slavery created racism. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Racism creates slavery: <ul><li>Evidence can be found in Europe prior to the existence of slavery that indicates racism. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a. Tales of animal like nature (described as apes) and dangerous sexuality of blacks common place among European travelers to Africa. </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Racism creates slavery: <ul><ul><li>b. Term “black” used to describe virtually all people of Africa, no matter that few were that dark, and many were much lighter. Term black associated with dirt, evil, deadly purposes, wickedness, etc. Whiteness associated with what is good. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c. Negative attitudes towards African races found in popular literature of the day. </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Slavery creates racism: <ul><li>1. Blacks condition not immediately different from whites. Because blacks were never seen by whites in America outside of chains, their potential never seen, thus they, over time, were seen as inferior. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a. Natives were sometimes described as “noble savages” because whites saw them operate in their own environments with skill. Blacks never described in terms of nobility. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. As the economic importance of slavery grew, racism developed to justify what was a morally suspicious activity to many even at that time. </li></ul>
  41. 41. Slavery and racism reinforced one another: <ul><li>This seems the most appropriate interpretation of the available evidence. </li></ul>
  42. 42. The Slave Trade <ul><li>All sections of the U.S. became involved in the slave business. New England had many slave traders, and produced much of the rum used in the triangle trade. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Involvement of all sections of the U.S. made the continuance of slavery a vested economic interest for all, thus hard to get rid of. </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. The Slave Trade: Cont’d <ul><li>Triangle Trade (Really a Slave Trade Web ): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Molasses from West Indies to America for cash and slaves. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Rum (from molasses) to Europe (for cash) and Africa (for slaves). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Slaves directly to America or to West Indies, from which they could be purchased. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>See map on p. 73 in your text for a more accurate picture of the complicated slave trade ‘web’. </li></ul></ul>
  44. 47. Why Slavery as an Institution was more important to the South: <ul><li>Cash Crops in the South: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. In the South cash crops, those grown in large quantities for sale, were commonly grown. The cash was used to buy the necessities of life. Subsistence and small crop farming was more common in the north. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Examples: cotton, tobacco, indigo, rice. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Slaves were very useful in cash crop agriculture. They were too expensive for most small farmers to use profitably. </li></ul>
  45. 48. Growth of Slavery <ul><li>Slavery grew rapidly over the years. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. 1619: <100 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. 1740s: 300,000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. 1776: 500,000+ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. 1800: 894,000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5. 1850: 3,204,000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6. 1860: 3,954,000 </li></ul></ul>
  46. 49. The American Revolution: 1775-1783
  47. 50. Causes of the Revolution
  48. 51. Causes <ul><li>Growing conflict betw. colonists & British Government—creates debate within colonies </li></ul><ul><li>British victory in French & Indian (Seven Years) War key—changes balance of power in North American & affects everyone there </li></ul><ul><li>New British taxes to pay for war & colonial resistance to new taxes exposed basic differences in political ideas between the two sides </li></ul>
  49. 52. The French and Indian War (1756-1763)
  50. 53. <ul><li>The war was the product of a clash between the French and English over colonial territory and wealth. In North America, the war can also be seen- to a lesser degree- as a product of the local rivalry between British and French colonists. </li></ul>
  51. 54. <ul><li>Tensions between the British and French in America had been getting worse for some time, as each side wanted to gain more land. In the 1740s, both England and France traded for furs with the Native Americans in the Ohio Country. By the 1750s, English colonists, especially the investors in the Ohio Company, also hoped to convert the wilderness into good farmland. </li></ul>The French and Indian War
  52. 55. The French and Indian War <ul><li>Each side tried to keep the other out of the Ohio Country. In the early 1750s, French soldiers captured several English trading posts and built Fort Duquense (now called Pittsburgh) to defend their territory from English incursions. </li></ul>
  53. 56. 1754  The First Clash The Ohio Valley
  54. 57. <ul><li>What is now considered the “French and Indian War” (though at the time the war was undeclared), began in 1753, when a young (22 years old) Virginian, Major George Washington, and a number of men headed out into the Ohio region to deliver a message to a French Captain demanding that French troops leave the territory. The demand was rejected by the French. </li></ul>The French and Indian War
  55. 58. <ul><li>In 1754, George Washington and a small force of Virginia militiamen marched to the Ohio Country to drive the French out. Washington hoped to capture the forks of the Ohio R. for the state of VA, but the French had beat him there. When a small contingent of French troops were discovered in the area, Washington and his Indian allies attacked them. </li></ul>The French and Indian War
  56. 59. The French and Indian War <ul><li>This was an unwise decision as Washington was substantially outnumbered by the French. He retreated and when chased by the French, quickly built Fort Necessity. It was a poorly chosen site and he ultimately had to surrender. He had hoped to convince native people that England was the stronger force, so that they would ally with the British rather than the French. </li></ul>
  57. 60. <ul><li>A combined force of French soldiers and their native allies overwhelmed Fort Necessity on July 3, 1754, marking the start of the “French and Indian War” in North America. The French permitted Washington and his men to return to Virginia safely, but made them promise they would not build another fort west of the Appalachian Mountains for at least a year. </li></ul>The French and Indian War
  58. 61. <ul><li>England did not officially declare war until 1756, although the conflict had actually begun two years earlier at Fort Necessity. </li></ul>The French and Indian War
  59. 62. Native American tribes sought the best possible advantage for themselves. Some sided with the British. More sided with the French. 1756  War Is Formally Declared!
  60. 63. <ul><li>After a year and a half of undeclared war, the French and the English formally declared war in May 1756. For the first three years of the war, the outnumbered French dominated the battlefield, soundly defeating the English in battles at Fort Oswego and Ticonderoga. Perhaps the most notorious battle of the war was the French victory at Fort William Henry , which ended in a massacre of British soldiers by Indians allied with the French. </li></ul>The French and Indian War
  61. 64. He better understood colonial concerns. He offered them a compromise: - col. loyalty & mil. cooperation-->Br.would reimburse col. assemblies for their costs. RESULTS  Colonial morale increased by 1758 . 1757  William Pitt Becomes Foreign Minister
  62. 65. 1758-1761  The Tide Turns for England
  63. 66. <ul><li>The tide turned for the British in 1758, as they began to make peace with important Indian allies and under the direction of Lord William Pitt began adapting their war strategies to fit the territory and landscape of the American frontier. The French were also abandoned by many of their Indian allies. Exhausted by years of battle, outnumbered and outgunned by the British, the French collapsed during the years 1758-59, climaxing with a massive defeat at Quebec in September 1759. </li></ul>The French and Indian War
  64. 67. <ul><li>By September 1760, the British controlled all of the North American frontier; the war between the two countries was effectively over. The 1763 Treaty of Paris , which ended the European “Seven Years War”, set the terms by which France would capitulate: France was forced to surrender all of her American possessions to the British. </li></ul>The French and Indian War
  65. 68. The French and Indian War <ul><li>Although the war with the French ended in 1763, the British continued to fight with the Indians over the issue of land claims. &quot;Pontiac's War&quot; flared shortly after the Treaty of Paris was signed . </li></ul>
  66. 69. France --> lost her Canadian possessions, most of her empire in India, and claims to lands east of the Mississippi River. Spain --> got all French lands west of the Mississippi River, New Orleans, but lost Florida to England. England --> got all French lands in Canada, exclusive rights to Caribbean slave trade, and commercial dominance in India. 1763  Treaty of Paris
  67. 70. 1. It increased her colonial empire in the Americas. 2. It greatly enlarged England’s debt. 3. Britain’s contempt for the colonials created bitter feelings. Therefore, England felt that a major reorganization of her American Empire was necessary! Effects of the War on Britain?
  68. 71. <ul><li>March in formation or bayonet charge. </li></ul><ul><li>Wanted officers take charge. </li></ul><ul><li>Drills & tough discipline. </li></ul><ul><li>Colonists should pay for their own defense. </li></ul><ul><li>Indian-style guerilla tactics. </li></ul><ul><li>Local militias; own captains. </li></ul><ul><li>No mil. deference or protocols. </li></ul><ul><li>Resistance to raising taxes. </li></ul>Methods of Fighting: Military Org.: Military Discipline: Finances: British-American Colonial Tensions British Colonials
  69. 72. 1. It united them against a common enemy for the first time. 2. It created a socializing experience for all the colonials who participated. 3. It created bitter feelings towards the British that would only intensify. Effects of the War on the American Colonials
  70. 73. 1763  Pontiac’s Rebellion Fort Detroit British “gifts” of smallpox-infected blankets from Fort Pitt. The Aftermath: Tensions Along the Frontier
  71. 74. Pontiac’s Rebellion (1763)
  72. 75. British  Proclamation Line of 1763. BACKLASH!
  73. 76. 1763: A Turning Point <ul><li>For Native Americans, French defeat & Spanish decline remove key allies </li></ul><ul><li>Less able to resist British expansion; Cherokees defeated in south (1760–61) </li></ul><ul><li>In Ohio, Pontiac forms alliance (1763) to fight Anglo-Americans, idea of Neolin </li></ul><ul><li>But British defeat Pontiac’s forces </li></ul>
  74. 77. North America in 1763
  75. 78. <ul><li>Pass a series of tax laws and have the Colonists help pay back the debt . </li></ul><ul><li>Pass a law restricting Colonists from moving westward into and settling the Northwest Territory. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep British troops in North America to stop Indian attacks and protect the Colonies. </li></ul><ul><li>Stop the smuggling of Colonials by enforcing the Navigation Acts with a series of unrestricted search warrants. </li></ul>England's Solutions
  76. 79. 1763: A Turning Point <ul><li>Proclamation of 1763—British restrict movement of colonists into interior </li></ul><ul><li>Government wants less conflict w/ Native Americans, but colonists want expansion </li></ul><ul><li>Government burdened w/ massive war debt </li></ul><ul><li>George III takes throne (1760)—immature stubborn, erratic, wants to assert power of monarchy </li></ul>
  77. 80. “ Once vigorous measures appear to be the only means left of bringing the Americans to a due submission to the mother country, the colonies will submit.” <ul><li>King of England. </li></ul><ul><li>Instrumental in ending the French and Indian War in 1763. </li></ul><ul><li>Strong supporter of taxing the colonies to pay for the debt. </li></ul><ul><li>He opposed any compromise with the colonial government in America. </li></ul><ul><li>After loosing of the colonies, he withdrew his efforts at personal government and went insane. </li></ul>King George III (1738-1820)
  78. 81. 1763: A Turning Point <ul><li>Because people in England faced high taxes, Grenville (new prime minister) decides to tax colonies to pay debt </li></ul><ul><li>Government asserts it can tax colonies on concept of “virtual representation” </li></ul><ul><li>Colonists advocate “actual representation” </li></ul><ul><li>Both assert government by consent, but differ in how to create representation </li></ul>
  79. 82. <ul><li>The 13 Colonies were represented under the principle of “virtual” representation. </li></ul><ul><li>It did not matter if the Colonists did not elect members from each colony to represent them in the British Parliament. </li></ul><ul><li>Not all citizens in Britain were represented either. </li></ul><ul><li>The British Parliament pledged to represent every person in Britain and the empire </li></ul><ul><li>Americans resented “virtual” representation. </li></ul><ul><li>Colonists governed themselves since the early settlers . </li></ul><ul><li>They had direct representation by electing colonial assembly members to represent their interests. </li></ul><ul><li>Colonists were not opposed to paying taxes because the Colonies taxed their citizens. </li></ul><ul><li>If the British Parliament was to tax them, they should be able to elect a representative from their colony to represent their interests in Parliament . </li></ul>Great Britain vs. The Colonies Virtual Representation Actual Representation
  80. 83. 1763: A Turning Point <ul><li>Colonists also accept ideas of “Real Whigs” </li></ul><ul><li>Distrust those w/ power, assume they will encroach on liberty & property </li></ul><ul><li>Advocate less active central government; distrust monarchs, & only elected representatives can protect people </li></ul><ul><li>Efforts to increase control & raise revenue interpreted through Real Whig ideas </li></ul>
  81. 84. 1763: A Turning Point <ul><li>At first colonists assume new acts were unwise; over time many believe it is a conspiracy to oppress them </li></ul><ul><li>Sugar Act (1764)—1st tax designed to raise revenue in colonies, not just regulate trade </li></ul><ul><li>Currency Act (1764) outlaws colonial paper money; both laws hit in midst of depression </li></ul><ul><li>Early protest is hesitant & uncoordinated </li></ul>
  82. 85. North America After the Treaty of Paris, 1783
  83. 86. 1. Sugar Act - 1764 2. Currency Act - 1764 4. Stamp Act - 1765 3. Quartering Act - 1765 George Grenville’s Program, 1763-1765
  84. 87. Real Whigs Q-> What was the extent of Parliament’s authority over the colonies?? Absolute? Limited? Q-> How could the colonies give or withhold consent for parliamentary legislation when they did not have representation in that body?? Theories of Representation OR
  85. 88. The Hated Stamp Tax                                                                     
  86. 89. The Hated Stamp Tax <ul><li>Tax on legal documents, playing cards, newspapers, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>A direct tax which went to the British government. </li></ul><ul><li>Colonists hated the Stamp Tax = “ taxation without representation ” </li></ul><ul><li>Stamp Act protests led by the Sons of Liberty ….. </li></ul>
  87. 90. The Stamp Act Crisis (1765) <ul><li>1st English tax that affects every colonist </li></ul><ul><li>Big break in colonial tradition of only being taxed by elected assemblies </li></ul><ul><li>Rights of British Colonies by Otis reflects colonial dilemma: how to oppose act without rejecting authority of Parliament </li></ul><ul><li>Most colonists want self-government, not independence (late 1760s & early 1770s) </li></ul>
  88. 91. Loyal Nine – 1765 Merchants and Craftsmen: Wanted non-violent protest against Stamp Act. Sons of Liberty – 1765 Began in NYC. Lower level merchants and craftsmen, laborers, sailors. Samuel Adams Stamp Act Congress – 1765 Stamp Act Resolves: First pledge loyalty to King and parliament, but insists on principle of taxation w/ consent. Leads to boycotts to force repeal. Stamp Act Crisis
  89. 92. The Stamp Act Crisis (1765) <ul><li>Colonial protest is indecisive until Henry & Virginia Stamp Act Resolves widen debate </li></ul><ul><li>VA House passes 1st four resolves (stress rights of colonists & tax only w/ consent) </li></ul><ul><li>Inspires other urban protests—eventually stamp collectors agree not to perform job </li></ul>
  90. 93. The Stamp Act Crisis (1765) <ul><li>Some protests turn violent </li></ul><ul><li>Worries elite colonists & artisans who want protest but fear activism of unskilled, poor, slaves, & women </li></ul><ul><li>Create Sons of Liberty (an inter-colonial organization) to keep protest orderly, but not always successful </li></ul><ul><li>Artisans like Revere are the backbone of resistance </li></ul>
  91. 94. “ If our trade be taxed, why not our lands, or produce, in short, everything we possess? They tax us without having legal representation.” Samuel Adams <ul><li>Sons of Liberty was a secret society formed in protest of British rule. </li></ul><ul><li>They had a large role in the repeal of the Stamp Act and the Boston Tea Party . </li></ul><ul><li>9 original members which included the leaders Samuel Adams and Paul Revere </li></ul>Patriots or Terrorists? Samuel Adams Paul Revere                                                                                          
  92. 95. Boycotts : Colonists refused to trade or buy British goods until Stamp Act was repealed. Protests : Led by the Sons of Liberty up and down the colonies from 1765 to 1766. Committees of Correspondence: Colonies kept in contact with one another and described British actions through letters exchanged by carriers on horseback. Colonial Resistance
  93. 96. Britishlaws STAMP ACT PROTESTS Stamp Act Protests: 1765 to 1766 <ul><li>Between 1765 to 1766, the Sons of Liberty led over 40 protests up and down the colonial coastline. </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the protests are located in the Middle Colonies up through the New England Colonies. </li></ul><ul><li>Successful in forcing the British Parliament to repeal the Stamp Act. </li></ul>
  94. 97. Costs of Colonial Resistance
  95. 98. Exports & Imports: 1768-1783 Costs of Colonial Resistance
  96. 99. The Stamp Act Crisis (1765) <ul><li>1765–66: colonial assemblies & Stamp Act Congress petition; Sons of Liberty protest, & merchants organize embargo </li></ul><ul><li>Rockingham, new prime minister, repeals act (1766) because he decides it was divisive </li></ul><ul><li>Declaratory Act—Parliament asserts authority over colonies </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Sons’ celebrate, then dissolve </li></ul>
  97. 100. 1767  William Pitt, P. M. & Charles Townshend, Secretary of the Exchequer. <ul><li>Shift from paying taxes for Br. war debts & quartering of troops  paying col. govt. salaries. </li></ul><ul><li>He diverted revenue collection from internal to external trade. </li></ul><ul><li>Tax these imports  paper, paint, lead, glass, tea. </li></ul><ul><li>Increase custom officials at American ports  established a Board of Customs in Boston. </li></ul>Townshend Duties Crisis: 1767-1770
  98. 101. Resistance to Townshend Acts <ul><li>Renewed effort (1767) to raise money from colonies w/ duties on items from England </li></ul><ul><li>Use some money to pay royal officials— makes them independent of assemblies </li></ul><ul><li>Increase enforcement of Navigation Acts </li></ul><ul><li>Immediate resistance; Dickinson’s Farmer’s Letters : England can regulate trade but not tax colonies </li></ul>
  99. 102. Resistance to Townshend Acts <ul><li>Assemblies are motivated to act when royal governors block discussion by dissolving assemblies, starting w/ Massachusetts </li></ul><ul><li>Create rituals of resistance to reach illiterates </li></ul><ul><li>Sons of Liberty resume & try to involve average colonists in resistance </li></ul><ul><li>They neither purchase nor import British goods </li></ul>
  100. 103. Resistance to Townshend Acts <ul><li>Women active, especially w/ home manufacturing & Daughters of Liberty </li></ul><ul><li>Still divisions, especially w/ merchants who are hurt economically by nonconsumption </li></ul><ul><li>Artisans are again central; protests cut imports, but often violent—scare colonial elite </li></ul><ul><li>Duties repealed, except tea, & salaries postponed (1770) </li></ul>
  101. 104. Confrontations in Boston <ul><li>Originate w/ clashes between custom officials & British troops w/ Bostonians </li></ul><ul><li>March 5, 1770: crowd of laborers harass soldiers who respond w/ shots </li></ul><ul><li>Boston ‘Massacre’ </li></ul><ul><li>5 colonists die, & resistance leaders use incident to generate support for protest, but elite Sons of Liberty dislike mob actions </li></ul>
  102. 105. Confrontations in Boston <ul><li>1768—1770, British soldiers arrived in Boston, MA to maintain order and enforce the taxes the colonists were asked to pay after the French and Indian. </li></ul><ul><li>The people of Boston resented the British soldiers and considered them a foreign presence. </li></ul>
  103. 106. <ul><li>High tensions between British and Bostonians over enforcing British policies. </li></ul><ul><li>March 1770, the British shed Colonial blood for first time blood. </li></ul><ul><li>The relationship between the Colonies and England would never improve </li></ul><ul><li>Used as propaganda to convince people of the colonial cause. </li></ul>Confrontations in Boston
  104. 107. Boston Mass.
  105. 108. An eyewitness account An unruly gang of civilians (colonists), to the amount of thirty or forty, mostly boys and many of them drunk, left a local tavern and saw a regiment of British soldiers. The gang assembled ... near the sentry at the Custom-house door, began taunting the British, calling them names and throwing snow balls, along with horse manure and ice balls ... I saw a party of soldiers come from the main guard, and draw themselves up ... the people still continued in Confrontations in Boston
  106. 109. An eyewitness account the street, crying, 'Fire, fire, and be damned,' and threw more snow balls. British Captain Preston could not control the crowd as they taunted the soldiers. He ordered his troops &quot;Don’t fire!&quot; but with the commotion I heard the word 'fire' given ... and instantly the soldiers fired one after another.&quot; The troops fired and killed three men instantly; another two died later. The first man to die was Crispus Attucks, a black man. “ Confrontations in Boston
  107. 110. When the smoke and confusion cleared, five Bostonians were dead or dying. John Adams, a lawyer (and future President), helped win acquittal for six of the soldiers, but his cousin, Sam Adams, a patriot leader, called the incident a &quot;plot to massacre the inhabitants of Boston&quot; and was used to rouse fellow colonists to rebel. Confrontations in Boston
  108. 111. Boston Mass. <ul><li>The 5 Colonists killed at the Boston Massacre would become martyrs for the Colonial cause </li></ul><ul><li>They would be buried in the same cemeteries as Paul Revere and Samuel Adams . </li></ul><ul><li>British soldiers were tried in court and 2 were found guilty of manslaughter. </li></ul>
  109. 112. Confrontations in Boston <ul><li>After England starts to pay royal salaries (late 1772), Samuel Adams organizes 1st Committee of Correspondence in Boston </li></ul><ul><li>Established in all 13, committees increase popular support, especially in interior </li></ul><ul><li>Boston committee drafts statement asserting rights to life, liberty, & property; approved by most Massachusetts towns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contrast w/ earlier statements — loyalty to England less important than secure rights </li></ul></ul>
  110. 113. <ul><li>Tea Act, East India Company ---The Tea Act gave the East India Company a monopoly on the trade in tea, made it illegal for the colonies to buy non-British tea and forced the colonies to pay the tea tax of 3 cents/pound. </li></ul>BRITISH RESTRICTIVE POLICIES
  111. 114. Tea & Turmoil <ul><li>Tea is a key symbol of earlier resistance </li></ul><ul><li>Tea Act (1773) saves East India Company from bankruptcy w/ a monopoly in colonies </li></ul><ul><li>Upsets patriots, who see act as either a new tax or 1st step in a monopoly on all trade </li></ul><ul><li>Protests in several cities; in Boston neither patriots nor governor compromise </li></ul>
  112. 115. Tea & Turmoil <ul><li>Tea Party (Dec. 16): artisans are key, but a cross-section of community participates </li></ul><ul><li>Parliament responds w/ Coercive Acts (4) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1) Port Act closes Boston until tea reimbursed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2) Massachusetts Government Act weakens elected bodies & strengthens appointed ones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3) Justice Act protects royal officials charged w/ crime by moving trial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4) Quartering Act allows seizure of private buildings for housing troops </li></ul></ul>
  113. 116. Tea & Turmoil <ul><li>Quebec Act: tolerates Catholics, empowers appointed bodies, & annexes interior </li></ul><ul><li>Viewed from Real Whig perspective & years of conflict, patriots see acts as clear evidence of conspiracy to oppress them </li></ul>
  114. 117. Tea & Turmoil <ul><li>Patriots agree to an intercolonial meeting to decide response, but do not call for revolution </li></ul><ul><li>1763–1774: key because many colonists become politically active & begin to see clear differences w/ England </li></ul><ul><li>American identity emerges from interaction between British action & colonial response </li></ul>
  115. 118. On the Eve of the Revolution ? ? ? Disadvantages ? ? Advantages Americans Britain
  116. 119. Population Manufacturing Money Army Leaders Geography Navy Will to Fight Approximately 12 million Highly developed Richest country in the world Large, well trained army plus Hessians Few officers capable of leading Strange land---difficult to re-supply troops Naval world power Trained soldiers---but no heart in the fight Approximately 3 million and 1/3 loyal to England. Practically none No $$$ to support the war Volunteers, poorly equipped Dedicated (though not experienced) officers Familiar land, easy access to supplies No navy Defending homeland--- strong will to fight British vs. United States Factors Great Britain United States
  118. 121. <ul><li>After the Boston Tea Party the British send more troops to enforce the Intolerable Acts. </li></ul><ul><li>Colonial militias prepare for war. </li></ul>BRITISH TROOP DEPLOYMENT
  119. 122. <ul><li>British searching for stolen weapons– “ search and seizure ” </li></ul><ul><li>Stopped at Lexington and encountered 56 Minutemen </li></ul><ul><li>Minutemen stood up for what they believed was their land </li></ul>SHOT HEARD ‘ROUND THE WORLD BATTLES OF LEXINGTON AND CONCORD
  120. 123. <ul><li>British attempt to “search and seize” stolen weapons. </li></ul><ul><li>First shots of the Revolution in Action </li></ul>
  121. 124. <ul><li>British Captain Pitcarin orders Minutemen off the green. </li></ul><ul><li>Response by the Minutemen, “ this is our green ” </li></ul><ul><li>Controversy over who fired the first shot </li></ul><ul><li>8 Americans killed. </li></ul><ul><li>British didn’t find any weapons and continued to Concord </li></ul>BATTLES OF LEXINGTON AND CONCORD
  122. 125. <ul><li>Americans </li></ul><ul><li>90 dead wounded or captured British </li></ul><ul><li>250 dead, wounded, or captured </li></ul><ul><li>Minutemen engage British troops at Concord Bridge. </li></ul><ul><li>British find some weapons at Concord. </li></ul><ul><li>British return to Boston, 5,000 Minutemen attack British troops. </li></ul>BATTLES OF LEXINGTON AND CONCORD
  123. 126. 2nd CONTINENTAL CONGRESS <ul><li>Organized first American army called the Continental Army and appointed George Washington as our Commanding General. </li></ul><ul><li>Willing to stay part of the empire but King must “redress our grievances” </li></ul><ul><li>Congress prepares for war……. </li></ul><ul><li>Came together again after the battles of Lexington and Concord, May 10, 1775. </li></ul>                           
  124. 127. OLIVE BRANCH PETITION <ul><li>Colonial leaders met in Philadelphia, PA to discuss their options in response to the Intolerable Acts. </li></ul><ul><li>The decision was to negotiate with King George III and send him a declaration of their willingness to remain British. </li></ul><ul><li>BUT, they have grievances (problems) which they want the King and Parliament to address. </li></ul><ul><li>AND, they instructed the local militias in each town to begin preparing for war with the MINUTEMEN ! </li></ul>
  125. 128. OUR FIRST GENERAL Who would be our first commanding general? <ul><li>2 nd Continental Congress based their decision on the following considerations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Political </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Military </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social </li></ul></ul>vs George Washington John Hancock George Washington was chosen based on his qualifications and these considerations.
  126. 129. CONTINENTAL ARMY <ul><li>First US Army made up of volunteers, militias and Minutemen. </li></ul><ul><li>George Washington chosen as the first Commanding General. </li></ul><ul><li>Not an army of professionals but mostly farmers. </li></ul><ul><li>Lacked the discipline of a professional army at first. </li></ul><ul><li>Lacked resources, men weren’t paid and some quit after the first few battles. </li></ul><ul><li>2 nd Continental Congress lacked resources to supply army. </li></ul>
  127. 130. <ul><li>June 17, 1775 </li></ul><ul><li>The British suffered over 40% casualties. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2,250 men </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1,054 injured </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>226 killed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Americans: Moral victory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>800 men </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>140 killed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>271 wounded </li></ul></ul><ul><li>King George sends 10,000 Hessian soldiers to help put down the rebellion. </li></ul>BUNKER HILL
  128. 132. BATTLE OF BUNKER HILL OR BREED'S HILL Battle of Bunker Hill raised the moral of the American Army though the British won the battle and suffered severe casualties. The Americans held there own against the greatest army in the world. The British never broke out of Boston or gained access to the countryside which the American army held.
  129. 133. DORCHESTER HEIGHTS <ul><li>March 1776, General Washington forces the British out of Boston with the “Seige of Boston”. </li></ul><ul><li>British General William Howe sails his 9,000 soldiers to New York City and set up their military base of operations. </li></ul>
  130. 134. <ul><li>African American, Peter Salem was born a slave in Framingham. He was freed from being a slave when he joined Edgell’s Minuteman company. In the War of Independence Peter Salem shot British Major Pitcairn at Bunker Hill. He also fought at Concord, and Saratoga. After the war he went from house to house to make baskets. He died in 1816. He is buried at the Old Burying Ground. </li></ul>BUNKER HILL OR BREED'S HILL
  131. 136. <ul><li>Referred to as the “ten crucial days”…Dec. 25 th to Jan. 3rd </li></ul><ul><li>First major victory for the Continental Army and Washington </li></ul><ul><li>Raised the morale of the American troops as well as the country </li></ul><ul><li>Led to soldiers re-enlisting and future enlistments </li></ul><ul><li>Captured over 1,000 Hessian soldiers, weapons, food and etc. </li></ul><ul><li>American Army re-crossed the Delaware to Valley Forge in Pennsylvania </li></ul>BATTLE OF TRENTON
  134. 140. <ul><li>General Horatio Gates surrounds the British with the help of Benedict Arnold </li></ul><ul><li>British defeat stopped them from cutting off New England from the rest of the country and ending the war. </li></ul><ul><li>British lacked knowledge of geography and failed at communications. </li></ul>BATTLE OF SARATOGA <ul><li>Oct. 1777, British General, John Burgoyne was surrounded by US General Horatio Gates and forced to surrender 6,000 British troops. </li></ul><ul><li>Led to a military alliance with France providing soldiers, naval fleet and $$$$$. (Franco-American alliance, 1778) </li></ul>
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