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America Becomesan Imperial Power
America Becomesan Imperial Power
America Becomesan Imperial Power
America Becomesan Imperial Power
America Becomesan Imperial Power
America Becomesan Imperial Power
America Becomesan Imperial Power
America Becomesan Imperial Power
America Becomesan Imperial Power
America Becomesan Imperial Power
America Becomesan Imperial Power
America Becomesan Imperial Power
America Becomesan Imperial Power
America Becomesan Imperial Power
America Becomesan Imperial Power
America Becomesan Imperial Power
America Becomesan Imperial Power
America Becomesan Imperial Power
America Becomesan Imperial Power
America Becomesan Imperial Power
America Becomesan Imperial Power
America Becomesan Imperial Power
America Becomesan Imperial Power
America Becomesan Imperial Power
America Becomesan Imperial Power
America Becomesan Imperial Power
America Becomesan Imperial Power
America Becomesan Imperial Power
America Becomesan Imperial Power
America Becomesan Imperial Power
America Becomesan Imperial Power
America Becomesan Imperial Power
America Becomesan Imperial Power
America Becomesan Imperial Power
America Becomesan Imperial Power
America Becomesan Imperial Power
America Becomesan Imperial Power
America Becomesan Imperial Power
America Becomesan Imperial Power
America Becomesan Imperial Power
America Becomesan Imperial Power
America Becomesan Imperial Power
America Becomesan Imperial Power
America Becomesan Imperial Power
America Becomesan Imperial Power
America Becomesan Imperial Power
America Becomesan Imperial Power
America Becomesan Imperial Power
America Becomesan Imperial Power
America Becomesan Imperial Power
America Becomesan Imperial Power
America Becomesan Imperial Power
America Becomesan Imperial Power
America Becomesan Imperial Power
America Becomesan Imperial Power
America Becomesan Imperial Power
America Becomesan Imperial Power
America Becomesan Imperial Power
America Becomesan Imperial Power
America Becomesan Imperial Power
America Becomesan Imperial Power
America Becomesan Imperial Power
America Becomesan Imperial Power
America Becomesan Imperial Power
America Becomesan Imperial Power
America Becomesan Imperial Power
America Becomesan Imperial Power
America Becomesan Imperial Power
America Becomesan Imperial Power
America Becomesan Imperial Power
America Becomesan Imperial Power
America Becomesan Imperial Power
America Becomesan Imperial Power
America Becomesan Imperial Power
America Becomesan Imperial Power
America Becomesan Imperial Power
America Becomesan Imperial Power
America Becomesan Imperial Power
America Becomesan Imperial Power
America Becomesan Imperial Power
America Becomesan Imperial Power
America Becomesan Imperial Power
America Becomesan Imperial Power
America Becomesan Imperial Power
America Becomesan Imperial Power
America Becomesan Imperial Power
America Becomesan Imperial Power
America Becomesan Imperial Power
America Becomesan Imperial Power
America Becomesan Imperial Power
America Becomesan Imperial Power
America Becomesan Imperial Power
America Becomesan Imperial Power
America Becomesan Imperial Power
America Becomesan Imperial Power
America Becomesan Imperial Power
America Becomesan Imperial Power
America Becomesan Imperial Power
America Becomesan Imperial Power
America Becomesan Imperial Power
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America Becomesan Imperial Power

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  • 1. America Becomes an Imperial Power
  • 2. Foreign Policy Elite <ul><li>Most Americans do not follow foreign affairs </li></ul><ul><li>Small, cosmopolitan group shapes foreign policy (same people guide economy) </li></ul><ul><li>Argue that US prosperity and security requires expansion overseas and global activity </li></ul><ul><li>Assert that foreign trade and investments will bring profit and relieve factory/farm overproduction (depression of 1890s) </li></ul>
  • 3. Why did America join the imperialist club at the end of the 19th Century?
  • 4. 1. Commercial/Business Interests U. S. Foreign Investments: 1869-1908
  • 5. 1. Commercial/Business Interests <ul><li>Key factor in post-1865 economic growth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GDP increases by 4x from 1870-1900 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Exports and investments abroad surge; US achieves favorable balance of trade (1874) </li></ul><ul><li>Export to England, Europe, Canada (80% of exports); trade with Latin America and Asia also increases (worth $200M in 1900). </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers and some manufacturers (Singer) depend on exports; 1913: factory exports surpass farm exports for first time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>20% Agricultural output what exported. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Producers wanted markets for ‘excess’ production. </li></ul>
  • 6. American Foreign Trade: 1870-1914 1. Commercial/Business Interests
  • 7. 2. Military/Strategic Interests Alfred T. Mahan - The Influence of Sea Power on History: 1660-1783
  • 8. 2. Military/Strategic Interests <ul><li>Key to empire in this time—Naval Power. US began developing its Navy. Captain Alfred Mahan and Theodore Roosevelt became important advocates of naval power. </li></ul><ul><li>Mahan: “Oceans are not barriers… but a great highway over which men pass in all directions.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Need a powerful navy to protect the highway. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need military bases at strategic points (in the Pacific, and Caribbean) to have a powerful navy. </li></ul></ul>
  • 9. 3. Social Darwinist Thinking The White Man’s Burden The Hierarchy of Race
  • 10. <ul><li>Many intertwined ideas encourage empire </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exceptionalism, nationalism, capitalism, social Darwinism, paternalism and prejudice </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Imperialists assert racial hierarchy of “civilized” peoples; Anglo-Saxons at top; dark skinned (Africans, Indians) on bottom </li></ul><ul><li>Latin Americans and Asians in middle (still viewed with derogatory stereotypes) </li></ul>3. Social Darwinist Thinking
  • 11. 3. Social Darwinist Thinking <ul><li>Strong’s Our Country (1885) celebrates divine Anglo-Saxon mission to lead world </li></ul><ul><li>National Geographic (1888) stereotypes foreign peoples as uncivilized. </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnocentrism and paternalism shape imperialism (US culture is superior and dark skinned foreigners are “children”) </li></ul><ul><li>Such ideas rationalize domination of others </li></ul>
  • 12. 4. Religious/Missionary Interests American Missionaries in China, 1905 Motivated by religion, 10,000 missionaries (many of them women) overseas by 1915
  • 13. 5. Closing the American Frontier
  • 14. 5. Closing the American Frontier <ul><li>Manifest Destiny- John Fiske: “The work which the English race began when it colonized North America is destined to go on until every land on the earth… shall become English in its language… religion… political habits… and to a predominant extent in the blood of its people.” </li></ul><ul><li>The Winning of the West- TR: Sweep aside Natives- “backward peoples”- “for the benefit of civilization and in the interests of mankind.” </li></ul>
  • 15. Japan
  • 16. Commodore Matthew Perry Opens Up Japan: 1853 The Japanese View of Commodore Perry
  • 17. Treaty of Kanagawa: 1854
  • 18. Gentleman’s Agreement: 1908 <ul><li>A Japanese note agreeing to deny passports to laborers entering the U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>Japan recognized the U.S. right to exclude Japanese immigrants holding passports issued by other countries. </li></ul><ul><li>The U.S. government got the school board of San Francisco to rescind their order to segregate Asians in separate schools. </li></ul><ul><li>1908  Root-Takahira Agreement . </li></ul>
  • 19. Lodge Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine: 1912 <ul><li>Senator Henry Cabot Lodge, Sr. </li></ul><ul><li>Non-European powers, like Japan, would be excluded from owning territory in the Western Hemisphere. </li></ul>
  • 20. Alaska
  • 21. “ Seward’s Folly”: 1867 $7.2 million
  • 22. “ Seward’s Icebox”: 1867
  • 23. Hawaii: &amp;quot;Crossroads of the Pacific&amp;quot;
  • 24. Hawaiian Queen Liliuokalani Hawaii for the Hawaiians!
  • 25. Annexation of Hawaii <ul><li>US missionaries, businessmen, and navy see Hawaii as base for profit and expansion </li></ul><ul><li>1875- trade agreement that allowed sugar from Hawaii to enter US duty (tax) free. </li></ul><ul><li>White (American) planters came to dominate the island. </li></ul><ul><li>Native population largely killed by diseases. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1887- Whites forced king to accept political reforms. King loses much power to whites. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1890- Hawaii loses trade advantages. Domestic (US) growers get a subsidy, and tariff dropped for all foreign growers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Economic crisis in Hawaii </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 26. Annexation of Hawaii <ul><li>By 1890s, white American elite dominates economy and undermines native government </li></ul><ul><li>1890 tariff hurts sugar exports to US; elite wants US to annex Hawai‘i; </li></ul><ul><li>1891- Queen Lili assumes throne. Tries to take power back. Whites revolt. American Minister calls in Marines to support coup. New government asks for annexation to US. </li></ul><ul><li>McKinley maneuvers annexation in 1898 </li></ul>
  • 27. U. S. Missionaries in Hawaii Imiola Church – first built in the late 1820s
  • 28. U. S. View of Hawaiians Hawaii becomes a U. S. Protectorate in 1849 by virtue of economic treaties.
  • 29. U. S. Business Interests In Hawaii <ul><li>1875 – Reciprocity Treaty </li></ul><ul><li>1890 – McKinley Tariff </li></ul><ul><li>1893 – American businessmen backed an uprising against Queen Liliuokalani. </li></ul><ul><li>Sanford Ballard Dole proclaims the Republic of Hawaii in 1894. </li></ul>
  • 30. To The Victor Belongs the Spoils Hawaiian Annexation Ceremony, 1898
  • 31. Cuba
  • 32. The Imperialist Taylor
  • 33. Cuba <ul><li>Cubans (Marti) want freedom from Spain </li></ul><ul><li>US investments dominate Cuba (sugar), and most Cuban trade with US, esp. Florida </li></ul><ul><li>1894 US tariff creates economic crisis </li></ul><ul><li>Marti launches guerrilla war; many Cubans killed and US property destroyed, but Spain weakened; Americans sympathize with rebels </li></ul><ul><li>Rebels recognized they could tip the balance by drawing America into the conflict. </li></ul>
  • 34. Cuba <ul><li>US public support generally for the rebels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reflects our revolution of 1776 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rebels were damaging economic life of island with sabotage. American investors want war over. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spanish Gen. Weyler began to put population into concentration camps. Conditions led to many deaths. “Butcher” Weyler. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yellow journalism—Stirred up emotions in US. Stirred up excessive Patriotism. Jingoism. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Imperialist attitudes- US drawn towards idea of helping the rebels. </li></ul></ul>
  • 35. Spanish Misrule in Cuba
  • 36. Valeriano Weyler’s “Reconcentration” Policy
  • 37. “ Yellow Journalism” &amp; Jingoism Joseph Pulitzer William Randolph Hearst Hearst to Frederick Remington: You furnish the pictures, and I’ll furnish the war!
  • 38. McKinley’s Ultimatum and War Decision <ul><li>Sept. 1897 US Minister insists that conflict in Cuba be brought to an end. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make peace or the US will step in. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A new Spanish govt. recalled Gen. Weyler and harsh treatment of Cubans. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Offered Cubans a degree of self-rule, but not independence. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cubans encouraged by US involvement- held out for independence. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>McKinley orders Maine to Havana to show US interest in end to war </li></ul>
  • 39. <ul><li>Feb. 9, 1898- William Randolph Hearst’s New York Journal released a copy of Spanish Minister de Lome’s letter criticizing Pres. McKinley as weak. </li></ul><ul><li>Feb. 15- Maine explodes—266 men killed. </li></ul><ul><li>Unclear the cause, but in public mind de Lome letter and explosion linked. Spain responsible. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Remember the Maine ” </li></ul>McKinley’s Ultimatum and War Decision
  • 40. De Lôme Letter <ul><li>Dupuy de Lôme, Spanish Ambassador to the U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>Criticized President McKinley as weak and a bidder for the admiration of the crowd, besides being a would-be politician who tries to leave a door open behind himself while keeping on good terms with the jingoes of his party. </li></ul>
  • 41. McKinley’s Ultimatum and War Decision <ul><li>March 27, 1898, McKinley sends ultimatum; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Immediate armistice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abandon reconcentration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have US as mediator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>End of mediation would result in Cuban independence. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Spain made concessions, but resisted independence. </li></ul><ul><li>April 11: McKinley says continued negotiations will not work, asks Congress for authorization for war. </li></ul><ul><li>Motives: humanitarian, secure US property/trade, opportunity for US expansion/empire </li></ul>
  • 42. USS Maine
  • 43. USS Maine Post-Explosion
  • 44. Maine Post-Explosion
  • 45. Artist’s Rendering of Maine Explosion
  • 46. &nbsp;
  • 47. Remember the Maine and to Hell with Spain! Funeral for Maine victims in Havana
  • 48. &nbsp;
  • 49. &nbsp;
  • 50. Theodore Roosevelt <ul><li>Assistant Secretary of the Navy in the McKinley administration. </li></ul><ul><li>Imperialist and American nationalist. </li></ul><ul><li>Criticized President McKinley as having the backbone of a chocolate éclair! </li></ul><ul><li>Resigns his position to fight in Cuba. </li></ul>
  • 51. The “Rough Riders”
  • 52. &nbsp;
  • 53. Spanish-American-Cuban-Filipino War <ul><li>Only 379 of 5462 US deaths from combat; most die from yellow fever/typhoid in US </li></ul><ul><li>First US victory in war in Philippines via new navy; imperialists see islands as key to US expansion in Pacific/Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish, already weakened, lose quickly </li></ul>
  • 54. Treaty of Paris (1898) <ul><li>Cuba gains independence </li></ul><ul><li>US gets Puerto Rico, Guam, and Philippines from Spain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pay $20M for Philippines </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Teller Amendment (in war declaration) blocks US annexation of Cuba, but McKinley assumes Cuba needs US tutelage </li></ul><ul><li>McKinley annexes Hawai‘i and Wake Island, gaining more colonies/bases in Pacific </li></ul><ul><li>Senate debates treaty and empire (1899) </li></ul>
  • 55. Treaty of Paris (1898)
  • 56. The Philippines
  • 57. The Spanish-American War (1898): “That Splendid Little War”
  • 58. Dewey Captures Manila!
  • 59. Is He To Be a Despot?
  • 60. What to do w/ the Philippines? <ul><li>Grant the Philippines independence? </li></ul><ul><li>Sen. Lodge: “We hold the other side of the Pacific and the value to this country is almost beyond imagination.” </li></ul><ul><li>Naval strategists coveted a base in Asia. </li></ul><ul><li>Could be key to maintaining influence in China- competition w/ European powers for China market. </li></ul>
  • 61. What to do w/ the Philippines? <ul><li>McKinley to a group of ministers (p. 313 Zinn) : </li></ul><ul><li>“ I sought counsel from all sides… but got little help…. I went down on my knees and prayed Almighty God for guidance…. [I]t came: </li></ul><ul><li>We could not give them back to Spain… </li></ul><ul><li>We could not turn them over to [our rivals] </li></ul><ul><li>We could not leave them to themselves- they were unfit for self-government </li></ul><ul><li>There was nothing left for us to do but to take them all and to educate… uplift… civilize… and Christianize them. </li></ul><ul><li>And then I went to bed and slept soundly.” </li></ul>
  • 62. Emilio Aguinaldo <ul><li>L eader of the Filipino Uprising. </li></ul><ul><li>July 4, 1946: Philippine independence </li></ul>
  • 63. Emilio Aguinaldo <ul><li>Had been brought back to the Philippines by the US from China to help in the fight against Spain. </li></ul><ul><li>Now fought against the Americans. Leader of the insurrectos . </li></ul><ul><li>It took the US 3 years and 70,000 troops to crush the rebellion. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>War ended in the Philippines, with more than 4,200 U.S. soldiers, 20,000 Filipino soldiers, and 200,000 Filipino civilians dead. </li></ul></ul>Use quotes, p. 315+, Zinn
  • 64. William H. Taft, 1st Gov.-General of the Philippines
  • 65. Our “Sphere of Influence”
  • 66. The American Anti-Imperialist League <ul><li>Founded in 1899. </li></ul><ul><li>Mark Twain, Andrew Carnegie, William James, and William Jennings Bryan among the leaders. </li></ul><ul><li>Campaigned against the annexation of the Philippines and other acts of imperialism. </li></ul>
  • 67. Cuban Independence? Senator Orville Platt Platt Amendment (1903) 1. Cuba was not to enter into any agreements with foreign powers that would endanger its independence. 2. The U.S. could intervene in Cuban affairs if necessary to maintain an efficient, independent govt. 3. Cuba must lease Guantanamo Bay to the U.S. for naval and coaling station. 4. Cuba must not build up an excessive public debt.
  • 68. DILEMMA--Did U. S. citizenship follow the flag??
  • 69. Puerto Rico
  • 70. Puerto Rico <ul><li>1900 - Foraker Act : civil law that established a civilian government in Puerto Rico. </li></ul><ul><li>1901-1903- the Insular Cases : Essentially, the Supreme Court said that full constitutional rights did not automatically extend to all areas under American control. </li></ul><ul><li>1917 – Jones Act : This law gave Puerto Ricans U.S. citizenship. However, the Governor and the President of the United States had the power to veto any law passed by the legislature. Also, the United States Congress had the power to stop any action taken by the legislature in Puerto Rico. The U.S. maintained control over fiscal and economic matters and exercised authority over mail services, immigration, defense and other basic governmental matters. </li></ul>
  • 71. Panama
  • 72. Panama: The King’s Crown <ul><li>1850 Clayton-Bulwer Treaty . Signed in 1850 by the United States and the United Kingdom, the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty was an agreement that both nations were not to colonize or control any Central American republic. The purpose was to prevent one country from building a canal across Central America that the other would not be able to use </li></ul>
  • 73. Panama Canal TR in Panama (Construction begins in 1904)
  • 74. Panama: <ul><li>US wanted a canal across Central America to avoid shipping goods and naval vessels around tip of South America </li></ul><ul><li>Nicaragua a logical place. Panama too. </li></ul><ul><li>French had started a canal in Panama, which was then under control of Colombia. US bought French interest, then Colombia wanted more money. </li></ul>
  • 75. Panama: <ul><li>US supported a revolt by a pro-US group willing to allow the canal to be built by Americans. US ships blocked Colombia from putting down the rebellion. US quickly recognized the independent Panama. Bought rights to canal for $10M. </li></ul>
  • 76. Panama: <ul><li>1903 Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty . the United States was to receive rights to a canal zone which was to extend ten miles on either side of the canal route in perpetuity; Panama was to receive a payment from US up to $10 million and an annual rental payments of $250,000. </li></ul>
  • 77. The Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine: 1905 Chronic wrongdoing… may in America, as elsewhere, ultimately require intervention by some civilized nation, and in the Western Hemisphere the adherence of the United States to the Monroe Doctrine may force the United States, however reluctantly, in flagrant cases of such wrongdoing or impotence, to the exercise of an international police power .
  • 78. Speak Softly, But Carry a Big Stick!
  • 79. <ul><li>Roosevelt Corollary to Monroe Doctrine—Not only would US act if European powers intervened in the Americas (Monroe Doctrine), but the US could intervene first in order to prevent that possibility. </li></ul>The Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine: 1905
  • 80. China
  • 81. Stereotypes of the Chinese Immigrant Oriental [Chinese] Exclusion Act, 1887
  • 82. The Boxer Rebellion: 1900 <ul><li>The Peaceful Harmonious Fists. </li></ul><ul><li>“ 55 Days at Peking.” </li></ul>
  • 83. The Open Door Policy <ul><li>Secretary John Hay . </li></ul><ul><li>Give all nations equal access to trade in China. </li></ul><ul><li>Guaranteed that China would NOT be taken over by any one foreign power. </li></ul>
  • 84. The Open Door Policy
  • 85. America as a Pacific Power
  • 86. America&apos;s New Role
  • 87. The Cares of a Growing Family
  • 88. Constable of the World
  • 89. Treaty of Portsmouth: 1905 Nobel Peace Prize for TR
  • 90. The Great White Fleet: 1907
  • 91. Taft’s “Dollar Diplomacy” <ul><li>Improve financial opportunities for American businesses. </li></ul><ul><li>Use private capital to further U. S. interests overseas. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, the U.S. should create stability and order abroad that would best promote America’s commercial interests. </li></ul>
  • 92. Mexico
  • 93. The Mexican Revolution: 1910s <ul><li>Victoriano Huerta seizes control of Mexico and puts Madero in prison where he was murdered. </li></ul><ul><li>Venustiano Carranza, Pancho Villa, Emiliano Zapata, and Alvaro Obregon fought against Huerta. </li></ul><ul><li>The U.S. also got involved by occupying Veracruz and Huerta fled the country. </li></ul><ul><li>Eventually Carranza would gain power in Mexico. </li></ul>
  • 94. The Mexican Revolution: 1910s Emiliano Zapata Francisco I Madero Venustiano Carranza Porfirio Diaz Pancho Villa
  • 95. Wilson’s “Moral Diplomacy” <ul><li>The U. S. should be the conscience of the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Spread democracy. </li></ul><ul><li>Promote peace. </li></ul><ul><li>Condemn colonialism. </li></ul>
  • 96. Searching for Banditos General John J. Pershing with Pancho Villa in 1914.
  • 97. U. S. Global Investments &amp; Investments in Latin America, 1914
  • 98. U. S. Interventions in Latin America: 1898-1920s
  • 99. Uncle Sam: One of the “Boys?”
  • 100. What the U. S. Has Fought For

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