Adams To Jefferson


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Adams To Jefferson

  1. 1. to Jefferson. From Washington… to Adams…
  2. 2. French Revolution • Foreign policy divisions in the US magnify tension • Americans initially praised Revolution (1789), but as executions mount, some Americans (esp. Federalists) fear disorder • Democratic-Republicans more sympathetic • War between France and England (1793) creates dilemma: USA allied w/ France, but dependent on trade w/ England
  3. 3. French Revolution (cont.) • Genet raised possibility of US intervention • Washington, Hamilton, and Jefferson agree on pursuing impartiality (neutrality) • Democratic-Republican societies form (1793); grassroots sympathy for France and public opposition to Hamilton’s Federalists • See themselves as new Sons of Liberty, but President horrified by organized dissenters
  4. 4. Relations w/ Great Britain • Want England to respect neutral rights, evacuate frontier posts, compensate for slaves freed, and sign a commercial treaty • But Jay had little to offer; able to avert war in 1795 treaty, plus got evacuation of forts and some protection of US trade • Many Americans, especially in South and in Democratic-Republican societies upset
  5. 5. Partisan Divisions in Congress • In tension w/ House, President establishes executive privilege to withhold information • By 1794, congressional votes display emerging partisanship (voting as a group) • Democratic-Republicans strong in South and w/ non-English, small farmers • Federalists supported by New Englanders, Anglo-Americans, and merchants
  6. 6. Partisan Divisions in Congress (cont.) • Democratic-Republicans want opportunity and westward expansion; Federalists stress order and stability • Federalists more pro-English; Democratic- Republicans lean more to France • Not modern organized political parties • (1796) First contested presidential election
  7. 7. Election of 1796 • Washington’s Farewell: establishes principle of unilateralism in foreign policy and attacks legitimacy of Democratic-Republicans • Adams and Pinckney (Federalists) vs. Jefferson and Burr (Democratic-Republicans) • Adams wins presidency, but Jefferson becomes vice-president • Constitution does not expect party slates
  8. 8. Quasi-War w/ France and XYZ Affair • US in a weak position militarily in early days. Could not easily go it alone, yet alliance with either France or England dangerous as they fought each other. – If joined the loser, would suffer in the end. – If joined the winner, would be a satellite nation, losing independence. – Staying neutral was difficult. Both French and English attacked US ships. • Peace at any price not an option, so military build- up called for.
  9. 9. Quasi-War w/ France and XYZ Affair • France very angry w/ US for perceived pro- British slant of later years of Washington administration. Neutrality and refusal to honor Rev. War treaty angered them. – Published decrees ordering that could attack American vessels and take them to French- controlled ports for plunder. – Refused to recognize French ambassador Charles Pickney. – Would not talk with Americans until they changed policies.
  10. 10. Quasi-War w/ France and XYZ Affair • Adams inherits this conflict over shipping rights. French privateers were capturing American ships. American ships were losing cargo and money. Many Federalists agitate for war. Adams desires a middle course. Build up the military (especially the Navy) while negotiating.
  11. 11. XYZ AFFAIR • Adams sent a secret negotiating team to deal with the French (Pickney, Elbridge Gerry, and John Marshall). – Foreign minister Talleyrand refused to meet them formally. Sent representatives in private (men labeled X, Y, and Z) who tried to bribe the Americans. – They said Talleyrand would not talk until US paid any debts owed to France by American citizens, gave a loan to France, and paid a quarter-million dollar fee “for the pocket… for the private use of the minister.” In other words, a bribe. The American negotiators refused.
  12. 12. XYZ AFFAIR • The negotiations eventually became public knowledge. The attempted bribery infuriated Americans. The XYZ affair pushed America to the brink of war with France. Adams began building a large navy in case war came. War fever spread amongst Americans.
  13. 13. SEDITION ACTS • Politics generally becoming uglier in this time. Partisanship was on the rise. • Republican press exposes Alexander Hamilton’s affair with Maria Reynolds and payments to James Reynolds to keep things quiet. Appears that Mr. and Mrs. Reynolds were in on it together for extortion.
  14. 14. SEDITION ACTS • Federalists began forming societies to promote a possible war (that Adams, without their knowing, had no intention of fighting) and began sending letters of support to Adams. “Stand behind” the president letters. “Millions for defense, but not one cent for tribute.” “To be lukewarm is to be criminal,” said on NY newspaper.
  15. 15. SEDITION ACTS • Newspaper business a tough one at this time. Many tried, but few succeeded. A real gamble to try and be successful. • Perhaps the gamble is what gave rise to excessive speech. Insults were hurled. Newspapers were not independent, but partisan.
  16. 16. SEDITION ACTS • Benjamin Franklin Bache (pronounced Beech) was a Republican. The Aurora. – Attacked even G. Washington: Administration tainted with “dishonor, injustice, treachery.…” “If ever a nation had been debauched by a man, America was debauched by WASHINGTON…. Let his conduct be an example for future ages… a warning that no man may be an idol.” – Called Adams, “old, bald, blind, querulous, toothless [and] crippled.” – Once got into a street fight with John Fenno, a Federalist publisher, over accusations made in Bache’s paper. They punched, Fenno bit Bache, Bache beat Fenno back with a cane (walking stick). Bystanders had to pull them apart. Each wrote up their own version in their papers and accused the other of cowardice in running away.
  17. 17. SEDITION ACTS • William Corbett, Federalist publisher. Porcupine’s Gazette. Fired sharp quills at the enemy Republicans. Wrote as Peter Porcupine. – Of Bache: “All the world knows and says he is a liar; a fallen wretch; a vessel formed for reprobation; and therefore we should always treat him as we would a TURK, a JEW, a JACOBIN, or a DOG.” – Letter to the editor (maybe): “I have often observed, in looking over Bache’s paper, that he never has any advertisements relating to mercantile business…. [I]t is that merchants are ashamed to have their names seen in so scandalous a paper or think it would be of little or no use to advertise in it on account of their being so few- except poor, ignorant, low-bred Jacobins- who take pains enough to read it.” Editor replies: “…[I]f you wish to continue to deserve your name, you should immediately cease to read Bache; for if you have the virtue of an angel, frequent converse with him will corrupt you.”
  18. 18. SEDITION ACTS The Federalists used the war fever as an opportunity to pass the Alien and Sedition Acts. Acts presented as a way to protect America from French enemies in this country; but were really an opportunity to try and control the Republican party. • Alien Acts- increased the amount of time necessary for an immigrant to become a citizen (most immigrants voted Republican); allowed the President to jail and/or deport quot;enemiesquot;- an increase of presidential power. • Sedition Acts- a series of laws that made it illegal to criticize the President and his (Federalist) govt. Clearly an attempt to scare the Republicans into silence.
  19. 19. Actual trials under the Acts. Sedition Acts: • Luther Baldwin. At parade as Pres. Adams passed through on way to Quincy. Cannon fired. “I hope one hits him in the [rump].” $100 fine. • Rep. Matthew Lyon. – Background. Fought on the floor of Congress with Federalist Roger Griswold. During debate, Lyon spat in Griswold’s face. 2 wks later, Griswold walked over to Lyon and began beating him with a cane. Lyon grabbed the tongs from a nearby fireplace and the fought. Had to be pulled apart while rolling on the floor. – Between sessions when at home, Republican Lyon criticized Adams in local paper. 4 months in jail and a $1,000 fine. Put in jail in midwinter in an unheated cell. Backfired on Federalists- reelected from jail and returned triumphantly to Philadelphia. Republicans collected money to pay his fine.
  20. 20. Actual trials under the Acts. • Jedidiah Peck, NY assemblyman. Indicted for passing about petition for repeal of Alien and Sedition Acts. Never came to trial. • David Brown, Dedham Mass. Put up a liberty pole and sign: “NO STAMP ACT, NO SEDITION AND NO ALIEN ACTS…DOWNFALL TO TYRANTS OF AMERICA; PEACE AND RETIREMENT TO THE PRESIDENT; LONG LIVE THE VICE PRESIDENT AND THE MINORITY.” Small fight between Reps and Feds before Feds were able to chop it down. $450 fine (4 to 5 times the yearly cash income of a family farm) and 18 months in jail. Stiffest sentence of all sedition act punishments.
  21. 21. KENTUCKY RESOLVES AND STATE'S RIGHTS Jefferson was furious over the Sedition Acts. They were an attack on him, his party, and he believed they were absolutely unconstitutional. The Acts violated strict construction, which he believed should limit government activities. He wrote the Kentucky Resolves: This was a document passed by the Kentucky legislature expressing outrage at the Sedition Acts.
  22. 22. KENTUCKY RESOLVES AND STATE'S RIGHTS State's Rights Philosophy: The Kentucky Resolves said that if the federal govt. passed a law that the Constitution did not give it power to pass, the state could quot;nullifyquot; that law. When declaring a federal law quot;null and void,quot; a state would be refusing to enforce the federal law, or allow it to be enforced, within its borders. This philosophy allows states to protect themselves from a power hungry federal govt. This is a very radical philosophy. Many years later, southerners revived this philosophy and used it as a basis for breaking away from the Union, thus beginning the Civil War.
  23. 23. THE CAMPAIGN OF 1800 J. Adams versus his Vice-President Thomas Jefferson. This campaign conducted in the days when candidates did not actually do much. Political operatives did all the work. This campaign was often very ugly: both sides making terrible accusations. Jefferson overcomes slander, the legitimate challenge of Adams, and intrigue by his vice- presidential candidate Aaron Burr to win the election by a very slender vote in the House of Representatives.
  24. 24. THE CAMPAIGN OF than today. Elections in 1800 much more complicated 1800 Not a single election day, but a patchwork of elections. • Only direct national election was for House. Senate and Pres. elected indirectly. • 10 of 16 states had Pres. electors appointed by State Legislatures, so for Pres. election crucial to win preceding state legislature votes. Party that wants to win needs to start early in getting its state legislature candidates elected. • Most states had two houses, which had to come to agreement on elector choices. This complicated matters. • Actual electorate was small- number of eligible voters was limited by restrictions; only 31% of eligible in Mass. voted; only 14% of eligible in Conn. voted.
  25. 25. THE CAMPAIGN OF 1800 “Real” election was Dec. 3, when electoral votes cast in the states. Then those votes were sent to the capital to be counted. • In the middle of December that it became apparent that one party would win but still a long process ahead. • In Feb. the votes counted in Congress. • In March, new president to take office.
  26. 26. A Campaign of Attacks Accusations against Adams (fewer because of Sedition Acts)- that he favored monarchy and aristocracy; that he was the enemy of liberty (Sedition Acts); that he was arrogant, over-blown, etc; that he was too close to the British. • Specific Rumors… – “expressed himself in favor of an hereditary President…” – had plotted to marry one of his 3 sons to a daughter of King George III to begin an American dynasty and had been stopped by George Washington’s threat of force. – had sent General Pinckney to England to bring back 4 pretty ladies to share as mistresses. (Adams joked…” if this is true General Pinckney has kept them all for himself and cheated me out of my two.)
  27. 27. A Campaign of Attacks Accusations against Jefferson- 1. He was soft on slavery: Southern states were concerned that he may try to abolish slavery. 2. Financial problems: Jefferson was deeply in debt. He did not manage his financial affairs very well. Sometimes he was accused of shady business deals. 3. Atheism: Jefferson was not a terribly religious man. Like Ben Franklin, a deist. This concerned many, and Federalists distorted his views. 4. Immorality: TJ was accused of having an on-going affair and children with a slave girl, Sally Hemmings. These stories were published most by a political enemy of TJ, James Callender. This issue is still discussed and debated about Jefferson.
  28. 28. • Jefferson defeats Adams in the Electoral College 73-65. • Problem: Jefferson & Burr Problem received 73 votes each and both were Democratic- Republicans • Therefore election decided by House of Representatives
  29. 29. 1. Election of 1800: The rise of political parties caused flaws in the electoral college Parties chose their candidates and electors would vote for them Federalists Democratic Republicans Adams--Pres---65 Jefferson---Pres.---73 Hamilton---VP Burr---VP----73 2. Led to a tie between Jefferson and Burr----House of Representatives chose Jefferson. 3. To eliminate future problems 12th Amendment: Requires electors to specify which person they want for President and VP on separate ballots so their would never be a tie.
  30. 30. Election determined in the House of Reps. Jefferson and Burr tied in the electoral vote. • Federalists had one electoral voter give a vote to someone other than the VP candidate to ensure this didn’t happen. Republicans neglected this. • When a tie, House decided the matter. • States voted as states. Majority of states required to win. • House still controlled by Federalists (new members did not take power until March), so they wanted to deprive TJ of presidency. Willing to vote for Burr instead.
  31. 31. Election determined in the House of Reps. House was supposed to decide “immediately.” Decided to deal with no other issues until the election was decided. • Members brought beds in. • Joseph Hopper Nicholson of MD was very ill. Carried in on a bed. When votes called, his wife would help him sit up so he could write Jefferson on his paper. MD was evenly divided between R and F, so his vote was necessary to keep election from being controlled by F’s. • First day (Feb. 11th), stayed until 3am and took no fewer than 27 ballots. 9 states needed to win (a simple majority of the 16 states). Jefferson had 8, Burr 6, and 2 divided so not voting. • More voting on the 12th and 13. No result. Many negotiations taking place.
  32. 32. Election determined in the House of Reps. • Rumors begin to swirl… – Fed’s are going to try and elect one of their own or leave Adams in the chair. – Rep’s will used armed revolt if F’s do that. • Deal worked out when James Bayard of Del., says he heard TJ say that he did not believe that Federalist should be removed from govt. jobs only for political reasons. • Md and Vermont Fed’s withheld their votes, allowing the states’ delegations to go Rep, giving Jefferson 10 states and making him President.
  33. 33. JEFFERSON'S FIRST INAUGURAL ADDRESS In this speech he tried to soften the tone of a nasty campaign. quot;We are all Republicans-- we are all Federalists.quot; He was reaching out to the opposition, and indicating that all Americans believed in a federal govt. and republican govt. He embraced certain principles: Majority rule- with protection for minorities. He was aligning himself with democracy more than the Federalists would. Frugal govt- keep finances small, taxes low, and let the people have their money. No foreign entanglements- following precedent of George Washington Pay off govt. debts- and don't create more. Freedom of the press (no Sedition Acts), and religion. ***Emphasis: small govt and individual rights.***
  34. 34. •Jefferson’s Presidency is considered a transitional period in US History. •Many historians look at this time period as the beginning of the true democracy in the US. •Believed National Government became too powerful during Adam’s Presidency •Would try to reduce National Govt. power but actually expands Presidential power.
  35. 35. •Champion for the common man •Believed education would prepare them for participation in government….. •For now, educated should rule… •Believed National Government became too powerful during Adam’s Presidency •Kept most Federalist programs. WHY? •Washington/Adams laid a solid foundation for USA. •Pardoned those arrested with Sedition Act •Repealed the Whiskey tax •Kept most of Hamilton’s financial policies— including BUS •Had Alien Act repealed.
  36. 36. •Visualized an agrarian society •Feared industrialization and its effects. •Farmers were the chosen class. •Laissez faire govt. (hands off govt.) •Against BUS but did not repeal it. •Owned slaves but believed it was evil….Slavery would end but predicted it would divide •Native Americans, co-existence a long range goal but he believed that Natives needed to adopt white ways, and that, at that time, Indians and whites could not co- exist. He worked towards removal of tribes to western lands •Believed education the key to social mobility Jeffersonian democracy
  37. 37. JEFFERSON AND THE COURTS In 1801 the Federalist govt. passed a Judiciary Act, which created many new courts and judicial jobs. Adams and his Secretary of State, John Marshall, spent, literally, the last hours of their administration filling judicial jobs with Federalists before TJ took office and appointed Republicans. Jefferson accused the Federalists of making a quot;retreat to the judiciaryquot; where he couldn't get rid of them. Threat to Revolution of 1800.
  38. 38. JEFFERSON AND THE COURTS One of Adams last appointments- John Marshall to Chief Justice of Supreme Court. Marshall and TJ were cousins, but political opponents. Marshall as Chief Justice dealt Jefferson a major defeat in the case of Marbury v. Madison. • For the first time the Sup. Ct. declared a law unconstitutional. This set a precedent for the future.
  39. 39. Chief Justice John Marshall stated, •“The Constitution is either a superior paramount law, unchangeable by ordinary means, or it is on a level with ordinary legislative acts, and like other acts, is alterable when the legislature shall please to alter it. •If the former part of the alternative be true, then a legislative acting contrary to the constitution is now law; if the latter part be true, then written constitutions are absurd attempts, on the part of the people to limit a power in its own nature illimitable. •It is emphatically the province and duty of the judicial department to say what the law is •If, then, the courts are to regard the Constitution and the Constitution is superior to any ordinary act of the legislature, the Constitution and no such ordinary act, must govern the case to which they are both applicable”.
  40. 40. • 1800. France acquired Spanish Louisiana and New Orleans. • Because of pressure from the west and national security threats, Jefferson offered to buy New Orleans from France. Offered $10M.
  41. 41. • Since Napoleon was at war w/ Gt. Britain, he offered entire Louisiana Territory to US for $15M. • In need of money for his war. • Jefferson agreed to the deal- approx. 3 cents per acre. • Doubled the size of the US. – No blood shed. – Possibility of an ‘empire of liberty.’