Present Perfect Vs Past Simple

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Present Perfect Vs Past Simple

  1. 1. Usages
  2. 2. <ul><li>Sheila has joined the Sierra Club. </li></ul><ul><li>Sheila joined the Sierra Club. </li></ul><ul><li>The use of the present perfect has more to do with our present perspective on the event rather than on the actual time at which it took place. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>The simple past tense occurs with specific past-time adverbials . The core meaning of the past tense is remoteness . The use of specific past-time adverbials (e.g., yesterday , last year , 1990 ) makes the past tense obligatory . The use of certain more general temporal adverbials is commonly associated with the perfect (e.g., already , since , yet ). </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Organise the phrases in the next slide into three columns headed used with simple past , used with present perfect and used with either . </li></ul>
  5. 5. Up to now In the last century During Kennedy’s lifetime Over the last hundred years or so For three months Three months ago Since three months ago Recently This is the first time I Lately Throughout the 17 th century Since the Vietnam War Today Within the last three months After the Second World War
  6. 6. <ul><li>In the last century </li></ul><ul><li>during Kennedy’s lifetime </li></ul><ul><li>Three months ago </li></ul><ul><li>Throughout the 17 th century </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Up to now </li></ul><ul><li>Over the last hundred years or so </li></ul><ul><li>Since three months ago </li></ul><ul><li>This is the first time I </li></ul><ul><li>Lately </li></ul><ul><li>Since the Vietnam War </li></ul><ul><li>Within the last three months </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>For three months </li></ul><ul><li>Recently </li></ul><ul><li>Today </li></ul><ul><li>After the Second World War </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Even if a past-time adverbial isn’t explicit, the remoteness may be defined elsewhere in the context or simply implied: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>John Lennon was a creative genius. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>The past tense is used for a completed historical period versus an incomplete one: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>My father lived here all his life. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>My father has lived here all his life. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>The function of the present perfect is to change the nature of the relationship between the subject and predicate – it emphasizes the predicated event’s result. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I’ve been to Japan twice already, but I still don’t speak much Japanese. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Past simple is used by speakers to talk about past events which are, or which they regard as, finalised, or over and done with . </li></ul><ul><li>Present perfect is used by speakers to talk about events which are still current , or which they want to highlight as being incomplete or still relevant . </li></ul>

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