The boreal forests or taiga
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The boreal forests or taiga



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The boreal forests or taiga The boreal forests or taiga Presentation Transcript

  • Introduction.Canada is home to 30% of the worlds borealforest and the 70% in Eurasia, Europe and Asia. It alsoincludes the worlds largest biomeforest in the world, which include(tree species)pine, fir, spruce, aspen and a number of othertree species and animal species.
  • THE LOCATION OF THE BOREALFOREST. Known in Russia as the cool coniferous-forest (taiga),it accounts forabout one third of this planets total forest area or 11.3% and 14.3%of the Earths land. The Boreal forest constitutes one of the largestbiome in the world, covering 12 million square kilometres and is inone of the coldest parts of the Earth. It circles the Northernhemisphere, covering Canada, Sweden, Finland and inland Norway,Russia, Siberia, Scandinavia, Alaska, parts of Kazakhstan, Mongoliaand a small amount are in Japan and is one of the important placeswhere birds and some other species too and from the forestsmigrate.
  • The taiga or boreal forest is a broad band of herbs, shrubs, coniferous trees and some deciduous trees that extends around the north below the tundra and here are some coniferous species. Pinaceae- Pine FamilyThe Silver Fir: it is also known as the European Fir. A tall tree with a long clear bole surmountedby a pyramid like crown or base that becomes flat, topped and at a mature age growing toa height of 46 m. Siberian Fir: This tree can grow to an average height of 30 m and a diameter of50 cm, it has a conical crown. Native to eastern Russia, Turkestan, Mongolia and China it preferscool and moist climate usually resistant to frost. Pinus Lodgepole Pine: A widely distributed pine that usually grows tall with narrow, dense, conicalcrown, may remain small with broad, rounded crown, growing to an average height of 6 - 24 mand a diameter of 0.3 - 0.9 m. A 3 - 7 cm long stout, slightly flattened and often twisted, yellow-green to dark green. Bark: light brown, thin, and scaly. Cones: 2 - 5 cm long. An egg-shaped one-sided base, shiny yellow-brown, remaining closed on trees for many years, cone-scales raised,rounded with tiny, slender prickles. It grows throughout the Interior, from mid elevation tosubalpine sites which is in the eastern sides of Canada. Douglas Fir: A large tree with narrow,pointed crown, growing to a height of 24 - 61 m and a diameter of 0.6-1.5 m, often much larger.Bark: reddish-brown, very thick. Twigs: orange, turning brown, slender, hairy, ending in dark red,conical, pointed, scaly, hairless bud. Cones: 5 - 9 cm long; narrowly egg-shaped, light brown,short-stalked; with many thin, rounded cone-scales each above a long, protruding, three-pointedbract, paired, long-winged seeds it is located in the mid west of Canada.
  • Cypress Family.
  • Oak FamilyNorthern Red Oak: The Northern Red Oak is spread all along thenorthern regions. It is a large tree with rounded crown of stout,spreading branches, growing to a height of 18 - 27 m and adiameter of 0.3 - 0.8 m. Leaves: 10 - 23 cm long, usually dividedless than halfway to the middle into wavy cuts with a fewirregular that are tipped, usually dull green above, dull lightgreen beneath with lots of hairs in angles along middle vein,turning brown or dark red in Autumn. Bark: dark grey orblackish, rough, furrowed into scaly ridges and the inner is barkreddish. American Elm: The American Elm is located at thenorthern regions. It is a large, graceful tree with enlargedbuttresses at base, usually spreads into many spreadingbranches, droops at ends, forming a very broad, rounded crown,growing to a height of 30 m and a diameter of 1.2 m; often muchlarger.
  • Sugar Maple: Sugar maple is one of 148 maple speciesfound in the Northern Hemisphere(Canada, Russia andAlaska). A large shade tree with rounded, dense crown,growing to a height of 21 - 30 m and a diameter of 0.6 - 0.9m. Leaves: 9 - 14 cm long, lobed with 5 deep long-pointed, 5main veins from base, leafstalks long and often hairy, dulldark green above, paler and often hairy on veins beneath,turning red, orange, and yellow in autumn. Bark: light grey;becoming rough into narrow scaly pieces. Species of Common Shrubs.Vine Maple: It is mostly restricted to the south-western area.A shrub or small tree with short trunk or vinelike branchesturning and twisting from the base, growing to a height of7.5 m and a diameter of 20 cm, sometimes larger. MountainAlder: The Mountain Alder is located in the north west ofEurasia and Canada. It is a shrub with spreading, slenderbranches with several trunks and a rounded crown,growing to a height of 9 m and a diameter of 15 cm, oftengrows in thickets.
  • Gallery.
  • Hundreds of indigenous people live in the boreal forest (specifically inCanada) They rely on the lakes, rivers, water foe, beaver, fish andother aquatic species and deer. They use the boreal lakes and riversfor transportation. Factories like food production and electricity Etc.bring tourist, scientists, people who build houses there and graduallybecoming into towns and even cities. It is a good place for grazingbringing in animals or farms.(also Mongolians, Russians,Scandinavians and Siberians also live in the boreal forest)
  • Topography or Landscape.The Topography or landscape of the boreal forest is quite mountainous which means it has a alpine biome,these ranges start from California and stretches to the west coast of Canada and to the Alaska Range(Appalachian Mountains). In Europe, Eurasia and Asia Mountains are not that popular(where the borealforest is located), but there are mountains that are about 700M to 2100M in the north-west of Russia andin the artic region. The great big mountains in Eurasia are in the boarder of Mongolia and South Russia.These mountains have dramatic features like glaciers. There are 230 glaciers in the these mountains. Hereare some Mountains:Look At google earth Wiki Peak 2333m Redstone Hill 2446m
  • Climate. rapidly and one ofIn the Boreal forest Temperatures are changingthe main problems are global warming. The taiga is a moist subarcticforest that begins where the Tundra ends. The winters are long, darkand cold with lots of snow, and the summers are warm and shortwhen the daylight can be up to 20 hours long. The Northern part ofCanada, Alaska and Russia, you have gained altitude, therefore it ismuch more cooler. The taiga climate is mostly cold arctic air. Strongcold winds bring bitterly cold air from the Arctic Circle, thetemperatures fall even more on clear nights when there is no cloudcover. Winter, with its freezing cold temperatures, lasts for six toseven months. Summer is a rainy, hot, humid and a short season inthe taiga. Autumn is the shortest season for taiga. Spring bringsflowers, the frozen ponds melt, and the animals come out fromhibernation. The taiga climate has an average annual rainfall of 30 -84 cm. Most of it falls in the summer as rain. Winters LOWESTtemperature in taiga is -15°C.Winters HIGHEST temperature is -1°C.Summers LOWEST temperature is -1° C.Summers HIGHEST temperature is 21°C.
  • Facts.  the Greek god of the NorthThe Boreal Forest is named after Boreas,wind. The biome is known as boreal in Canada, but is also known astaiga, a Russian word. Taiga is most commonly used to refer to thebiomes more barren northern locations while boreal is used for themore temperate, southern area. The boreal represents 11.3%% of theworlds forest cover. While typically low on biodiversity, the borealaround the globe supports a range of animals. Canadas boreal forest ishome to 85 species of mammals, 130 species of fish, some 32,000 speciesof insects, and 300 species of birds. Of the 300 bird species that callCanadas boreal forest home during the summer, only 30 stay throughthe winter. Wildfires are an important part of the reproductive cycle forsome species. Depending on the area, large fires occur in a cyclerepeating anywhere from 70 to 200 years. The aurora borealis wasnamed after the Roman goddess of dawn, Aurora, and the Greek namefor the north wind, Boreas. However, the Greek call the Dance of theSpirits and it covers 14.3% of earths land surface. The boreal forest alsocontains 1.5 million lakes.
  • The things that make the boreal forest unique and different is that the borealforest stores enormous quantities of carbon, possibly more than the temperateand tropical forests combine, much of it in peat-lands, in the acidic soil and inthe trees. These acidic soils store aluminium, carbon dioxide and other minerals.The boreal also provides electricity, wood, oil, gas, coal, hydro-electricity ,uranium, biomass and steel. The electricity comes from, hydro-electricity fromdams and electricity from gas, nuclear and oil. Gas, oil, uranium, wood(paperand timber) and steel are sold, this will raise the economy and will also bringtourist and tourist is money. Food, food is also important to civilization. The borealforest is good place for grazing and also for farming. It also provides lots of waterand one of the cleanest, because they get filtered by the peatlands. Canadais also a place for birds to migrate. The peace Athabasca delta is one of themost important ecological system on earth, it is a place where birds mate andmigrate to and from it and listed as a world heritage, because of thethreatened species of millions of birds. The peat-lands are like water filters, ifcontaminated water goes through will be filtered and drinkable and water is animportant source to human life. Biomass can be turned into fuel and the fuelcan be turned into electricity this is one of the sustainable ways of creatingelectricity.
  • Millions of amphibians, birds mammals and other animals are beinginstinct or are threatened to being instinct. This is happening bylogging(deforestation), mining, hydro-electric power generators andnuclear generators. Already 4,400 mining claims have been staked acrossthe northern half of Canadas Boreal Forest. This is all leads to airpollution, water pollution and soil pollution. Because the world needs theboreal forest! Threats.
  • Definitions.
  • Definitions.
  • Definition.Aurora’s: bands of light sometimes seen in the sky in polarregions(north or the south pole).
  • National geographic.Boreal Forest - The Canadian Encyclo-pedia.The Alpine Biome.The Boreal Forest Biome: Taiga Biome. Tree HuggerBOREALFOREST.ORGBooks: encyclo-pedia and love earth.Videos: Geography and history.