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Practical project managers manual, vesion 2000

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C:\Fakepath\Activity Project Management Atlas 2000

  1. 1. ACTIVITY Project Management ATLAS Activity Project Management Training commissioned by Activity Consolidated Odijk, March 2000 Version: 2.0
  2. 2. ACTIVITY AND THE ATLAS Activity is an organization that is growing rapidly. At the end of 1997, Activity had a staff of 50; there are now some 125 professionals, each with their own unique background. We expect this number to grow substantially in the near future. Not only is the number of staff growing, the number of clients and the quality of the orders is rising too. These developments have resulted in a large variety of people, clients and orders in ACTIVITY. This also increases the importance of forming a common frame of reference for project management and disseminating it where necessary. Over the years, ACTIVITY has built up extensive knowledge and experience with working schematically, project style. Part of this knowledge and experience has been laid down in the ATLAS. ATLAS applications The ATLAS used internally: Common frame of reference One important aim of the ATLAS is to create a common frame of reference. It is important for internal communication that we speak the same language. This ATLAS is therefore not only aimed at junior project managers, but also experienced project managers, project assistants, account managers, staff executives and supporting staff. At ACTIVITY, when we speak about how and why we must work schematically, the definitions laid down in ATLAS must be the points of departure. The ATLAS used externally: support or methodology The Project Management Process on which the ATLAS is based is a tried and tested method of working schematically. The knowledge and experience recorded in the ATLAS can be used by other ACTIVITY project managers when executing projects for clients. If a client indicates that it does not have a method of its own, the ATLAS can serve as the foundation for a tailor-made method to suit the organization. Points of departure The following points of departure were used to develop the ATLAS:  ACTIVITY does not impose any method upon the client. The method usually employed by the client is decisive. However, if and insofar the client‟s method is less suitable, or if the client indicates that it wishes to use the ACTIVITY method, the ATLAS may prove useful.  The ATLAS is a generic model; it can be applied to projects in all sorts of environments.  Practical suitability is the key factor. Existing publications contain more specific background information on the various subjects. The ATLAS is a guide with practical checklists and tools. The ATLAS in development The Atlas is an ongoing project. It is fed from practical experience. Because knowledge and experience are constantly being interchanged, the ATLAS will continue to develop. There will therefore be regular updates of the ATLAS in the form of new releases. © ACTIVITY Consolidated 2
  3. 3. BIBLIOGRAPHY The following titles are referred to in this ATLAS.  Syllabus Het Projectmanagement Proces (The Project Management Process Syllabus) Author: Activity Project Management Training, February 2000  Projectmatig Creëren (Creating Schematically) J. Bos and E. Harting (editors) Scriptum Books, Schiedam, 1998 ISBN: 90 5594 122 0 / NUGI 684  A guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge PMI Standards Committee, 1996 ISBN: 1-880410-12-5 © ACTIVITY Consolidated 3
  4. 4. D e Defining the problem s i Defining the result First think .... g n Overall risk analysis Phasing Breakdown Organization ...then plan.... S u Milestones r e Cost estimate t i Information control ...approve... e s Quality control Management Project Team and enviroment ... then get going.... Risk control Approval Management cycle Action: Take stock C implement of matters o activities Fine-planning n t MEASURING AND r CHECKING PROGRESS o Measures: l Steering progess - steer Compare - do nothing - stop Delivery - Re-plan W Norm/plan i with margins n Transfer d Closure and i Evaluation learning n g Closure u p © ACTIVITY Consolidated 4
  5. 5. DEFINITION OF THE PROBLEM INTRODUCTION DESIGN DEFINITION OF PROBLEM Key issues What is the problem or the opportunity? DEFINITION OF RESULT Should we handle this order schematically? OVERALL RISK ANALYSIS Content PHASING The first point of interest for a project manager is to gain insight into what BREAKDOWN precisely the problem is and in which direction to seek the solution. SURETIES ORGANIZATION Result MILESTONES  General definition of the problem COST ESTIMATE  Endorsement on drawing up project task INFORMATION CONTROL BIBLIOGRAPHY QUALITY CONTROL  Syllabus Het Projectmanagement Proces (The Project Management PROJECT TEAM AND ENVIRONMENT Process Syllabus) MANAGEMENT Chapter 1: Definition of the problem RISK CONTROL  Projectmatig Creëren (Creating Schematically) APPROVAL Chapter 1: The essence of creating schematically Korset of ruggengraat MANAGEMENT (corset or backbone) FINE-PLANNING Chapter 2: Commitment and creating. From Wanting to Choosing MEASURING AND CHECKING PROGRESS  A guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge STEERING PROGRESS Paragraph 5.1: Initiation DELIVERY WINDING UP TRANSFER EVALUATION CONCLUSION TOOLS DEFINITION OF THE PROBLEM Formulating the problem  Ask the client to describe the problem as precisely as possible.  Make a list of questions regarding the problem.  Emphasise the necessity of preliminary research.  After the preliminary research, describe the problem as specifically as possible.  Check the formulation of the problem with the client and end users; reformulate if necessary.  Do not talk big. © ACTIVITY Consolidated 5
  6. 6.  Formulate in one sentence . Questions to assist in defining the problem  Whose problem is it (client‟s)?  Why is it a problem?  How urgent is the problem?  Is there a problem underlying the problem?  What is its (strategic) significance?  Which potential causes and solutions have already been considered? Pitfalls in determining the problem  Vague and incoherent problems.  Coming up with a solution prematurely.  Not clear who is involved in the problem.  Analysing the needs of the wrong target group.  Not setting priorities in case of several problems.  Selectively filtering problems. © ACTIVITY Consolidated 6
  7. 7. DEFINITION OF THE RESULT INTRODUCTION DESIGN DEFINITION OF PROBLEM Key issues What must be achieved? DEFINITION OF RESULT Why must this be achieved? OVERALL RISK ANALYSIS What are the preconditions? PHASING What are the criteria for success? BREAKDOWN Content SURETIES ORGANIZATION As soon as we have a clear definition of the problem, we can describe in empirical terms what must be achieved by the project and what the criteria for MILESTONES success are. A preliminary estimate of the costs and time schedule are made. COST ESTIMATE The client then formally endorses this. INFORMATION CONTROL Result QUALITY CONTROL  Project order PROJECT TEAM AND ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT Bibliography RISK CONTROL  Syllabus Het Projectmanagement Proces (The Project Management Process Syllabus) APPROVAL MANAGEMENT Chapter 2: Definition of the result FINE-PLANNING  Projectmatig Creëren (Creating Schematically) MEASURING AND CHECKING PROGRESS Chapter 3: The project contract. A business and tactic agreement between STEERING PROGRESS the project team and the client Chapter 4: The project definition: From orders to engagements DELIVERY  A guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge WINDING UP Paragraph 5.2: Scope planning. TRANSFER EVALUATION Tools  Project order CONCLUSION TOOLS DEFINITION OF THE PROJECT RESULT Tips for defining the project result  Formulate the result as specifically as possible (using nouns).  Clearly indicate the preconditions and criteria for success.  Indicate what is still unknown.  Formulate SMART - Specific - Measurable - Acceptable - Realistic - Time-related Questions to assist in defining the result  What is complete when it is complete?  What will change for whom?  What will you delegate to whom?  What are the key requirements and wishes?  What does not pertain to the project (demarcation)? © ACTIVITY Consolidated 7
  8. 8. Pitfalls in defining the project result  Ideas have not been sufficiently worked out and are unstable.  Coming up with solutions before the problem has been properly analysed.  Too general (“a working system”).  Too specific. © ACTIVITY Consolidated 8
  9. 9. IINTRODUCTION OVERALL RISK ANALYSIS DESIGN DEFINITION OF PROBLEM DEFINITION OF RESULT Key issues OVERALL RISK ANALYSIS How do I set to work on the project in general? Which control factors require additional attention? PHASING What expectations must the project manager fulfil? BREAKDOWN SURETIES ORGANIZATION Content MILESTONES Using a checklist, an overall risk analysis is performed. This will help COST ESTIMATE determine the most suitable approach to the project. The profile for the project manager can then be determined. INFORMATION CONTROL QUALITY CONTROL Result PROJECT TEAM AND ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT  Overview of risks related to control factors.  The profile of the project manager. RISK CONTROL  Overall risk analysis APPROVAL MANAGEMENT FINE-PLANNING Bibliography MEASURING AND CHECKING PROGRESS  Syllabus Het Projectmanagement Proces (The Project Management STEERING PROGRESS Process Syllabus) Chapter 3: Overall risk analysis DELIVERY WINDING UP TRANSFER Tools  Project classification EVALUATION CONCLUSION TOOLS © ACTIVITY Consolidated 9
  10. 10. PHASING INTRODUCTION DESIGN DEFINITION OF PROBLEM Key issues How can I split up the project life cycle? DEFINITION OF RESULT How do I keep the client involved? OVERALL RISK ANALYSIS PHASING Content BREAKDOWN Phasing is splitting up a project into logical, systematic stages. Phasing gives an SURETIES ORGANIZATION overview of the project and enables better steering and control. After completion of each phase comes the decision point. The next phase may only MILESTONES commence after the client has approved the phase in hand. Depending on the COST ESTIMATE type of project, standard phasing, minimal phasing or custom-made phasing may be applied. INFORMATION CONTROL QUALITY CONTROL PROJECT TEAM AND ENVIRONMENT Result MANAGEMENT  Phasing with decision points. RISK CONTROL APPROVAL Bibliography MANAGEMENT FINE-PLANNING  Syllabus Het Projectmanagement Proces (The Project Management Process Syllabus) MEASURING AND CHECKING PROGRESS Chapter 4: Phasing the project life cycle. STEERING PROGRESS  Projectmatig Creëren (Creating Schematically) DELIVERY Chapter 5: The project structure. Introducing structure, staying flexible and WINDING UP channelling energy. TRANSFER  A guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge Paragraph 2.1: Project phases and the project life cycle EVALUATION CONCLUSION TOOLS Tools  Phasing PHASING THE PROJECT LIFE CYCLE Standard phasing consists of the following phases and decision points: a) Initiative phase start: the idea/initiative activities - determine the status quo; - study the general problem issues; - give a general definition of desired result; - demarcate the project; - indicate project phasing; - describe the modus operandi; - draw up the project order; end situation: approved, decision document: Project order © ACTIVITY Consolidated 10
  11. 11. b) Definition phase start: approved Project order activities - collect the basic material; - determine project boundaries; - determine project requirements:  preconditions;  functional requirements;  operational requirements;  restrictions of the design; - set up a list of activities; - set up the order of activities; - set up the operating structure (defining sub-projects); - establish contact with third parties (designers); - draw up a project programme. end situation: approved, decision document: Project plan c) Design phase start: approved Project plan activities - detail the project programme; - contract third parties (designers); - seek solutions/designs for each sub-project; - seek or design project tools; - fine-tune sub-projects and project tools; - test sub-designs; - adjust sub-designs; - draw up the project design (down to the most basic level):  sub-projects;  tools. end situation: approved, decision document: Project design d) Preparation phase start: approved Project design activities - draw up implementation instructions, etc. - purchase/make tools (quantitative); - contract third parties (suppliers); - train the implementation organization; - draw up the implementation programme (scenario). end situation: approved, decision document: Implementation plan e) Implementation phase start: approved Implementation plan activities - deliver project result; - implement as per programme; - adjust programme. end situation: approved Project result f) Follow-up phase start: approved, decision document: Follow-up programme activities - conclude project; - put completed project into service; - maintain completed project ; - maintain tools; - evaluation. end situation: project evaluation. © ACTIVITY Consolidated 11
  12. 12. BREAKING DOWN INTO COMPONENTS INTRODUCTION DESIGN Key issues DEFINITION OF PROBLEM How do I break down the larger whole into manageable parts? DEFINITION OF RESULT OVERALL RISK ANALYSIS Content PHASING In order to gain more insight into what must be done and who must be BREAKDOWN involved, the project manager breaks down the project result into orderly units. SURETIES In larger projects, the total project is broken down into sub-projects, and a ORGANIZATION Work Breakdown Structure can be set up for each sub-project. Subsequently, MILESTONES each activity can be allocated to an organizational section or person in charge. This results in the Organizational Breakdown Structure. The activities allocated COST ESTIMATE to a person or department in charge are called “work packages”. INFORMATION CONTROL QUALITY CONTROL Result PROJECT TEAM AND ENVIRONMENT  WBS MANAGEMENT  OBS RISK CONTROL APPROVAL MANAGEMENT Bibliography FINE-PLANNING  Syllabus Het Projectmanagement Proces (The Project Management MEASURING AND CHECKING PROGRESS Process Syllabus) STEERING PROGRESS Chapter 5: Breaking down into components DELIVERY  Projectmatig Creëren (Creating Schematically) Chapter 5: The project structure. Introducing structure, staying flexible and WINDING UP channelling energy. TRANSFER  A guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge EVALUATION Paragraph 5.3.2: Tools and techniques for Scope Definition CONCLUSION TOOLS Tools  Planning matrix THE WORK BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE Conditions which a WBS must meet 1: There must be a strict hierarchy of activities. 2: There must be no overlap between activities; each activity is an independent entity. 3: Each activity must result in a demonstrable product. 4: Each activity must have an apparent throughput time. 5: Each activity must have calculable costs. To what degree must entities be broken down?  Until all elements can be univocally allocated to a specific section of the organization.  Until all products have been defined in terms of activities.  No further than five levels deep. © ACTIVITY Consolidated 12
  13. 13. Project Sub-project Sub-project Sub-project Act. Act. Act. Act. Act. Act. Act. Dep./P. Dep./P. Dep./P. Dep./P. Dep./P. Dep./P. Dep./P. © ACTIVITY Consolidated 13
  14. 14. ORGANIZATION Key issues DESIGN DEFINITION OF PROBLEM How do I obtain the right people and resources? DEFINITION OF RESULT OVERALL RISK ANALYSIS Content PHASING This step is geared to drawing up a workable and manageable project organization. This includes obtaining the manpower and material resources BREAKDOWN needed for the project and establishing tasks, responsibilities and powers. The SURETIES ORGANIZATION relation between the project and the rest of the organization is also described. MILESTONES COST ESTIMATE Result  Project organization. INFORMATION CONTROL  Diagram of the relation. QUALITY CONTROL  Tasks, Powers and Responsibilities. PROJECT TEAM AND ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT Bibliography RISK CONTROL  Syllabus Het Projectmanagement Proces (The Project Management APPROVAL MANAGEMENT Process Syllabus) FINE-PLANNING Chapter 6: Organization MEASURING AND CHECKING PROGRESS  Projectmatig Creëren (Creating Schematically) STEERING PROGRESS Chapter 10: The project organization. The organizational structure as a custom-made suit. DELIVERY  A guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge WINDING UP Paragraph 7.1: Resource Planning TRANSFER Paragraph 9.1: Organizational Planning Paragraph 9.2: Staff Acquisition EVALUATION CONCLUSION TOOLS PROJECT ORGANIZATION Questions to assist in defining the organization  Who does what?  Who has what powers?  How is decision-making arranged?  How is the relation between the project organization and the rest of the organization arranged? Resources for the organization  OBS  Project organogram  Project environment chart – informal (relation)  Powers and Responsibilities.  Escalation procedure © ACTIVITY Consolidated 14
  15. 15. INTRODUCTION MILESTONES DESIGN DEFINITION OF PROBLEM DEFINITION OF RESULT Key issues When must which interim results be achieved? OVERALL RISK ANALYSIS PHASING Content BREAKDOWN SURETIES In cooperation with the persons involved, the interim project targets ORGANIZATION (milestones) are described in terms of specific, measurable results. These milestones are fixed, verifiable controls used during the project to assess MILESTONES whether the project is still on course. The milestone plan indicates the logical COST ESTIMATE mutual connections between the milestones and the activities to be executed for INFORMATION CONTROL steady progress from one milestone to the next. QUALITY CONTROL PROJECT TEAM AND ENVIRONMENT Result MANAGEMENT  Milestone plan RISK CONTROL APPROVAL MANAGEMENT Bibliography FINE-PLANNING  Syllabus Het Projectmanagement Proces (The Project Management MEASURING AND CHECKING PROGRESS Process Syllabus) Chapter 7: Milestones STEERING PROGRESS  Projectmatig Creëren (Creating Schematically) DELIVERY Chapter 7: Project planning - Making feasible plans. WINDING UP TRANSFER Tools EVALUATION  Milestone plan CONCLUSION TOOLS MILESTONE PLAN Milestone characteristics  Represent important decision points.  Are natural  Are measurable  Are progressively closer to the project result  Can be interdependent (milestone plan)  The intervening periods are manageable Inventory of milestones  Brainstorm with involved parties based on the WBS: - contribution of knowledge; - collective perception of the result and approach; - list of task allocation and dependencies.  Make a thorough redefinition: - indicate only the "what" – do not impose the "how"; - maintain a provisional list of activities. © ACTIVITY Consolidated 15
  16. 16. Definition of milestones  Milestone : description  Status : version number  Results : concise description of the products/services to be delivered for this milestone  Quality : requirements the result must meet  Time : start / end: early - late  Funds : estimated costs  Responsibility : organizational department + staff  Dependency : previous milestones, who is waiting for the result?  Risks : anticipated bottlenecks and precautionary measures  Endorsement : signing and dating of planning and milestone by the persons in charge © ACTIVITY Consolidated 16
  17. 17. COST ESTIMATE INTRODUCTION DESIGN DEFINITION OF PROBLEM Key issues How do I estimate and monitor the project costs? DEFINITION OF RESULT OVERALL RISK ANALYSIS PHASING Content The project manager draws up a realistic cost estimate so that he has a standard BREAKDOWN by which to monitor the incurred costs during the course of the project. The SURETIES ORGANIZATION work packages (see Breaking down) form the point of departure for drawing up a cost estimate. MILESTONES COST ESTIMATE Result INFORMATION CONTROL  Cost estimate QUALITY CONTROL  Project budget PROJECT TEAM AND ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT RISK CONTROL Bibliography  Syllabus Het Projectmanagement Proces (The Project Management APPROVAL MANAGEMENT Process Syllabus) FINE-PLANNING Chapter 8: Cost estimate MEASURING AND CHECKING PROGRESS  Projectmatig Creëren (Creating Schematically) STEERING PROGRESS Chapter 8: Funds. The various ways in which money can be obtained for/roll into a project DELIVERY  A guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge WINDING UP Paragraph 7.2: Cost Estimating TRANSFER Paragraph 7.3: Cost Budgeting Paragraph 7.4: Cost Control EVALUATION CONCLUSION TOOLS Tools  Costs matrix COST ESTIMATE The project budget The project budget  consists of costs that can be influenced by the project manager, for:  manpower;  resources;  materials;  serves as a basis for project control;  is drawn up and approved as early as possible. The cost estimate The cost estimate comprises the calculation of all costs components:  Gives an idea of the costs of the project result.  Serves as a basis for decision-making by the management. © ACTIVITY Consolidated 17
  18. 18. Drawing up a project budget When drawing up a budget, we distinguish between costs and investments. Costs are subdivided into direct and indirect costs; investments are subdivided into movables and immovables. Step 1: Inventory of costs Direct project costs  Determine which costs are directly attributable to the project.  Classify these costs into a number of main groups which together cover all the direct costs. Indirect project costs  Determine which costs are indirectly attributable to the project.  Consider for instance the secondary resources that are vital for the project‟s success. Movables  Mention the specific movables and determine the associated costs.  Determine the economic life span and the necessary maintenance costs. Maintenance costs must be entered as direct costs if the maintenance costs are directly attributable to the project (otherwise enter as indirect costs). Immovables  Mention the specific immovables and determine the associated costs.  Determine the economic life span and the necessary maintenance costs. Maintenance costs must be entered as direct costs if the maintenance costs are directly attributable to the project (otherwise enter as indirect costs). The above can be depicted in the following diagram: Costs Investments Direct costs Indirect costs Movables Immovables  Consultancy  Workplace  Purchase of production equipment  Purchase of production premises  Travel and accommodation (Computer/Printer) costs  Office supplies  Office space Purchase price: NLG 140,000 Purchase price: NLG 600,000  Maintenance costs  Telephone/fax costs Economic life span: Economic life span: 20 years 4 years Monthly maintenance costs: Monthly maintenance costs: NLG 1,000 (see direct costs) NLG 500 (see direct costs) © ACTIVITY Consolidated 18
  19. 19. Step 2: Cost planning in time The costs are then plotted in time. The time units are given on the vertical (Y) axis and the different cost categories on the X-axis. Direct costs Indirect costs Movable Immovable investments investments Consultancy Travel and Office Maintenan Workplace Office Telephone/fa Production Production accommodat supplies ce space x costs equipment premises ion costs March 20,000 200 100 0 1,500 2,000 1,000 April 40,000 400 200 1,000 2,000 2,500 1,250 140,000 May 50,000 400 200 1,000 2,000 2,500 1,500 June 50,000 600 400 1,000 2,000 2,500 1,500 July 50,000 600 400 1,500 2,000 2,500 1,500 600,000 August 30,000 400 200 1,500 2,000 2,500 1,500 total 240,000 2,600 1,500 6,000 11,500 14,500 8,250 140,000 600,000 Total expenses made for the project in the period March through August : 1,024,350 Step 3: Approval After the cost estimate has been drawn up, it is presented to the client for approval. Step 4: Periodical analysis The actual costs and any costs yet to be incurred are compared with the approved budget per period. Note: In the cost analysis, the investments and depreciations must be included for all the above-mentioned expenses. Drawing up a budget  Identify the cost centres.  Determine cost types per cost centre.  Gather „hard” information (time investments, rates, offers, price lists, etc.).  If no “hard” information is available, have those executing the project draw up the cost estimate.  Determine what can be accurately estimated (5%) and what can be broadly estimated (10%-30%).  Determine the margin  Have the cost estimate approved for budget release. Cost types / cost centres  Time investment by company personnel / other personnel.  Contractor‟s costs (subsequent calculation or fixed price).  Material costs (building blocks, resources). cost centre MS A MS B MS C MS D Total cost type Contractor 20,000 135,000 75,000 15,000 245,000 Company personnel 1,400 2,000 1,800 800 6,000 Other personnel 300 150 750 2,500 3,700 Material 3,000 500 600 1,200 5,300 Total 24,700 137,650 78,150 19,500 260,000 MS = Milestone © ACTIVITY Consolidated 19
  20. 20. INFORMATION CONTROL INTRODUCTION DESIGN DEFINITION OF PROBLEM Key issues DEFINITION OF RESULT Who must I inform about what and when? OVERALL RISK ANALYSIS PHASING Content BREAKDOWN To ensure that it is clear to everyone what is meant and who must do something SURETIES with which information, the project manager draws up an information matrix ORGANIZATION and (for large, complex projects), a communication plan. Furthermore, it is the MILESTONES project manager‟s responsibility to ensure that the information is unequivocal COST ESTIMATE and recognizable (for instance: final or draft status) and can be found in the files. INFORMATION CONTROL QUALITY CONTROL Result PROJECT TEAM AND ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT  Information matrix  Communication plan RISK CONTROL APPROVAL MANAGEMENT Bibliography FINE-PLANNING  Syllabus Het Projectmanagement Proces (The Project Management MEASURING AND CHECKING PROGRESS Process Syllabus) STEERING PROGRESS Chapter 9: Information control DELIVERY  Projectmatig Creëren (Creating Schematically) Chapter 11: Information. The mustiest management aspect? WINDING UP  A guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge TRANSFER Paragraph 10.1: Communications Planning EVALUATION Paragraph 10.2: Information Distribution CONCLUSION Tools TOOLS  Action points  Decisions list  Information matrix INFORMATION CONTROL Information control is geared to monitoring the clarity and univocality of the project information by means of:  coding documents;  aligning document structure to match content of and coherence with other documents;  distributing documents;  releasing documents and amending them in accordance with the procedures;  filing documents;  keeping documents for at least 10 years (this is a legal requirement). Tips for information control  Strive for completeness and up-to-dateness.  Keep the set-up simple.  Be aware of individual information needs.  Avoid a personal set-up.  Record agreements in writing.  Go for an attractive design. © ACTIVITY Consolidated 20
  21. 21. Information matrix Client Account Internal Project Sub-project Project office manager commissioner organization leader Project Compiles order Distributes Project plan Determines Compiles Files Delivery Accepts Determines Compiles Files document Offers Accepts Compiles Determines Distributes Distributes Progress Compiles Files reports Compiles Sub-project Determines Distributes reports Files Information flow chart Project information Uncontrolled not recorded no Record ? (e.g. verbally) ja Retrievable Central no decentralized control ? (eg private records) ja Controlled Central project records Company records ` © ACTIVITY Consolidated 21
  22. 22. QUALITY CONTROL INTRODUCTION DESIGN DEFINITION OF PROBLEM Key issues How do I meet the agreed quality requirements? DEFINITION OF RESULT OVERALL RISK ANALYSIS PHASING Content At the end of the project, a product or service must be delivered that meets the BREAKDOWN client‟s demands. The project manager ensures that delivery takes place in time SURETIES ORGANIZATION and at the agreed price, and that it meets the agreed quality (both product and process quality). The agreements made on quality are laid down in product MILESTONES specifications and/or a quality plan. COST ESTIMATE INFORMATION CONTROL Result QUALITY CONTROL  Product specifications PROJECT TEAM AND ENVIRONMENT  Quality plan MANAGEMENT RISK CONTROL Bibliography APPROVAL MANAGEMENT  Syllabus Het Projectmanagement Proces (The Project Management FINE-PLANNING Process Syllabus) Chapter 10: Quality control MEASURING AND CHECKING PROGRESS STEERING PROGRESS  Projectmatig Creëren (Creating Schematically) Chapter 9: Quality. True quality resides in people. DELIVERY  A guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge WINDING UP Paragraph 8.1: Quality Planning TRANSFER Paragraph 8.2: Quality Assurance Paragraph 8.3: Quality Control EVALUATION CONCLUSION TOOLS QUALITY CONTROL Two activities can be distinguished in the quality control process: 1: Drawing up the quality plan  overall result  requirements / wishes  product specifications 2: Progress checks Interim testing and monitoring of the quality of  the product  the project management process Key principle for quality: the sooner a flaw is found, the less it will cost to remedy. © ACTIVITY Consolidated 22
  23. 23. Quality management The process can be depicted as follows: QUALITY MANAGEMENT (Overall description of the project result) Requirements and wishes Norm/ specification Product specifications Progress control Interim testing Endorsement Project result Quality plan  Tasks include: translating the intrinsic requirements into measurable quality requirements.  Methods: testing.  Procedures for advising and giving approval.  Test plan: who, what, when, where and how?  Aim for a flawless design. Progress checks  Who will test what to the requirements set? Specification requirements  Objective  Valid  Reliable  Desired level (of quality/quantity)  Indication for „measuring costs‟ © ACTIVITY Consolidated 23
  24. 24. PROJECT TEAM AND ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT INTRODUCTION DESIGN DEFINITION OF PROBLEM Key issues How do I keep all parties on course? DEFINITION OF RESULT OVERALL RISK ANALYSIS Content PHASING The project manager closely consults with and steers the project team and other BREAKDOWN involved parties from the moment he joins the project till the moment it is SURETIES wound up. Social aspects like managing, negotiating, team role management ORGANIZATION and conflict management are obviously critical success factors in a project. MILESTONES COST ESTIMATE Result INFORMATION CONTROL  Defined cooperation QUALITY CONTROL PROJECT TEAM AND ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT Bibliography RISK CONTROL  Syllabus Het Projectmanagement Proces (The Project Management Process Syllabus) APPROVAL Chapter 11: Project team and environment management MANAGEMENT FINE-PLANNING  Projectmatig Creëren (Creating Schematically) MEASURING AND CHECKING PROGRESS Chapter 13: Forces and interests in and connected with projects Chapter 15: The project team STEERING PROGRESS Chapter 17: Project and parent organization DELIVERY  A guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge WINDING UP Paragraph 9.3: Team Development TRANSFER EVALUATION Tools CONCLUSION  Analyse the project environment TOOLS © ACTIVITY Consolidated 24
  25. 25. INTRODUCTION RISK CONTROL DESIGN DEFINITION OF PROBLEM DEFINITION OF RESULT Key issues What must definitely not go wrong in a project? OVERALL RISK ANALYSIS How can I prevent or take care of any setbacks? PHASING Content BREAKDOWN SURETIES An overall risk analysis is carried out at the beginning of a project (see the ORGANIZATION process step „overall risk analysis‟). Later on in the project, when the path of the project has become more defined, a more detailed risk analysis is MILESTONES performed. The purpose is to take precautionary measures and prevent COST ESTIMATE problems or compile a list of corrective measures early on in the project. A risk INFORMATION CONTROL factor that requires special attention is the legal side of matters, for instance, how is liability arranged. QUALITY CONTROL Result: PROJECT TEAM AND ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT  Preventive/corrective action  Risk-proof project plan RISK CONTROL APPROVAL Bibliography MANAGEMENT FINE-PLANNING  Syllabus Het Projectmanagement Proces (The Project Management Process Syllabus) MEASURING AND CHECKING PROGRESS Chapter 12: Risk control STEERING PROGRESS  Projectmatig Creëren (Creating Schematically) DELIVERY Chapter 19: Risk management Chapter 20: Creative problem-solving WINDING UP  A guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge TRANSFER Paragraph 11.1: Risk Identification EVALUATION Paragraph 11.2: Risk Quantification CONCLUSION Paragraph 11.3: Risk Response Development Paragraph 11.4: Risk Response Control TOOLS Tools  Dealing with potential bottlenecks  Cause-Consequence analysis  Impact analysis RISK ANALYSIS AND RISK REDUCTION Risk limitation Risk limitation encompasses two general activities. The risk is identified during the analysis phase and neutralised during the reduction phase. Risk limitation is thus a particularly valuable control instrument. Questions to assist in defining risk analysis 1. What can go wrong with the project result, the milestones, etc. 2. What are the potential consequences? 3. What is the chance of failure? Measuring and assessing the risks Chance of occurring X Severity of the Score Risk consequences Almost nil 1 1 Hardly any consequences 1-2 Low risk Small chance 2 2 Limited consequences 3-9 Average risk Reasonable chance 3 3 Fairly serious consequences 10-25 High risk Is sure to occur 4 4 Fatal consequences Cannot be estimated 5 5 Cannot be estimated © ACTIVITY Consolidated 25
  26. 26. Questions to assist in defining risk limitation  What is the most plausible cause?  Which preventive measures can be taken?  Is the remaining risk component acceptable?  Which reactive measures can be taken?  Who will do what and when? Risk analysis CAN ANYTHING GO WRONG? NO RISK NO YES SPECIFY PROBLEM CAN WE ESTIMATE THE RISK? FURTHER PROBLEM ANALYSIS NO YE S IS THE RISK LARGE ENOUGH TO HAVE TO TACKLE? CALCULATED RISK NO YE S TAKE PRECAUTIONARY MEASURES IS THE REMAINING RISK ACCEPTABLE REDUCED RISK YES NO MAKE CONTINGENCY PLANS CAN THE DAMAGE BE SUFFICIENTLY CONTAINED? COVERED RISK YES NO PERMANENT RISK © ACTIVITY Consolidated 26
  27. 27. APPROVAL INTRODUCTION DESIGN DEFINITION OF PROBLEM Key issues How do I get approval for the decision documents? DEFINITION OF RESULT Who must approve the decision documents? OVERALL RISK ANALYSIS Content PHASING The client remains closely involved with the project for the duration of the BREAKDOWN project. After all, the client must approve specifications and planning and SURETIES provide the necessary resources (staff, funds and material). The client must also ORGANIZATION make choices (continue, modify or stop) if plans lose touch with reality. The MILESTONES client‟s role must therefore be clearly defined. COST ESTIMATE In addition to the client, all others involved in the project must be able to approve the project plan. This is expressed in the shape of acceptance, INFORMATION CONTROL commitment, motivation and involvement. Without this support basis, it is QUALITY CONTROL almost impossible to complete a project successfully. PROJECT TEAM AND ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT Result RISK CONTROL  Approved decision documents APPROVAL  Commitment from those involved MANAGEMENT FINE-PLANNING MEASURING AND CHECKING PROGRESS Bibliography STEERING PROGRESS  Syllabus Het Projectmanagement Proces (The Project Management Process Syllabus) DELIVERY Chapter 13: Approval WINDING UP  Projectmatig Creëren (Creating Schematically) TRANSFER Chapter 16: The client EVALUATION CONCLUSION Tools TOOLS  Project plan  Project design © ACTIVITY Consolidated 27
  28. 28. FINE-PLANNING INTRODUCTION DESIGN DEFINITION OF PROBLEM Key issues DEFINITION OF RESULT Who must do what and when in the next phase? OVERALL RISK ANALYSIS PHASING Content BREAKDOWN As soon as it is known when execution of the work can commence, fine- SURETIES planning for the first phase can commence. The overall planning will continue ORGANIZATION to apply for the later phases. Only after completion of each phase is the next MILESTONES phase fine-planned. These schedules can be depicted visually in a network or COST ESTIMATE bar-chart planning. INFORMATION CONTROL QUALITY CONTROL Result  Activities plan PROJECT TEAM AND ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT RISK CONTROL Bibliography APPROVAL  Syllabus Het Projectmanagement Proces (The Project Management MANAGEMENT FINE-PLANNING Process Syllabus) Chapter 14: Fine-planning MEASURING AND CHECKING PROGRESS  Projectmatig Creëren (Creating Schematically) STEERING PROGRESS Chapter 7: Project planning DELIVERY  A guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge WINDING UP Paragraph 6.1: Activity Definition TRANSFER Paragraph 6.2: Activity Sequencing Paragraph 6.3: Activity Duration Estimating EVALUATION Paragraph 6.4: Schedule Development CONCLUSION TOOLS Tools  Implementation programme © ACTIVITY Consolidated 28
  29. 29. INTRODUCTION MEASURING AND CHECKING PROGRESS DESIGN DEFINITION OF PROBLEM Key issues DEFINITION OF RESULT On what basis do I evaluate the project progress? How do I keep all those involved informed of the project progress? OVERALL RISK ANALYSIS PHASING Content BREAKDOWN SURETIES There will be continuous feedback on the planning during execution of the ORGANIZATION project. The project manager will be kept up-to-date on the project via progress reports and will test this against the plan (or the norm). In order to implement MILESTONES this step of the process properly, criteria must be laid down and it must be clear COST ESTIMATE who is reporting on what and when. INFORMATION CONTROL QUALITY CONTROL Result PROJECT TEAM AND ENVIRONMENT  Criteria MANAGEMENT  Progress reports RISK CONTROL APPROVAL MANAGEMENT Bibliography FINE-PLANNING  Syllabus Het Projectmanagement Proces (The Project Management MEASURING AND CHECKING PROGRESS Process Syllabus) Chapter 15: Measuring and checking STEERING PROGRESS  Projectmatig Creëren (Creating Schematically) DELIVERY Chapter 6: Project control WINDING UP  A guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge TRANSFER Paragraph 6.5: Schedule Control EVALUATION CONCLUSION Tools TOOLS  Quick scan project control  Progress reports © ACTIVITY Consolidated 29
  30. 30. STEERING PROGRESS INTRODUCTION DESIGN DEFINITION OF PROBLEM Key issues DEFINITION OF RESULT How do I achieve the agreed end result? OVERALL RISK ANALYSIS How do I ensure that the end result is used effectively? PHASING BREAKDOWN Content SURETIES ORGANIZATION If progress appears to be drifting away from the planning, the project manager must take steps to align planning and reality. He can do this by steering, re- MILESTONES planning or, if the worst comes to the worst, he may even decide to put a halt to COST ESTIMATE the entire project. For the project manager, the point of departure is always to achieve the desired end result. INFORMATION CONTROL QUALITY CONTROL PROJECT TEAM AND ENVIRONMENT Result MANAGEMENT  Part results  Acceptance RISK CONTROL APPROVAL MANAGEMENT FINE-PLANNING Bibliography  Syllabus Het Projectmanagement Proces (The Project Management MEASURING AND CHECKING PROGRESS Process Syllabus) STEERING PROGRESS Chapter 16: Steering DELIVERY  Projectmatig Creëren (Creating Schematically) WINDING UP Chapter 6: Project control – the art of playing the Bermuda triangle TRANSFER EVALUATION CONCLUSION TOOLS CHECKING THE PROJECT PROGRESS Content of the progress report  Retrospect  State of affairs in connection with the plan  With respect to content and control  Preview  Approach of next phase (in detail)  Approach of subsequent phase (in detail)  With respect to content and control  Periodical  Milestone-dependent © ACTIVITY Consolidated 30
  31. 31. INTRODUCTION DELIVERY DESIGN DEFINITION OF PROBLEM Key issues DEFINITION OF RESULT How do I get endorsement of the project result from the client? OVERALL RISK ANALYSIS PHASING Content Delivery of the project result to the client is confirmed by the Delivery BREAKDOWN SURETIES document. With this document, the client declares in writing that all agreed ORGANIZATION project results have indeed been delivered. The conditions under which the project result is accepted are laid down in the initial phase of the project. Final MILESTONES signing of the Delivery document marks the end of the project. The winding-up COST ESTIMATE phase can then commence. INFORMATION CONTROL QUALITY CONTROL Result PROJECT TEAM AND ENVIRONMENT  Delivery document MANAGEMENT RISK CONTROL Bibliography APPROVAL MANAGEMENT  Syllabus Het Projectmanagement Proces (The Project Management FINE-PLANNING Process Syllabus) MEASURING AND CHECKING PROGRESS Chapter 17: Delivery STEERING PROGRESS DELIVERY Tools WINDING UP  Delivery document  Follow-up programme TRANSFER EVALUATION CONCLUSION TOOLS PROJECT DELIVERY Content of the Delivery document  Description of the project result as realised (based on the offer, the project plan and any proposals for changes)  Description of the follow-up programme (indicate who in the organization is to maintain the project result, guarantee terms, maintenance contracts, any adaptations/expansions).  Overview of remaining obligations, additional and less work.  Endorsement by the client that the project result has been achieved in accordance with the offer presented and that the contractor has met all obligations. © ACTIVITY Consolidated 31
  32. 32. TRANSFER INTRODUCTION DESIGN DEFINITION OF PROBLEM Key issues How do I guarantee the project result in the organization? DEFINITION OF RESULT OVERALL RISK ANALYSIS PHASING Content After the project result has been achieved in accordance with the requirements, BREAKDOWN the project manager must transfer the project result to a person in charge of SURETIES ORGANIZATION management and maintenance. This person must ensure that the project result is used optimally in the organization. The project manager supplies the required MILESTONES information in order to fulfil this task optimally. COST ESTIMATE INFORMATION CONTROL Result QUALITY CONTROL  Follow-up is embedded PROJECT TEAM AND ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT RISK CONTROL Bibliography  Syllabus Het Projectmanagement Proces (The Project Management APPROVAL MANAGEMENT Process Syllabus) FINE-PLANNING Chapter 18: Transfer MEASURING AND CHECKING PROGRESS STEERING PROGRESS DELIVERY WINDING UP TRANSFER EVALUATION CONCLUSION TOOLS PROJECT TRANSFER  Plan the transfer together with those involved:  who are involved?  which formalities must be taken into account?  Convince yourself that the end users accept the product  Formulate training requirements for end users  Have the client sign a statement of agreement © ACTIVITY Consolidated 32
  33. 33. EVALUATION INTRODUCTION DESIGN DEFINITION OF PROBLEM Key issues How can we learn from our project experiences? DEFINITION OF RESULT OVERALL RISK ANALYSIS Content PHASING The purpose of a structured evaluation is not only to highlight the successes and BREAKDOWN failures of a completed project. Even more important is to use the evaluation as SURETIES a means of looking ahead towards subsequent projects and therefore being able ORGANIZATION to avoid problems and pitfalls. MILESTONES COST ESTIMATE Result INFORMATION CONTROL  Evaluation report QUALITY CONTROL PROJECT TEAM AND ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT Bibliography RISK CONTROL  Syllabus Het Projectmanagement Proces (The Project Management Process Syllabus) APPROVAL Chapter 19: Evaluation MANAGEMENT FINE-PLANNING  Projectmatig Creëren (Creating Schematically) MEASURING AND CHECKING PROGRESS Chapter 23: Project evaluation and Audit, learning from what went right and what went wrong STEERING PROGRESS DELIVERY WINDING UP Tools  Evaluation TRANSFER EVALUATION CLOSURE TOOLS © ACTIVITY Consolidated 33

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