Pablo Martin Binder
María Aranda García
Olga Gerasimenko
Roy Weterings
René Bouwmeester
Jelle Pieters
Tianyi Hu
Mengxiao W...
Vision
Create a sustainable
riverbasin, which is self
relient by effective use of the
Guadelete river, creating
economica...
River as source
for economy
(Correct
Management)
River as a Solitary
Developement
(Incorrect
Management)
Huge
Population
S...
Future scenario
 WWTPs in villages
 Detached houses in more distant areas
 Small scale sustainable agriculture/aquacult...
Future scenario
 Improve current economical activities
 Rural hotels
 Tourism (culture, sports, nature, fishing)
 Know...
Measures
 Education and commitment
 Sustainable agriculture
 Sustainable aquaculture
 Eko tourism
 Salinas
 Detached...
Environmental education and
commitment: “LIVING WITH
GUADALETE RIVER”
BRAINSTORMING
 Agenda 21
 Public participation for...
Characteristics
 Free or low cost
 Slow process
 A lot of cooperation
 Governmental support
 Start in primary school ...
Action PlanTime Cost (Aprox.) Possibilities Experts involve
Official research Fast because
avaliable
20,000 € Possible Env...
* Educational field work is supposed to be continued for every
newcomming generation.
The term sustainable agriculture means an integrated
system of plant and animal production practices having a site-specifi...
(FAO, 2012)
Technical Meassures
Crop Rotation
Mixed Cropping
Inter Cropping
Cover cropping
Usage of locally produced compost
Replacement of traditional agrochemicals
Total Cultivated area 192611
Total Irrigated Area (ha) (2013) 45503
Numbre of existent cooperatives 15
Surface Water 100%
...
Surface % - Cooperatives included2013
2018 2023 2028 2033
•Progress Report
•Process Quality Report
•Baseline Report
•Peer ...
Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
Phase 1 Project Established with Human Resources, Facilities a...
Use aquaculture effluent for agriculture
Aquaculture effluent used for agriculture, reduce cost for effluent treatment
Eg....
Culture algae in aquaculture effluent
Algae as nature fertilizer
Combine with shellfish production
 Cooperation with Universities & scientific institutes
 Fish farms self-interested
 Support small fish farms & increase...
Touristic Hotspots
• Placed at the reservoirs of Guadelete river
• The touristic hotspots uses products of
sustainable (aq...
Touristic activities
• Guided tours to agriculture and aquaculture
spots
• Birdwatching tours
• Bike rental (with tracks t...
Rural Bed and Breakfast
• Self sustainable farm
• Experiencing culture and lifestyle
• Enjoying food and drinks from the f...
Rural bed and Breakfast
• Grains
– Provides for income and jobs for the local
population.
– Culture is preserved
– Biologi...
Rural Bed and Breakfast
• How to achieve this?
– Education program by Universities
– House to house education by students
...
Building a dry toilet
• Preparation: 1 hour
• Waiting: 1-2 years
• Aerobic process
• No water
• Capture nutrients
Materials
• Sturdy plastic milk crate
• 5-gallon bucket
• Toilet seat, complete with seat bolts
• Felt-tip pen or china ma...
Putting it together
• Scavenge
• Attach the toilet seat to the crate
• Cut a hole in the crate
• Cut the legs
• Attach the...
Maintenance
• Emptying interval of the toilet depends on the
number of users
• The emptying interval increases with the si...
Action Plan
• Create a student program
• Students inform inhabitants about awareness
and use of dry toilets
• Students and...
Reuse of gray water
• Use directly to irrigate crops
• Treatment by helophyte filter
• Reuse treated water for irrigation ...
Helophyte filter
• Natural treatment by reed
– About 3m3 per person needed and 1m deep
– A septic tank and pump to regulat...
Helophyte filter
• Creating awareness by advertising and house
to house
• Meetings with locals
• Subsidies EU
• Environmen...
LAS SALINAS AS AN
ECONOMICAL OPPORTUNITY
A salt mine is a mining
operation involved in the
extraction of rock salt or
halite from evaporate
deposites.
These deposi...
How Salinas operate
The salt extraction is based
on tides, sun and wind.
When the tide grows,
the doors will be opened
and...
This sea water is guided into a less deep area, called «tajerìa»
Here the sun and the wind
make water evaporate so the
sal...
The water is forced to follow a meanderic path:
in this way, the carbonate sediments will
deposite in meanders and the sal...
The salt is collected:
• with machines: it needs some washing
treatments for sand and iodine
• with hands Salineros
Nowadays, the salt extraction activity in the
province of Cadiz generates 1950 employers, but
there are some abandoned sal...
Salinas in
Puerto Real
Salinas in
Chiclana de la
Frontera
Salinas in San
Fernando
Regulation
The new “Ley de Costas” (a coastal law),
activated in the beginning of 2013, declares
that:
• 7500 ha of salt m...
Why restoring Salinas?
• Economic reasons:
- great source of new employments
• Biological reasons:
- contribute to the cle...
Restoring methods:
• To abandon all human interference
and leave the salt marsh to complete
its natural development.
• To ...
Costs of restoration:
are highly variable, they depend on:
• different site conditions
• different restoring method.
A rec...
Action Plan:
ACTIONS
YEARS
1 2 3 4 5 10
Policy and legislation
Take account of saltmarshes when developing agri-
environme...
Example of restoration costs:
SALINA DE LOS TRES AMIGOS (San Fernando):
Area: 408 ha
Amount of the cost: 11,913,600 €
Stakeholders involved:
STAKEHOLDER
CATEGORY
INSTITUTION STAKE RELATED TO POLICY ISSUE
Public
Governmental
Management of th...
Conclusion
• Create awareness
• Continues communication between
stakeholders
• Create opportunities
• Promote innovative t...
Final presentation spain quattro
Final presentation spain quattro
Final presentation spain quattro
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  • Small scale fish farms
  • Big scalefish farms
  • Flush toilets take two valuable resources, clean water and nitrogen-rich human waste, and combine them to create a problem: sewage. Dry or “humanure” toilets combine sawdust and human waste, which is then composted to make soil. It’s a simple, elegant system that follows nature’s dictate that there is no such thing as waste.A dry toilet uses no water, power, or chemicals, and it doesn’t require plumbing lines or septic tanks. This makes it perfect for off-grid living as well as situations where plumbing is not available. It's a convenient way to add an extra toilet to any house.We’d be lying if we said it does not seem strange at first to use a toilet with no water, but you do get used to it quickly. If you’ve been raised with flush toilets, your most basic impulse is to make your waste vanish. Pronto. However, once you grasp the indisputable logic of the system, know firsthand that it does not smell, and have seen the contents transformed into sweet-smelling, clean soil through the power of composting, you'll never look at flush toilets the same way again.A composting toilet is a dry toilet that uses a predominantly aerobic processing system that treats excreta, typically with no water or small volumes of flush water, via composting or managed aerobic decomposition.Composting toilets may be used as an alternative to flush toilets in situations where there is no suitable water supply or waste treatment facility available or to capture nutrients in human excreta as humanure.
  • Scavenge Find a milk crate and a 5-gallon bucket. Make sure that the crate is large enough to accommodate the width of the bucket. When you scavenge the crate, ask permission or be discreet. We know of someone arrested for scavenging milk crates behind a strip club, of all places. When the police finished booking the milk crate scavenger, the officer placed the paperwork in . . . you guessed it, a scavenged milk crate doubling as an in-box.Attach the Toilet Seat to the Crate Forage a toilet seat or pick one up at your local hardware store. Turn the crate upside down and attach the seat to one of the short ends. Be sure to center the seat. Slide the plastic bolts that come with the toilet seat through two holes in the grating on the bottom of the crate. Slip the nuts over the bolts on the inside of the crate, then tighten. Don’t overtighten.Cut a Hole in the Crate Lower the toilet seat so it sits on the crate. Lightly mark the position of the seat hole by making a few a lines on the crate using a marker or china pencil, or scoring with a knife, using the inner rim of the seat as a guide. Now you know where the bucket will sit. Lift the seat and position the bucket upside down over the markings. Trace the outline of the top of the bucket onto the crate. Cut out the circle with a jigsaw or keyhole saw.Cut the Legs The legs of the toilet support the crate so it sits flush with the top edge of the bucket. To figure out how long the legs should be cut, measure both the height of the bucket and the thickness of the crate’s bottom. Subtract that fraction of an inch representing the crate’s bottom thickness from the height of the bucket. The resulting number will be the length of the legs. The legs on our toilet are 13-1/2 inches long, but your measurements may vary, depending on the height of your bucket and the thickness of your crate.Attach the Legs The legs are positioned at the four corners of the crate, their ends braced against the floor of the crate. Attach them to the crate by threading cable ties through the plastic mesh of crate corners and tightening. Two ties, one high and one low, should hold the legs securely. If cable ties don’t appeal to you, you could bolt or screw the legs to the crate.Operating Instructions You’ll need a constant supply of sawdust to use as cover material. Ask around at wood shops and lumberyards for sawdust. Don’t use sawdust from chemically treated lumber, fiberboard, or plywood. This will be soil one day, and you don’t want those toxins in the soil. Sawdust works best in terms of coverage and odor control, though you can experiment with other carbon-rich cover materials, like chopped straw or hay. Whatever you use should be fine textured for proper coverage. Don’t use wood chips or wood shavings. They’re too “airy” and won't control odor well. Wood chips don’t compost easily, either.Keep a covered container of sawdust next to the dry toilet. You’ll need a scoop for the sawdust. We splurged on a nice metal scoop. Kelly insisted that if we were going to poop in a bucket, we needed that touch of class. You could make a scoop by cutting the end off a plastic jug: Keep the jug handle intact and make the cut at an angle, to form a scoop shape.Before the first use of the DIY composting toilet, put a deep layer of sawdust in the bottom of the bucket, about 3 to 4 inches. Do your business. The humanure toilet handles both solid and liquid waste. When you're finished, cover the deposit with a layer of sawdust. Try not to use too much sawdust—just enough to cover is plenty. Toilet paper can go in the bucket, but nothing else. Always keep the lid down when not in use. If odors arise, you’re probably not using enough sawdust. All you should smell is wet sawdust.When the bucket is full, take it outside to the compost pile.
  • The location of the toilet should be selected so that its emptying will be as easy as possible. If the toilet is installed indoors, the emptying facility should be located as close to the exit door as possible. Taking the waste out of the toilet through the living area is not reasonable, even in a closed container.The emptying site of the toilet tank should be located as close to the toilet as possible in order to avoid a long emptying distance. For example, it is a good idea to create a post-compost for waste from the Composting Toilet as near as possible to avoid having to wheelbarrow the emptied material back and forth.The liquid vessel needs to be dimensioned in accordance with the number of users and its location must be selected so that it is suitable for emptyingFree downward flow of the liquid must be ensured, so the collecting vessel needs to be placed so that the gradient is sufficient
  • Final presentation spain quattro

    1. 1. Pablo Martin Binder María Aranda García Olga Gerasimenko Roy Weterings René Bouwmeester Jelle Pieters Tianyi Hu Mengxiao Wang Dorella Maruccia
    2. 2. Vision Create a sustainable riverbasin, which is self relient by effective use of the Guadelete river, creating economical opportunities
    3. 3. River as source for economy (Correct Management) River as a Solitary Developement (Incorrect Management) Huge Population Small Population Graveyard Living with the River The American Dream Monstruopoli s Big Cities Infrastructure More Waste Hydropower Traditional Agricultue Bigger cities Housing Pollution Industries Masive Tourism Waste Incineration Cooperative EcoTourism Sustainable agriculture Aquaculture and architecture Water regeneration / reuse Algea Old population People leaving town Traditional agriculture Abandonned houses No technology
    4. 4. Future scenario  WWTPs in villages  Detached houses in more distant areas  Small scale sustainable agriculture/aquaculture  WWTP effluent for agriculture/aquaculture  Fish ladders  Sediment flow  Sufficient water quality
    5. 5. Future scenario  Improve current economical activities  Rural hotels  Tourism (culture, sports, nature, fishing)  Knowledge exchange/cooperation  Efficient landuse planification  Slow food  Preserving traditions
    6. 6. Measures  Education and commitment  Sustainable agriculture  Sustainable aquaculture  Eko tourism  Salinas  Detached houses
    7. 7. Environmental education and commitment: “LIVING WITH GUADALETE RIVER” BRAINSTORMING  Agenda 21  Public participation forums, group workshops  Feedback  GOs  NGOs (Ecologist Action, Fundación Nueva Cultura del Agua, FNCA)  Social network  Media  Like Famarea  European Centre for River Restauration  EU projects  EKOenergy environmental fund  EVS Examples
    8. 8. Characteristics  Free or low cost  Slow process  A lot of cooperation  Governmental support  Start in primary school (volunteers, students from universities, teachers…)
    9. 9. Action PlanTime Cost (Aprox.) Possibilities Experts involve Official research Fast because avaliable 20,000 € Possible Env. Institutions, organizations, universities… Media 3-4 weeks 8,000€/year Possible TV, newspappers, social network, radio, pamphlets… Feedback 2-3 months 2,500€ Possible Different sectors Cooperation with stakeholders and athorities A longer process 1,000€ 50%-50% GOs, industries, institutions… Group workshops 1 week 5,000€ Possible Experts, workers, Gos, NGOs, authorities… Media 2 3-4 weeks 8,000€/year Possible TV, newspapers… Educational field work All the time(*) 4,000€/year Possible Experts in environmental fields, volunteers, gropup leaders in the villages…
    10. 10. * Educational field work is supposed to be continued for every newcomming generation.
    11. 11. The term sustainable agriculture means an integrated system of plant and animal production practices having a site-specific application that will, over the long term: • Satisfy human food and fiber needs • Enhance environmental quality and the natural resource based upon which the agricultural economy depends • Make the most efficient use of nonrenewable resources and on- farm resources and integrate, where appropriate, natural biological cycles and controls • Enhance the quality of life for farmers and society as a whole. Transforming traditional agriculture into sustainable rural activities
    12. 12. (FAO, 2012)
    13. 13. Technical Meassures Crop Rotation Mixed Cropping
    14. 14. Inter Cropping Cover cropping Usage of locally produced compost Replacement of traditional agrochemicals
    15. 15. Total Cultivated area 192611 Total Irrigated Area (ha) (2013) 45503 Numbre of existent cooperatives 15 Surface Water 100% Irrigation system Gravity 30% Localized 33% Sprinkles 37% Average efficiency 64% Water distribution (m3/ha.yr) 6085 (Junta de Andalucía, 2011)
    16. 16. Surface % - Cooperatives included2013 2018 2023 2028 2033 •Progress Report •Process Quality Report •Baseline Report •Peer Learning Reviews - Lessons learned • Periodical Reviews and Reflection • Planning Mid-term and Final cycle Evaluation • New data and experience incorporation
    17. 17. Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Phase 1 Project Established with Human Resources, Facilities and Systems 1 Contracting, Defining leading committee 2 Recruitment, Capacity building of Team 3 Establishing project management systems and processes Phase 2 Initiation, Rapport Building and Demand Assessment 1 Community consutlations, level demand assessments, baseline assessments, benchmark indicators 2 Preparing agriculture development plans 3 Stakeholder consultations, workshops to finalise these plans and to seek support from government Phase 3 Establishment of a Village based Agriculture 1 Identification of agriculture providers 2 Assessment of capacities and preparing capacity buidling plan 3 Series of Training programmes, exposure visits for capacity building Phase 4 Sustainable agriculture interventions 1 Demonstrations at farmers field on Organic pest management, soil and nutrient management practices 2 Full Package of Organic technology available 3 Provision of seeds 4 Provision of fertility improvement products 5 Bio-pesticides 6 Package of practice training 7 Value chain studies, market opportunity assessment 8 Value addition interventions, micro enterprises for groups 9 Market information and linkages Phase 5 Institutional Development activities 1 Building /strengthening farmers at village level 2 Capacity building of community institutions, linkages with local Government 3 Convergence with public department responsible for delivery of services 4 Business planning support Phase 6 Knowledge documentation and dissemination 1 Research studies, project model documentation 2 Campaigns, seminars, workshops at various levels, Policy briefs, best practices Phase 7 Project Monitoring, Evaluation, Learning 1 Reports - Progress Report, Process Quality Report 2 Baseline Report 3 Peer Learning Reviews 4 Annual Reviews and Reflection, Planning 5 Mid-term and Final cycle Evaluation Year 5 Milestone / Activity and InputsNº Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Project Gantt Chart = 5 years sub-phase
    18. 18. Use aquaculture effluent for agriculture Aquaculture effluent used for agriculture, reduce cost for effluent treatment Eg. Salt tomatoes
    19. 19. Culture algae in aquaculture effluent Algae as nature fertilizer Combine with shellfish production
    20. 20.  Cooperation with Universities & scientific institutes  Fish farms self-interested  Support small fish farms & increase competition  Regulation --Increase the punishment. --Increase monitoring  Possible export. -- Local consumption ( tourism) -- Export to other European countries
    21. 21. Touristic Hotspots • Placed at the reservoirs of Guadelete river • The touristic hotspots uses products of sustainable (aqua/agri culture) • Touristic hotspots offering tours to sustainable farms Touristic hotpots Agriculture Aquaculture
    22. 22. Touristic activities • Guided tours to agriculture and aquaculture spots • Birdwatching tours • Bike rental (with tracks to agri/aquaculture spots) • Fishing trips • Canoe rental • Climbing wall at the dam • Rural bed and breakfast
    23. 23. Rural Bed and Breakfast • Self sustainable farm • Experiencing culture and lifestyle • Enjoying food and drinks from the farm • Learning about production process • Offering tours, sports and cultural activities
    24. 24. Rural bed and Breakfast • Grains – Provides for income and jobs for the local population. – Culture is preserved – Biological diversity is maintained in surrounding areas. – Cooperation between locals
    25. 25. Rural Bed and Breakfast • How to achieve this? – Education program by Universities – House to house education by students – Workshop meetings with farmers
    26. 26. Building a dry toilet • Preparation: 1 hour • Waiting: 1-2 years • Aerobic process • No water • Capture nutrients
    27. 27. Materials • Sturdy plastic milk crate • 5-gallon bucket • Toilet seat, complete with seat bolts • Felt-tip pen or china marker (optional) • Jigsaw or keyhole saw • Utility knife • 4 wood scraps or table legs • 8 plastic cable ties • Several gallons of sawdust or limestone and a bucket to store it in, and a scoop
    28. 28. Putting it together • Scavenge • Attach the toilet seat to the crate • Cut a hole in the crate • Cut the legs • Attach the legs • Operating instructions
    29. 29. Maintenance • Emptying interval of the toilet depends on the number of users • The emptying interval increases with the size of the tank • Easy excess to tank for emptying • Emptying of the collection vessel for liquid accumulated from the toilet
    30. 30. Action Plan • Create a student program • Students inform inhabitants about awareness and use of dry toilets • Students and volunteers are selected to build the dry toilets • Very low maintenance efforts
    31. 31. Reuse of gray water • Use directly to irrigate crops • Treatment by helophyte filter • Reuse treated water for irrigation or discharge
    32. 32. Helophyte filter • Natural treatment by reed – About 3m3 per person needed and 1m deep – A septic tank and pump to regulate the flow – Use a strong plastic foil to prevent leakage – Root pads to prevent puncture by roots – infiltration pipes – Gravel and sand – The plants
    33. 33. Helophyte filter • Creating awareness by advertising and house to house • Meetings with locals • Subsidies EU • Environmental action groups. • Costs about € 10.000 • Reduce costs by doing a part yourself.
    34. 34. LAS SALINAS AS AN ECONOMICAL OPPORTUNITY
    35. 35. A salt mine is a mining operation involved in the extraction of rock salt or halite from evaporate deposites. These deposits are located in the salt marshes, that are coastal ecosystems in the upper coastal intertidal zone between land and open salt waters.
    36. 36. How Salinas operate The salt extraction is based on tides, sun and wind. When the tide grows, the doors will be opened and the marsh will get flooded; then the doors will be closed and so the water remains inside.
    37. 37. This sea water is guided into a less deep area, called «tajerìa» Here the sun and the wind make water evaporate so the salt will be depositated on the ground.
    38. 38. The water is forced to follow a meanderic path: in this way, the carbonate sediments will deposite in meanders and the salt will result more pure.
    39. 39. The salt is collected: • with machines: it needs some washing treatments for sand and iodine • with hands Salineros
    40. 40. Nowadays, the salt extraction activity in the province of Cadiz generates 1950 employers, but there are some abandoned salt marshes: 34 in Puerto Real 7 in Chiclana 5 in San Fernando
    41. 41. Salinas in Puerto Real
    42. 42. Salinas in Chiclana de la Frontera Salinas in San Fernando
    43. 43. Regulation The new “Ley de Costas” (a coastal law), activated in the beginning of 2013, declares that: • 7500 ha of salt marshes and aquaculture installations are now considered like protected areas; • if the salt marshes manage to fulfill the law requirements, they could be operative again.
    44. 44. Why restoring Salinas? • Economic reasons: - great source of new employments • Biological reasons: - contribute to the cleaning of the area - birds like flamingos have repopulated the area
    45. 45. Restoring methods: • To abandon all human interference and leave the salt marsh to complete its natural development. • To restore the destroyed habitat into its natural state either at the original site or as a replacement at a different site. SUCCESSFUL APPROACH: 2 – 10 years
    46. 46. Costs of restoration: are highly variable, they depend on: • different site conditions • different restoring method. A recent study in New England indicates that the cost, on average, will be about $16000 / acre. € 11844 / 4047 m2 € 2,92 / m2 These costs include: • planning • construction • monitoring
    47. 47. Action Plan: ACTIONS YEARS 1 2 3 4 5 10 Policy and legislation Take account of saltmarshes when developing agri- environment schemes, management of coastlines Produce development control policies to prevent development in flood risk areas Promote awareness of agri-environment schemes which involve the management of saltmarshes Site safeguard and management Identify potential areas for managed realignment of saltmarshes Improve estuarine and coastal water quality Advisory Promote and develop demonstration sites for the management of saltmarshes Future research and monitoring Identify the key areas suffering from erosion Monitor changes in the extent and quality of the saltmarsh Monitor population of important wetland bird species Communication and Publicity Organise and hold demonstrations and talk about the biodiversity theme in saltmarshes Foster a wider appreciation of biodiversity of the area through education and publicity Communicate the need for managed realignment to landowners
    48. 48. Example of restoration costs: SALINA DE LOS TRES AMIGOS (San Fernando): Area: 408 ha Amount of the cost: 11,913,600 €
    49. 49. Stakeholders involved: STAKEHOLDER CATEGORY INSTITUTION STAKE RELATED TO POLICY ISSUE Public Governmental Management of the water basin Regional water resources authority Implementation of Water Framework Directive Agents of saltmarshes Natural Reserve Conservation of the salt marsh and biological communities Municipality Local municipality Definition of socioeconomic development strategies Non - Governmental Ecologists in Action Active participation in the defence of environmental quality (ex: monitoring waste discharges, environmental education, complaints to municipalities) Committee for the natural heritage defence Semi - Private Dams management Management of river discharge controlled by dams Wastewater management companies Implementation and maintenance of urban wastewater treatment facilities Private Environmental requalification management company Environmental assessment of large project; elaboration of river basin management plans Salt farming companies Traditional economic activity dependent on both quality and consumers' perception of ecosystem health
    50. 50. Conclusion • Create awareness • Continues communication between stakeholders • Create opportunities • Promote innovative thinking • Challenges to overcome (WWTP) • DON’T THINK IN PROBLEMS THINK OF CHALLENGES!!
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