Lobbying- activist (often lawyer) who tries to persuade members of Congress to enact legislation that would benefit their group Represent about every American interest group Can be paid or volunteer Should congressmen vote for what they think is best? What their constituents want (even if the congressman disagrees?) Or for what they‟re getting persuaded to do?
True or false: Congress has not declared war since WWII. › Explain your answer. - clip
Article 1, Sec 8- To declare War, grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal, and make Rules concerning Captures on Land and Water
From the resolution: That the Congress approves …of the President as Commander in Chief, to take all necessary measures to repel any armed attack against the forces of the United States and to prevent further aggression. MR. MORSE: [Wayne Morse, Dem.-Ore.] . . . I believe this resolution to be a historic mistake. I believe that within the next century, future generations will look with dismay and great disappointment upon a Congress which is now about to make such a historic mistake.
1973- Federal law that checks the President from declaring war without Congressional consent. Disregarded by: › -Pres Clinton, Kosovo „99 › -Pres Obama, Libya „11
House of Representatives: › 25 years old › Citizen of the U.S. for at least 7 years › Residents of the state Senate: › 35 years old › Citizen of the U.S. for at least 9 years › Resident of the state
› How long do Representatives and Senators serve?› How are these different from the qualifications of the President?› What reasons can you find for having different qualifications?
Average length of service › Reps- 5+ terms (10 years) › Senators- 2+ terms (13 years) States that have been represented by a woman 93 women (record #, 17% of total) 41 African-American congressmen (one in Senate), 8% of total 29 Hispanic congressmen (1 in Senate) 95% have University degrees
Senate- average age 63 Rep- average age 58
Definition: An incumbent is a politician who currently holds political office. Incumbency has a large impact on the success of individuals in elections. Why?
1.) Voters know how their representatives vote 2.) More importantly, VISIBILITY 3.) Franking privilege: Free mail service that is designed to keep voters informed about current issues and their voting record. (p. 382 of your textbook) Random fact: › Incumbents raise on average 6 times more for their reelection campaigns than their challengers
Quick definition: › Bringing federal funds to ones constituents Can come in all different forms › Federal projects › Contracts › Grants Example: › The “Big Dig” Finished Jan. 31, 2007 Boston, MA A project to take an existing 3.5 mile interstate highway and move it underground Ended up costing $14.6 billion Tip O‟Neill pushed to get this funding while he was Speaker of the House
Salary: › The current salary for members of the Senate and House of Reps is $174,000 per year Other benefits › Tax deductions › Allowances › Subsidized meals, trips, free recreational facilities, and franking privileges. Overall, its not too bad to be a member of congress
The Constitution gives the House and Senate the power to punish members who act out of line. › Censure Formal reprimand › Expulsion Forcing the member from office Only 4 members of congress have ever been expelled. 23 representatives and 9 senators have been formally censured
What do you immediately think of?
Article I of the Constitution gives congress the power to make law 3 types of power: › Expressed Listed right in the constitution › Implied Powers not specifically listed in the constitution › Nonlegislative
First power listed in the Constitution › “levy and collect taxes, duties, imports, and excises, to pay the debts, and provide for the common defense and general welfare of the United States.” › Gives congress the power to collect and spend money Power of the Purse House Ways and Means Committee Appropriation
Congress has the power to borrow money on the credit of the U.S. Government bonds › Government IOU‟s bought by individuals or companies This takes form in the national debt Debt Clock
Coining money: › The power to make money and regulate it. Bankruptcy › When someone is legally declared unable to pay one‟s debts
Ratified a treaty that the Pres signed granting Oregon to the US in 1846 Signed in Don‟t Ask, Don‟t Tell („93)- and repealed it („11) Investigated President Nixon in the Watergate scandal clip Confirmed first Hispanic Supreme Court judge Sonia Sotomayor „09
Commerce Power Judicial Power › Regulate commerce › Create federal courts with foreign nations below the level of the › Interstate commerce Supreme Court Power to establish post Power in foreign relations offices, copyrights, and › Approve treaties patents › Spending on national Power of naturalization and defense and foreign aid dominion over territories War Powers › Uniform rule of › Declare war naturalizations › Power to Punish Pirates › Governing of territories such as Virgin Islands, Guam, and Puerto Rico
All implied powers are based off Article 1 Sec. 8 of the Constitution › “to make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by this constitution…” › a.k.a -- NECESSARY AND PROPER CLAUSE (elastic clause)
Strict or Loose Interpretation of this clause has long been debated › Debate over creation of First Bank of United States (National Bank) › McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) Supreme Court found creation of second bank necessary to carry out national governments‟ monetary powers Court supported the loose constructionists‟ idea that the necessary and proper clause gave Congress right to make any laws needed to carry out its other powers
Where has this been used since then? › Improve rivers, canals, other waterways › Create the U.S. Air Force › Establishes federal parks › Creates federal laws against pollution › Define and provide punishment for federal crimes › Fix minimum wages
Impeachment Definition: Bringing formal charges against any member of the Executive or Judicial branch of government accused of misconduct or wrongdoing.
1.) The House of Reps votes to impeach. - Majority vote required2.) The case then goes to the Senate for a trial. - Senate then decides if the person is guilty or innocent. *Conviction requires 2/3 of the senates approval3.) If convicted, the official is removed from office
Andrew Johnson › Found Innocent Nixon ---- resigns before impeached Bill Clinton
Page 380 › Chart covering the differences between the House and the Senate Page 391 › Powers of Congress Page 431 › How a bill becomes a law
Write down one question you had (that was unclear.