Community participation

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Community participation

  1. 1. IMPACT OF COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION TO THE DEVELOPMENTOF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC STANDARD IN IJEBU EAST, NIGERIA. BY SHOAGA AYODELE RAPHEAL 04/36ED120 A RESEARCH PROJECT SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FOUNDATION AND MANAGEMENT, FACULTY OF EDUCATION, OLABISI ONABANJO UNIVERSITY, AGO-IWOYE, OGUN STATE IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE AWARD OF BACHELOR OF BUSINESS EDUCATION (BBE) MAY 2009 1
  2. 2. ABSTRACT This research work was carried out to examine the impact of community participation to the development of students’ educational standard within Ijebu East, Local Government Area. The objective of this research work is to identify various measures that could be put in place to ensure greater community participation towards the development of students’ academic standard in Ijebu East, Ogun State. The population covered in this study consisted of all schools and community members in Ijebu East, Ogun State. The sampled population were drawn from some selected community members, schools’ administrators, teachers and students as well as from some members of Parent-Teacher Associations within the Ijebu East Local Government Area. Survey method was used to gather information from the sampled population. Correlation coefficient and chi-square methods were used to analyse the data gathered from the respondents. The data were also used to answer the research questions and test the research hypotheses raised in this study. The findings from the data analysed revealed that there is a significant relationship between the schools and the Ijebu East community and that the community participation in school programmes has positively influenced the students’ academic performance and behaviour. It is then recommended that the formation of Parent-Teacher Association, the inclusion of the community members in school decision making and so on would bring about greater community participation towards the development of students’ academic standard. 2
  3. 3. CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Background to the Study Education which is seen as the transmission of the knowledge and values of a society from one generation to another is designed to guide a child in learning a culture, moulding his behaviour in the ways of his community and guiding him towards eventual roles in the society. In primitive culture with no organized form of education, the entire environment constitutes a ‘school’ while all adults particularly parents represent ‘teachers’. In complex societies, the quantity of knowledge is so much that there arise a need to evolve a more advanced and effective means of cultural transmission called ‘formal education’. While the most components of formal education are the school, academic staffs (teachers), non academic staffs and students, the parents and the community also play significant roles in the development and growth of formal education in order to improve and maintain the academic standard of a child. A child receives his early education from his parents, uncles, aunts, friends, neighbours and his immediate environment but as the child’s faculty of reasoning 3
  4. 4. progresses due to age and experience, he is sent to a more advanced school where he learns many things like craft, moral attitudes, discipline as well as associating with other members in the school, learning other cultures etc. that are not only beneficial to him alone but also to the entire community at large. Before the arrival of western European type of education in Africa, the youths in the community learn by imitating the ways of life and activities of the elderly members of the community. For example, the young boys learnt the art of farming by following their fathers and other male elders in the community to the farm and watching how these leaders cultivated, planted, nurtured and harvested crops after which they began to participate in such activities. Similarly, the girls learnt the domestic works by imitating and watching how their mothers and other female elders in the community carried out their domestic works. For example, the watched how their mothers took care of the babies by bathing, feeding, putting babies at their backs and rocking them to sleep. On the arrival of the Christian missionaries in Africa in 1842, the tune of education in Africa took a new dimension and hereby became more complex. The child at the age of six years was being introduced to the four walls of the formal school systems where his education was harmonized with that of his 4
  5. 5. home. However, the missionaries could not have succeeded in the introduction of their western type of education without the contributions of the local communities. The local communities assisted the Christian missionaries morally, physically and financially by providing direct labour, donation of harms and so on. The African communities saw western education as the main instrument that could bring progressive change and rapid development in the society. In Nigeria, the contributions of local communities towards the spread and development of western education can never be over-emphasized. Evidence has shown that since 1939 up till date, many schools (both primary and secondary grammar schools) have been established through the agitative efforts and the contributions of the local communities. That is, communities have played a variety of roles in the provision and management of education and learning systems. Apart from contributing financially or in-kind to the support of the schools, the community also participated in a much broader range of functions, including administrative (e.g. school maintenance), managerial (such as student and teacher discipline), financial (mobilizing funds and resources), pedagogical (establishing a pre-school), or personnel functions (monitoring and teachers attendance) and so on (World Bank, 2005: 39). 5
  6. 6. Also, communities act as critical resources in the provision of education in emergencies and during construction and reconstruction of the schools. To Berry (1976), community resources are material resources, agencies, activities or persons within the community which could be used to provide effective teaching and learning experience. Community resources could also be seen as the human and socio-natural resources within the community that could be utilized to provide learning opportunities. These opportunities are provided either by taking the school into the community or by bringing the community into the school. The vehicle for taking the school into the community could be through field trips, excursions, tours, school visits etc. In the course of this, students have the opportunities to hear, see, smell, touch or examine the real object(s) under discussion. More so, students have the opportunity to ask questions, photograph objects, record sounds and sketch items of interest. Bringing the community into the school is another way through which the community resources can be used for effective teaching and learning in an educational system. This involves inviting resource person of high status in the community to the school for teaching and learning purposes. Ultimately, the mobilization of community resources together with a sense of community ownership, have a significant impact on the sustainability of learning activities and educational systems. 6
  7. 7. In Nigeria, there is no how we talk about the impact of community participation in education without discussing the roles of Parent-Teacher Associations (PTAs) in educational system of Nigerian schools. This is because, as the community mobilizes, consultative and representative groups may emerge in form of parent-teacher associations (PTAs) or broader community education committees (CECs). Parent-Teacher Associations (PTAs) consists of school teachers and parents of students of particular schools coming together or forming a group with the objectives of improving the running of such schools so as to enhance maintain and improve the quality of education as well as to improve the academic performance of the students. In the 1960s when schools were not too many in Nigeria, governments were able to effectively fund education and only few PTAs existed. However, in the 1980s when governments stopped infusing adequate fund to the educational sector, the quality (standard) of education in the country started declining. As a result, most of the things a primary school leaver in the years gone by can do, cannot be effectively done by most of the secondary school leavers of today. This falling educational standard emerged from inadequacy of funding, lack of modern classrooms and teaching tools, poor numerations and acute shortage of 7
  8. 8. qualified teachers. Also, lack of dedication and punctuality to duty by teachers contributed to the falling educational standard. Parents also shared in the blame. Most of them simply did not care about their children’s education. As a result, the children’s projects, home work and assignments would not be done; neither would they be reminded to study at home. This even made some children derail and drop out. Government is largely responsible for this falling educational standard. Government frequently changes policies concerning education leaving both the teachers and the students confused (Adamu Muh’d Usman 2009). With the advent of numerous problems in the educational sector resulting in falling educational standard in Nigeria, it became necessary for most of the schools (primary and secondary schools) to have PTAs to assist in solving these problems. As a result of the proliferation of PTAs all over the country, it became necessary to organize them into schools as Institutional PTAs, Local Government Central PTAs, State PTAs and National PTAs of Nigeria. This development is a clear indication that parents (communities) would no longer sit and watch the educational standard of their children to fall. The followings entail some aims and objectives of the National PTA of Nigeria; 8
  9. 9. i. To provide platform for parents, guardians, sponsors and teachers of Nigerian students at primary, secondary, and tertiary level to meet, exchange views, analyze issues deeply, make recommendations and pursue implementation of decisions on matters affecting education in Nigeria with appropriate agencies; ii. To co-operate with and support morally and financially the Federal, State, and Local Governments, Ministries, Boards, Commissions and all other appropriate organizations, institutions and establishments of education to achieve high academic standard and performance, discipline, morality, service and integrity in Nigerian schools; iii. To foster mutual understanding, harmonious relationship and co-operation among parents, guardians, sponsors and teachers in the fulfilment of their common goals, the welfare of the schools and the students therein; iv. To make for healthy and sympathetic understanding of the educational policies and programmes of government and thus influencing some to create suitable climate for schools teaching and learning activities; 9
  10. 10. v. To ensure a suitable, uniform and high standard of discipline, both at home and at schools; vi. To assist materially and otherwise in providing the schools with such additional requirements that will enable it carry out its educational functions adequately and vii. To assist in the proper and all-round development of the children physically, morally, socially and mentally so as to make them grow to become useful and law abiding members of the society From the above objectives, it is obvious that the National PTA is playing crucial roles in the maintenance and development of Nigerian educational system. Some of the achievements of school PTAs’ could be seen from the following; a) They enhance understanding and good rapport between teachers and parents; b) Enable parents come to grip with the problems of the schools their children attend; 10
  11. 11. c) Complement government efforts in the provision of infrastructures (building, water and electricity supplies, etc), materials maintenance of the schools; d) Giving their parents’ interests in their schools, students are encouraged to give their maximum best towards their studies; e) Lobby government for support on the schools. f) They also serve as the watchdogs by monitoring and supervising the schools’ activities and that of the students. g) They also provide the schools the security officers to prevent their children from unnecessary roaming about outside the school premises as well as within the school compound during the class period. h) They also organize extra moral lessons for their children so as to improve their academic standard and performance. Community education committees (CECs) also perform some similar roles with those of PTAs. It is essential that the committees’ roles and responsibilities 11
  12. 12. be defined. CECs are organized to primarily focus on primary and secondary education (INEE, 2004: 15-16) some responsibilities of CECs are listed below: • Promoting good relationship between the school and the community members; • Communicating and meeting regularly with the school to discuss issues of concern as regards to the educational performance and improvement of their children; • Advising school to provide culturally appropriate approaches (e.g. flexible school calendars, education programme curricula that reflect the community context and involve community members in decision-making; • Participating in school project implementation and so on. Conclusively, it can be noted that PTA is the best way the community can participate on matters affecting education in Nigeria. Virtually, every school in the country in which PTA exists has benefited from the activities of the PTA. The benefits include provision of infrastructural facilities, materials (such as books, chalks and some other instructional materials) as well as assisting in crisis 12
  13. 13. solving and giving useful and valuable advice to school management. All these activities are carried out by the PTA and the community to improve and maintain the educational standard of their children and to make them useful not only to themselves alone but also to the community as a whole (Baku and Agyeman’s, 1997). However, the efforts of Nigerian governments towards the growth of western education in the country should not be shunned. Many schools (including primary, secondary, universities and other tertiary institutions) at various levels (local, state and federal) have been established and are being financed by the government. During the last decades, government has made strong efforts and commitments to education which may be seen through the formulation and implementation of various educational policies and programmes. The Universal Basic Education (UBE) organized by the government is a positive step towards educational success. Its purpose is to create an educated public whose interests are to support the unified nation, Aborisade oladimeji (1999). In a nutshell, there is need for communities and the schools as well as the Nigerian governments to operate hand in hand towards the development of students’ educational standard in the country. 13
  14. 14. Statement of the Problem The researcher intends to find out the rationale behind the community participations in the academic programmes of their children. Evidence has shown how communities partake in the school programmes to ensure that their children get sound, better and quality education. Based on the problems militating against the smooth running of many of schools in Nigeria, which include poor or inadequate teaching infrastructures and aids, lackadaisical attitudes of governments towards financing education, inconsistent educational policies and poor implementation of such policies, low teaching salary, constant teachers strikes, etc., parents and the community find it necessary to participate in the school programmes and fight the educational problems. This is based on their beliefs and anxieties that without their support, participation and involvement in school programmes, their children education may not be promising. The fluctuations in the school programmes which may affect the educational standard and performance of the children also necessitate the participation of the community (parents) in the school programmes. Also, if the school activities of the students are not monitored, they may keep bad company 14
  15. 15. or engage in some vices at school. Hence, the need to examine the community participation in school programmes is essential. Purpose of the Study Many researchers have carried out various research works on the community participation in the school programmes. Balgopah, (2000) examined the roles of community in promoting the standard of education; Sherry Arnstein (1969) and Roger Hart (1992: 9) indentified eight major areas where community can participate to the educational development of a nation and so on, but nothing has been done to enhance the community to participate more in the improvement of children’s academic standard. The purpose of the this study include the following; 1. To make it known to the parents and the communities that their involvement in their children educational programmes is an enhancement of their educational understanding and their ability to prevail over any negative circumstances that may stand in the way of their children academic programmes; 15
  16. 16. 2. To make it known to the parents that the education of their children should not be left in the hands of the teachers alone, parents should also partner with the schools in the provision of some basic teaching materials to promote effective learning for their children. 3. To make it known to the parents that their educational achievement is their children educational success and they should participate more in their children academic programmes. To bring out various measures that should be put in place to facilitate and enhance a better community participation in educational system. In a nutshell, it is hoped that this research work achieves the above purposes it is aimed to serve and lead to a greater and further critical research on this significant topic. This research work is aimed to be of great benefit to the parents, the school, the students and the entire community. Research Questions This research work is designed to address the following questions; i. What is the relationship between the community and the school? 16
  17. 17. ii. Why should the community participate in the academic programme of students? iii.To what extent has the community participated in the maintenance and improvement of students’ academic standard? iv. Does the community participation in children’s educational programme have any influence on their academic performance? v. What are the measures to be adopted to ensure greater community participation for better and quality education for their children? Research Hypotheses The following hypotheses are formulated from the research questions Ho1: There is no significant relationship between the school and the community. Ho2: There is no significant reason for the community participation in students’ academic programmes Ho3: There is no significant influence of community participation to the development of students’ educational standard. 17
  18. 18. Ho4: There is no significant influence of community participation on the academic performance of the students. Scope of the Study This study focused on five (5) selected senior secondary schools in Ijebu East Local Government Area. The population under this scope entails all the community members, the schools, the students and parent-teacher association(s) within the Ijebu East Local Government Area. Operational Definitions of Terms For the purpose of clarity, the following terms are briefly defined. Community: - This refers to a group of people living together in a particular area, having common interests, rights, beliefs and privileges in civil, political and local ties. Participation: - This refers to an act of taking part in an event. Education: - This is the process of acquiring knowledge through teaching that will lead to change in behaviour. 18
  19. 19. Role: - This deals with some certain functions performed by an individual or group of individuals. Educational Standard: - This refers to the quality of education in a system. Programme: - This refers to a planned series of events that must be carried out in the school for effective functioning. School: - This refers to an educational institution meant for educating children. PTA: - This is an abbreviation for Parent-Teacher Association. Significance of the Study It is not an exaggeration to say that the existence of human being is fruitless without education. This study stresses in examining the importance of education to a child and the needs for both the parents and the community to participate in children academic programmes so as to maintain, improve and develop their educational standard. The quality (standard) of education acquired by the children makes a worthy contribution to their lives by making them responsible citizens. It is this standard (quality) of education that would positively mould the children 19
  20. 20. behaviour and make them to be useful not only to themselves alone but also to the development of the entire community. Another significance of this study is that, a child with good and quality education has the ability to change the world as he/she brims with confidence, makes the right moves and decisions, differentiate between the right and the wrong and gets a secured future. Also, the quality of education given to children lies in its ability to open new vistas for the children, expands their outlook, broadens their mental landscape and makes them to be tolerant towards other views. Therefore, it is very essential for the community, the parents, the schools and the governments to work hand in hand and participate more towards the development of students’ academic standard. 20
  21. 21. CHAPTER TWO REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Many schools including those in the poorer parts of the country have been constructed through the efforts of the community in educational system in Nigeria. This chapter reviews the related literature on the influence of community participation to the development of Nigerian education and begin with the following; a) The Concept of Community Participation; b) The Concept of School Programme; c) The Concept of Community-School Relationship; d) The Concept of Student-Community Relationship; e) The Concept of Educational Standard; f) Historical Overview of Community Participation in Nigerian Educational System; g) Appraisal of Literature Review. 21
  22. 22. a) The Concept of Community Participation The concept of community has been seen by Webster (1975: 366) as a group of people in a society, having common interests, common religions, common rights, common traditions and cultures, with common political background and living under the same laws and regulations. This means that a community is a set of people, living in the same locality with the same historical background and under the same government. A community may be adopted, radical or national. An adopted community is the one in which a group of people living in the same locality and sharing common interests do not necessarily have strong historical links and ties. Muzaazi, (1982: 238), stated that this type of community is built through education, employment and business. The members of this type of community have different historical, ethnic and cultural background but are brought together either by social, political or economic ties or both A radical community is often referred to as dispersed community because the members do not necessarily live together as neighbours but share strong ethnic, cultural and religions ties. For instance, the tribal and religion 22
  23. 23. communities scattered all over country e.g. hausa community in Oyo, Anambra etc., Yoruba community in Sokoto, Oweri etc., Muslim or Christian communities in the city etc. A national community as seen by Okeke, (1985) consists of all members or citizens of a country. That is, the national community embraces all the people (nationals) residing within the geographical boundary of a country irrespective of their religions, ethnicities and genders. Therefore, a community could be seen as a brand grouping of the people, located within a defined territory and related to each other by social, economic and civil activities which produce cohesiveness to a history and an identity. Participation is the act of taking part in an event. With regards to this study, it could be seen as taking part in the provisions of educational programmes. The community as an important organ of the school takes part in the school educational programme by assisting in establishing a conducive atmosphere for effective learning, providing some educational facilities as well as helping in the implementation of the school decisions. The participation could also be in form of moral support, financial aid, scholarship and direct participation in form of free labour etc. 23
  24. 24. To Pateman (1995), “while participation may be a vague term, its advocates often rely on two key arguments about its value” • It makes for injustice in decision-making. • It has an educative value. Kathmandu (1996) stated that community participation is the process by which individual and families assume responsibilities for the development of educational programme in the community. Richard Knut (2001) defined community participation as the creation of opportunities to enable all members actively contributes towards influencing the development process and to equitably share the fruits of development b) The Concept of School Programme The concept of school has been defined by Homby (1985: 761) as “an institution for educating children” the school has its own boundary which separate it from outside world and consists of the classrooms, members of the teaching and non teaching staffs. The school as one of the most powerful agents of socialisation in the society socialises its members in a distinct way because of 24
  25. 25. its peculiar structure (Merton and Kitt, 1976). The school provides physical care and transmits to the child the culture of its immediate environment. The child as a member of the school learns the aspirations of his teachers and interacts with other members of the school. He also learns about the norms in the school which helps to sustain discipline both at home and at school. The child is deliberately and consciously taught some skills and values by the teachers in the school which have everlasting influence on the child. According to the state superintendent of public instruction, Dr Tony Evers (2009), a school is an administrative unit designed and dedicated to impact skills and knowledge to students. That is a school is organised to effectively deliver sequential valuable instruction to students. Therefore, the school as a place for educating the community children undoubtedly deserves a special attention so as to function effectively and meet the expectation and requirement of the community. Such attention could be in form of active support of the school by the community morally and financially. When this is done, the school stands a better position to provide active and effective services to the community. The word ‘programme’ as described by the Oxford American Dictionary (1980:534) is “assistance, helpful and beneficial acts, indoctrinating people to 25
  26. 26. respond automatically in learned behaviour patterns”. Programme could be seen as a planned series of events or a set of related measures organised to achieve a goal. Farlex Clipart (2003-2008) sees school programme as a system of project or services intended to meet the educational needs of the people and to promote the development of the community at large. A school programme is an educational programme designed to meet the needs of students and adolescent that cannot be adequately addressed in a traditional setting environment. Therefore, school programme encompasses a set of activities that must be carried out to the running and operation of the school. This can be set for each school term or session. School programme also entails the daily class period, breakfast, closing hour, general break (holiday) and resumption etc. c) The Concept of Community-School Relationship Relationship is the connection between two variables. With regards to this study, the relationship entails the connection between the school and community. The school and the community are brought together by the students (community children) for effective teaching and learning that would enable their children not only to be useful for themselves but also for the entire community. Therefore, the relationship between the school and the community can never be under- 26
  27. 27. estimated. This is because the community provides the land on which the school is built with moral, physical and financial support. It also assists the school in the provision of some teaching infrastructures to ensure effective and smooth functioning of the school. On the other hand, the school impacts values, knowledge and attitudes on the students (community children). The school also assists in the growth and development of the community. From the historical perspective, the community had been of substantial assistance to the school both morally, materially, physically, financially and economically. As a result, the school needs to maintain a sound relationship and close contact with its locality. To Muzaazi (1982), the school cannot effectively function when the community in which it is meant to serve is neglected. As noted by the report of the Commonwealth Conference on Education (1970), the school if it is to use the environment of a child cannot function effectively in isolation from the community of which it is an integral part. Dangriffuh who supported this view in a seminar of international visitation programme (1982) reiterates that schools do not operate in isolation from the society, the school should closely identify the community educational and cultural needs and relate them as part of its aims and objectives. The school 27
  28. 28. curriculum should reflect its community needs so that it can enrich its programmes through its contact with the community. Similarly, Afolayan (1982) shared his opinion with Fafunwa (1974) by emphasising that school involvement in community activities enriches educational experiences of the staffs and the students i.e. the school can take part in agricultural show, art exhibition, operation keep the town clean and campaign against illiteracy which may be organised by the community from time to time. For school to strengthen further its relationship with the community, the school can allow reputable clubs and society to use the school facilities such as football pitch, assembly hall etc. In review of Okimola (1974), “for school to project itself into the community, it must have a principal and a team of teachers who are community oriented. If a healthy school community relationship is to prevail, students should be sensitised on the need for good community relationship through the community oriented programmes. However, Muzaazi (1982) advanced the above view by stressing that both school and the community should not forget that education is a co-operative enterprise that involves parents, school and the community. 28
  29. 29. Education is an activity which involves the co-operation of parents, teachers, students and the community at large. Parents in particular are naturally interested in the education of their children to the extent that they create time to know what their children are being taught and who are teaching them. Similarly, Fafunwa (1974; 165) said “once you have the majority of the community children in your school, you will discover that even if you do not want to relate with the community, the community will force itself open the school”. This statement could not be far from the fact that parents whether poor or rich make greater efforts and sacrifice by spending large proportion of their income to make sure that their children possess good, better and quality education. d) The Concept of Student-Community Relationship Students as perceived by the Encyclopaedia World Dictionary (1971: 1555) is “one who is engaged in a course of study and instruction at a college, university or professional/technical school or one who studies a subject systematically or in details”. This perception has shown that is one a student is one who is in attendance at an educational institution and pursuing course of instruction. To Zhao and Kuh (2004) student engagement occurs when people make a psychological investigation in learning. They try hard to learn what 29
  30. 30. school offers. American Heritage Dictionary of English Language by Houghton Mifflin (2009) see student as a person following a course of study in a school, college, university and so on. This means, a student is a person who makes thorough study of a subject. To Collins English Dictionary (2003), student is a learner who is enrolled in an educational institution. This means, a person who is enrolled in a course of study could be seen as a student. Students therefore, when broadly looked at are those community members that are taken to school for the purposed learned organised and systemised programmes and are expected to serve their community after the completion of their studies. e) The Concept of Educational Standard Educational standard could be simply seen as the quality as of education in a system. To Dike, V. (2003), the standard of education is how education contributes to the public health, socio-economic and political development of a nation. Teachers without Boarders (2006) look at the educational standard from the perspective of how the products of school can be measured in terms of their outcomes. That is how school leavers contribute to the society in term of cognitive, affective and psychomotor. Equally, measuring educational standard entails adequate educational infrastructures, teaching materials, teachers’ quality, 30
  31. 31. level and degree of learners, condition in which the learning takes place, the quality of method of assessment and some types of contributions to the society and so on. However, as noted by Babalola, A. (2006) and Dike, V. (2006), Nigerian educational standard is falling as a result of constant strikes, shortage of qualified teachers, inadequate educational teaching facilities, politicising education, corruption, over population of students etc., leading to low students’ educational standard, indiscipline and mass examination mal-practices. f) Historical Overview of Community Participation in Nigerian Educational System There is a long history of community participation in educational programmes in Nigeria. According to Fafunwa (1974), education has never been one man’s business especially in the African context where communal attitude in education is as old as man himself and hence, community participation in educational activities in Nigeria. In the traditional system, a child is made to appreciate his role as a member of his immediate and extended family as well as that of the community at large. The newly born child immediately becomes the child of everyone and his early 31
  32. 32. education is the responsibility of not only his parents but also of everyone in his immediate environment. The scholarly perception of the traditional African community which clearly explained the communal attitude of the Africans in the education of their children showed that education is valuable, dignified and respected in the life of every human being. In Nigeria and other West African countries, formal education was brought by the Christian missionaries who came along with the white colonisers as early as 1842. Since then, this type of education has been formally recognised as the main instrument of bringing about progressive changes, rapid growth and development in a nation. Over the years, Nigerian demand for this type of education has become progressively spread, wider and complex. In the words of Fafunwa, (1974: 140), many Nigerian parents had seen education as a key for human development and were determined to send their children, wards or relatives to school at any cost. This clearly testifies to the kinnes of the Nigerian society towards the western education. Fafunwa (1974), noted that this quest for knowledge did not stop at the ethnic level but also transcends to religion organisation such as Muslim and Christian organisation. 32
  33. 33. When the Muslim intellectual saw the importance of the western type of education, science and technology, and also, when they realised that they were not participating enough in the administration of government, they felt the need to combine a sound Islamic education with a sound western type of education without changing their religion and culture. During the late 1930s, some Muslim organisations such as Ansar-ud Deen Society, Nawar-ud Deen society, Al- madiyya Movement, Jama’atu Islamiya etc., esterblised primary and secondary schools in places like Sokoto, Katsina, Kano and some others. In the western part of Nigeria, community participation in the western education began through their support with the missionaries in the establishment of a number of schools in the Yoruba and Mid-west states of Nigeria. WAJ (1973) noted that the period between 1939 and 1960 was a period of local community efforts. During this period, the number of community school increased from 27 in 1937 to 227 in 1960. It is imperative to know that this attitude continued until 1970 when the government took over the complete control of the school. Fafunwa stressed the importance of the community [participation in Nigerian educational system by emphasising that Nigerian community had been a source of pride to the development of education in 33
  34. 34. Nigeria from the period of missionaries, via the colonial era and even after the independence. Similarly, two Nigerian authors as quoted by Ezeoch (1985; 165), Alani (1977) and Akobogu (1981) working in different part of Nigeria on community participation in schools found out that communities provide lands, funds, game equipment, teaching aid, put-up building and render free community labour, as well as giving prizes and scholarship to students. This clearly demonstrate that the Nigerian communities apart from giving moral and financial to the development of western education, they also participate physically in order to make learning concrete and possible for their children (Ezeochi, 1985). The impact of community participation in education may well be felt by themselves in terms of joy of being a better community and as a result, their community economic prosperity and cultural development will be enhanced. This means that while participating in education, the communities are making efforts toward their development. This is because, education improves economic growth and socio-political awareness which are inevitable to any rapid and progressive development. 34
  35. 35. Conclusively, community participation in education had been the feature of Africans from the indigenous type of education to the other alien educational system brought by the Muslim and the Christian missionaries. Therefore, the history of community participation in education is a new one in the Nigerian context. g) Appraisal of Literature Review This chapter began with the review of related literature in which the perceptions of scholars on concepts such as the concept of community, school, programme, student, educational standard and some others are discussed. Webster (1975: 366) sees “community” as a group of people in a society, having common interests, common rights, common religions, common traditions and cultures with common socio-political, economic and historical background under the same government. Homby (1985: 761) sees “school” as an institution formally organised and designed for educating children. 35
  36. 36. Dike (2003) sees “educational standard” as the quality of education in a system in terms of how education contributes to the public health, socio-economic and political development of a nation. Farlex Clipart (2003) sees school programme as a system of project or services intended to meet the educational needs of the people and to promote the development of the community at large. Kathmandu (1996) stated that community participation is the process by which individual and families assume responsibilities for the development of educational programme in the community. It can be concluded that the community efforts towards the development of students’ educational standard can never be over-emphasised. 36
  37. 37. CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY This chapter presents the methodology to be adopted in this research work. This is presented under the following; a) Research Type; b) Population, Sample and Sampling Techniques; c) Instrumentation; d) Procedure for Data Collection and e) Data Analysis Techniques. a) Research Type This research work is a descriptive research. To Odewumi and Mohammed (2004), a descriptive research is a systematic method of survey which involves observing and describing the behaviour of a subject without impacting it in anyway. The reason why it a descriptive is that, it examined the roles, contributions attitudes and behaviour of community towards the 37
  38. 38. educational programmes of their children. This survey method also looked into the motivating factors that gear the community to participate in their children’s education. b) Population, Sample and Sampling Techniques Population consisted of all schools and communities in Ijebu East, Ogun State. With regards to this study, the targeted population consisted of all the members of the community, the schools administrators, the teachers and the students as well as the parent-teacher associations within the Ilorin East Local Government Area. The sample was based on the five (5) selected schools and some prominent community members within the Ijebu East Local Government Area to represent the targeted population. The sampling techniques under this study were based on random selection (simple random sampling techniques) from the targeted population. That is, some community members and five (5) different schools were randomly selected within the Ijebu East Local Government Area. This gave every community 38
  39. 39. member and school in the area an equal opportunity of being selected in the sample. c) Instrumentation With regards to this study, the researcher made use of direct source of data collection such as; i. Oral interview and ii. Questionnaire. Oral interview was adopted to enable the researcher to extract some useful information from some community members of Ijebu East Local Government Area most especially those who could neither write nor read while the questionnaire was used to obtain responses from the staffs of five (5) selected secondary schools. The questionnaire was both closed and opened as some possible responses were provided. The questionnaire was developed and designated into section A, B and C. The section ‘A’ part required the respondents to give or state their personal particulars such as age, sex, marital status, occupation, educational 39
  40. 40. qualification etc. while section ‘B’ part contained 15 closed questions in which the respondents were required to tick the provided options based on their opinions and perceptions. Finally, the section ‘C’ part contained only 3 questions that were open, which gave the respondents an opportunity to express their views which were recorded and used as backup information for the analysis of data. The face-content validity of the research instrument (questionnaire) was determined by the project supervisor and some assigned lecturers in the department. The questionnaire was also given to them for some amendments. The reliability of the questionnaire was determined through the use of test re-test techniques. The test re-test techniques entail comparing the results of the questionnaire after it is administered and re-administered to determine its reliability. d) Procedure for Data Collection The questionnaire was carefully administered to 50 people made up of the school administrators, the teachers, students, parents, guardians and other members of the community. However, it should be noted that the distribution of this questionnaire was based on simple random techniques. 40
  41. 41. The researcher went to five (5) selected schools and distributed the questionnaire. Equally, some friends assisted the researcher in the distribution of and collection of the questionnaire. Moreover, a period of two (2) hours was given to the respondents for sample time to complete the questionnaire. It should be noted here that the method used in distributing the questionnaire was also adopted to collect it back. e) Data Analysis Techniques In analysing data, the researcher employed; i. Correlation coefficient and ii. Chi-Square The Spearman’s Ranking Correlation was employed because it is suitable for calculating coefficient of data. This measured the relationship between the two variables (i.e. the school and the community).The formula for ranking correlation is given below; Where 41
  42. 42. = difference in each pair of rank n = number of object being ranked ∑ = summation sign R is correlation coefficient. When R is equal to +1, there is perfect positive correlation between the explanatory (community) and the dependent (school) variables but, when R is equal to -1, there is perfect negative correlation between them. Chi-square method was also adopted to analyse the data gathered from the questionnaire. This helped to compare the deviation of observed value from the expected value and to determine whether the result is significant or not. The formula for chi-square is given below; Where; = the frequencies observed = the frequencies expected = the sum of 42
  43. 43. CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS This chapter presents the results of the data gathered in this research work. The purpose of this chapter is to answer the research questions and test the research hypotheses. This chapter is presented under the following; a) Data Analysis and Findings. b) Summary of Findings. a) Data Analysis and Findings The analysis of the data gathered in this research work is presented under the following tables. Analysis of Section A Table 1: Gender Distribution of the Respondents Respondents Frequency Percentage (%) Cumulative Frequency 43
  44. 44. Gender Male 36 72 - Female 14 28 50 Total 50 100 From the table1 above, it is observed that the majority of the respondents were male having 72% of the sample population while 28% of the respondents were female. This shows that the respondents comprised of more male than female. Table 2: Age Distribution of the Respondents Respondents Frequency Percentage (%) Cumulative Frequency Age 15 – 20 4 8 - 21 – 25 10 20 14 26 – 30 16 32 30 31 – 40 14 28 44 41 – 50 6 12 50 Total 50 100 From the table 2 above, it is observed that the majority of the respondents fell within the range of 26 – 30 years having 32% of the total respondents. This was followed by the range of 31 – 40 years which contained 28% of the total respondents while the range of 21 – 25 years, 41 – 50 years and 15 – 20 years 44
  45. 45. had 20%, 12% and 8% respectively. This shows that the majority of the respondents comprised of adults. Table 3: Marital Status of the Respondents Respondents Frequency Percentage (%) Cumulative Frequency Marital Status Single 18 36 - Married 32 64 50 Total 50 100 From the table 3 above, it is observed that the majority of the respondents who were married had 64% of the total respondents while the 36% of the respondents were single. This shows that the majority of the respondents were also parents. Table 4: Educational Qualification of the Respondents Respondents Frequency Percentage (%) Cumulative Frequency Educational Qualification WAEC/NECO Certificate 6 12 - B. Sc Certificate 42 84 48 45
  46. 46. M. Sc Certificate 2 4 50 Total 50 100 From the table 4 above, it is observed that the majority of the respondents acquired B.Sc Certificate having 84% of the total respondents while those with WAEC/NECO contained 12% and the remaining 4% was made up of those with M.Sc Certificate. This shows that the majority of the teachers in all secondary Schools in Ijebu East local Government Area are first degree holders. Analysis of Section B Table 5: Relationship between the School and the Community Items Yes No Rank Yes Rank No The community has cordial relationship with the school. 50 0 1.5 1.5 0 0 The school involves the community in decision making. 38 12 3 1 2 4 The community provides the school some teaching materials, human resources, financial aids etc. 50 0 1.5 1.5 0 ∑ =4 From the table above 5, it is observed that R = 0. This shows that there is positive correlation between the school and the community. 46
  47. 47. Table 6: Reasons for Community Participation in School Programmes. Items Yes No Rank Yes Rank No The community partakes in the school to influence the school programmes 20 30 3 1 2 4 The community partakes in the school programmes to curb students’ deviant behaviour. 42 8 1.5 1.5 0 0 The community partakes in the school programmes to maintain and improve students’ educational standard 42 8 1.5 1.5 0 0 ∑ =4 From the table 6 above, it is observed that R is positive (i.e. R = 0). This shows that the community should participate in the school in order to influence the school programmes, curb educational problems and maintain and improve the students’ educational standard. 47
  48. 48. Table 7: Community Participation towards the Maintenance and Improvement of Students’ Educational Standard. Items Yes No Rank Yes Rank No The community organizes extra moral lessons for the students. 42 8 1 3 -2 4 The community awards scholarship to the exceptional students. 22 28 2 2 0 0 The community helps to encourage discipline to improve students’ moral and academic standard. 20 30 3 1 2 4 ∑ =8 From the above table 7, it is observed that R= -1. This shows that there is perfect negative correlation between the community efforts in students’ academic programmes and the students’ educational standard. 48
  49. 49. Table 8: Impact of Community Participation on Students’ Academic Performance Items Yes No Rank Yes Rank No The students perform better in their exams as a result of community participation. 33 17 3 1 2 4 The students’ academic performance has improved as a result of community involvement in the school programmes. 42 8 1.5 1.5 0 0 The students exhibit high social conduct in the community as a result of community participation in school programmes. 42 8 1.5 1.5 0 0 ∑ =4 From the table 8 above, it is observed that R=0. This implies that there is a positive correlation between the community participation in students’ academic programmes and the students’ academic performance. 49
  50. 50. Table 9: Measures to be Adopted for Greater Community Participation in School Programmes. Items Yes No Rank Yes Rank No The Formation of Parent-Teacher Associations should be encouraged in the school. 50 0 2 2 0 0 The community members should be included in the school decision making. 50 0 2 2 0 0 The community needs should be part of the school curriculum. 50 0 2 2 0 0 ∑ =0 From the table 9 above, it can be deduced that R=+1 i.e. there is a perfect positive correlation. This implies that the formation of Parent-Teacher Association in the school, the inclusion of the community in the school decision making and the inclusion of the community needs into the school programmes would definitely bring about greater community participation in the school programmes. 50
  51. 51. Hypothesis Testing Hypothesis 1 H0: There is no significant relationship between the school and the community. H1: There is a significant relationship between the school and the community. Yes No α x2 cal x2 tab Observed Value 46 4 1 0.05 35.28 2.91 Expected Value 25 25 From the above analysis, it is observed that at (α) 0.05 level of significant and degree of freedom (df) 1, the calculated value (35.28) is greater than the tabulated value (2.91). Therefore, the null hypothesis (Ho) is rejected while the alternate hypothesis (H1) is accepted. Thus, there is a relationship between the school and the community. Hypothesis 2 51
  52. 52. H0: There are no significant reasons for the community participation in students’ academic programmes H1: There are significant reasons for the community participation in students’ academic programmes Yes No α x2 cal x2 tab Observed Value 34.7 15.3 1 0.05 7.52 2.91 Expected Value 25 25 From the above analysis, it is observed that at (α) 0.05 level of significant and degree of freedom (df)1, the calculated value (x2 cal=7.52) is greater than the tabulated value (x2 tab=2.91). Therefore, the null hypothesis (Ho) is rejected while the alternate hypothesis (H1) is accepted. Thus, there is a reason for the community participation in students’ academic programmes. Hypothesis 3 H0: There is no significant influence of community participation on the development of students’ academic standard. 52
  53. 53. H1: There is a significant influence of community participation on the development of students’ academic standard. Yes No α x2 cal x2 tab Observed Value 28 22 1 0.05 0.72 2.91 Expected Value 25 25 From the above analysis, it is observed that at (α) 0.05 level of significant and degree of freedom (df)1, the calculated value (x2 cal=0.72) is lesser than the tabulated value (x2 tab=2.91). Therefore, the null hypothesis (Ho) is accepted while the alternate hypothesis (H1) is rejected. Thus, there is no community effort on the development of student’s educational standard. Hypothesis 4 H0: There is no significant impact of community participation on the academic performance of the students. H1: There is a significant impact of community participation on the academic performance of the students. 53
  54. 54. Yes No α x2 cal x2 tab Observed Value 39 11 1 0.05 15.68 2.91 Expected Value 25 25 From the above analysis, it is observed that at (α) 0.05 level of significant and degree of freedom (df)1, the calculated value (x2 cal=15.68) is greater than the tabulated value (x2 tab=2.91). Therefore, the null hypothesis (Ho) is rejected while the alternate hypothesis (H1) is accepted. Thus, community participation has influence on students’ academic performance. b) Summary of Findings In summary, the followings are derived from the research analysis and findings. 1. There is a cordial relationship between the school and the community. 2. There are reasons for community participation in school programmes. 3. The community participation in school programmes has positive influence on the improvement of students’ academic performance. 4. There are measures that could be adopted for greater community participation in school programmes. 54
  55. 55. CHAPTER FIVE DISCUSSION CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS Under this chapter, the research findings are discussed, conclusions are made and recommendations are given. Discussion This research work was specifically carried out to look into the impact of the community participation to the development of secondary school students’ educational standard within the Ijebu East Local Government Area, Ijebu, Ogun State. From this research work, it is discovered that the majority of the community members in the area are civil servants and traders (p. 39). Also, the majority of the schools within the area are community/public schools while most of the school teachers acquired B. Sc certificates (Table 4; p. 51). The major findings from the data analysed in this research work showed that there is a good rapport and cordial relationship between the community and the various secondary schools within the Ijebu East Local Government Area 55
  56. 56. (Table 5; p. 52). From the findings, the community provides the schools some teaching facilities like lands, classrooms, and other instructional resources. The community also renders direct labour and provides the schools the security officers to guard the school properties. In the other hand, the schools within the area involve the community in school decision making concerning their children’s education. The findings also revealed that Ijebu East Community partakes in school programmes in order to curb the educational problems that may stand in the way of their children’s education and to maintain and improve the educational standard of their children (Table 6; p. 53). However, the findings revealed that the community has not made significant efforts towards the development their children’s educational standard (Table 7; p. 54). The community does not give scholarship and assist the children to meet their educational needs. As a result, most of their children stop furthering their education after acquiring WAEC/NECO Certificate and start learning trades. From the enquiry, these children quitted formal education based on the fact that their parents could no longer afford their educational expenses. 56
  57. 57. The findings also revealed that Ijebu East Community has done well towards improving the students’ academic and non academic performances (Table 8; p. 55). As a result of community participation in school programmes, students are motivated and encouraged towards their studies. This made them to perform well in both academic and non-academic activities of the school. The research findings showed that the formation of Parent-Teacher Association and t inclusion of the community in school decision making as well as the inclusion of the community needs into the school programmes have brought about greater community participation in secondary schools within the Ijebu East Local Government Area (Table 9; p. 56). This research work also observed that the Formation of Parent-Teacher Association and Community Education Committee is the best way the community can participate in educational programmes of children. This research work also revealed that the educational standard in Nigeria is falling and the Nigerian government is largely responsible for it (p. 6). This falling educational standard started when Nigerian governments stop infusing adequate funds into the educational sector coupled with frequent change and poor implementation of educational policies. Other causes of this falling educational 57
  58. 58. standard include; inadequate funding of schools, lack of modern classrooms and teaching tools, poor numerations and acute shortage of qualified teachers, lack of dedication and punctuality to duty by teachers. Parents also shared in the blame. Some of them simply did not care about their children’s education. As a result, the children’s projects, home work and assignments would not be done; neither would they be reminded to study at home. Lastly, this research work also laid emphasis on the importance of education and the needs for both the parents and the community to participate more in the educational programmes of children. Conclusion From the findings, it can be concluded that; 1. There is a cordial relationship between the Ijebu East Community and the various secondary schools within the area (Table 5; p.52). 2. Community partakes in school programmes to curb the educational problems that may stand in the way of students’ education and to improve and maintain the academic standard of students (Table 6; p. 53) 58
  59. 59. 3. Community participation in school programmes within the area has greatly influenced the students’ academic and non academic performance in school (Table 8; p. 55). 4. It is also glaring from the findings that this community has not done much towards the development of children’s academic standard (table 7; p. 54). It is this standard (quality) of education that would positively mould the children behaviour and make them useful not only to themselves alone but also to the entire community. Therefore, the Ijebu East Community has a vital role to play in their children’s educational programmes. Recommendations From all that have been discussed and analysed so far, it is then imperative to give some useful suggestions in form of recommendations that would encourage, improve and bring about greater community participation in school programmes to maintain, improve and develop students’ educational standard. These recommendations would also be useful for further research on this significant topic. The recommendations are given below; 59
  60. 60. 1. Community Education Committee should be set up to promote good relationship between the school and the community members. This committee should also mobilise the community resources towards the maintaining, improving and developing students’ academic standard. 2. Parent-Teacher Association should be introduced in the secondary schools to foster mutual understanding and communication between the community (parents) and the schools. Under this, parent participation in PTA should be made a condition for admission of students into schools. This would also make the parents know the area in which the schools are in need of them for the realisation of better and quality education for the children. 3. The schools should involve the community in the school decision making concerning the students’ education and include the community needs into the school programmes. This would bring about greater community participation in school programmes. 4. School exhibition, home visits by the teachers and speech and prize given day should also be introduced to attract the community to the school. This would make the community appreciate the school efforts in students’ academic programmes and participate in school programmes. 60
  61. 61. 5. The community should assist the school financially morally physically and materially in the provision of some teaching facilities that would enable it carry out its educational functions adequately and join the school to fight any educational problem that may stand in the way of students’ education and hinder the effective functioning of the school. 6. The schools should cultivate the habit of bringing the community resources to school for instructional purposes. This would help to create effective teaching and learning in the school and improve the quality of education being transmitted to students. Also, when the community resources are brought to school, there would be mutual relationship between the school and the community. 7. The community should organise extra moral classes for the students, organise special education for the exceptional students and assist students to meet their educational needs by rendering guiding and counselling services, giving scholarship to students and so on. This would maintain and improve the academic standard of students. 8. Government should embark on stable educational policies for stable educational programmes and infuse adequate funds into the educational 61
  62. 62. sector. Also, remuneration should be made attractable to teachers with constant payment and increment of salary to curb the problem of strike among teachers. 9. Government should also equip the public schools with modern teaching facilities to maintain and improve the educational standard of Nigerian students. 10. There is need to make use of mass media and other communication agencies to enlighten the parents and the community about the importance of education and make them aware that their children education should not be left in the hands of the teachers alone, they should partakes in the school programmes to promote effective learning for the students. 62
  63. 63. REFERENCES Abiri J. And Jekayinfa A.A. (2008); Prospect on the History of Education in Nigeria. Baku and Agyman’s (1997); Role of Parent-Teacher Association as an Instrument of Community Participation in Education. Balgopal and Pallassana (2000); Role of Community in Promoting the standard of Education. Burkey’s S. (1993); A guide to Self-Reliant, Participatory Rural Deveplopment Craig G. And Mayo M. (1995); Community Empowerment; A Reader in Participation and participatory techniques. David Martins (2000); Role of Community Participation in Nation Building. London. 63
  64. 64. Dudley E. (1993); The critical villager: Beyond Community Participation. London. Federal Republic of Nigeria (1995); National Policy on Education, Yaba Ikeja, Federal Government Press. Gregory J Clzek ed (2001); Setting Performance Standard, Concept, Method and Perspective. France. Hougton Mifflin (2009); American Heritage English Dictionary. London Kanfman M. and Alfanso H. (1992); Community power and Grass Root Democracy. 64
  65. 65. QUESTIONNAIRE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FOUNDATION AND MANAGEMENT, FACULTY OF EDUCATION, OLABISI ONABANJO UNIVERSITY, AGO-IWOYE, OGUN STATE Stakeholders’ opinion on Community Participation in the Development of Secondary School in Ijebu East Local Government Area, Ijebu, Ogun State. Dear respondents, This questionnaire is designed to gather information on the stakeholders’ opinion on community participation in the development of secondary schools in Ijebu East Local Government Area. All information supplied will be confidential. However, you are enjoined to respond to this questionnaire with utmost sincerity. Thanks. Yours faithfully, Shoaga Oladele Rapheal INSRUCTION; • Do not write your name on the questionnaire. • Tick ( √ ) the correct answer with sincerity. Section A: a) Name of the school: b) Gender: (i) Male (ii) Female a. Age: (i) 15 – 20 (ii) 21 – 25 (iii) 26 – 30 (iv) 30 – 40 (v) 40 – 50 65
  66. 66. (vi) 50 and above c) Marital Status: (i) Single (ii) Married d) Educational Qualification/Certificate: (I) Primary School Certificate: (ii) WAEC/NECO Certificate: (iii) B.Sc Certificate: (iv) M.Sc Certificate: (v) Ph.d Certificate: Section B: Instruction: Tick (√ ) the correct options below No. STATEMENTS OPTIONS YES NO 1. The community has cordial relationship with the school. 2. The school involves the community in decision making. 3. The community provides the school some teaching materials, human resources, financial aids etc.. 4. The community partakes in the school programmes to maintain and improve the educational standard of the students. 7. The community organizes extra-moral lessons for the students. 8. The community awards scholarship for the exceptional students. 9. The community helps to encourage discipline to improve students’ moral academic standard. 10 The students perform better in their examinations as a result of community participation. 11 The students’ academic performance has improved since the community has been involved in the school programmes. 12 The students exhibit high social and moral conduct within the community as a result of community participation in school programmes. 66
  67. 67. 13 The formation of Parent-Teacher Association should be encouraged in the school. 14 The community members should be included in the school decision making. 15 The community needs should be part of the school curriculum. Section C: Interview Schedule with the Community Members This section requires the respondents to suggest and put in their view with regards to the following; If your answer to question 1 of section B above is ‘Yes’, 1) Mention two reasons why the community relates with the school. i) ii) 2) Mention two major roles performed by the community in the school. i) ii) 3) State how relationship between school and community can be improved further. 67

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