EPFL, spring 2012 - week 2!data collection - interviewing
overview➝ candidates➝ basic methods➝ interview structure➝ produce a script➝ watch➝ practice run I➝ practice run II
identifying candidates➝ what different sorts of people might use this product?➝ how might needs and behaviour differ?➝ what ranges of behaviour and types of environment need to be explored?➝ if at all possible, do not use students➝ If not possible, at least not IT students
preparation➝ note pad, forms and pens➝ script/protocol of questions and topics➝ digital or video camera, voice recorder (check or replace batteries)➝ extension cables (if you re using a laptop)➝ little gift/reward➝ being on time➝ address/telephone numbers
structure of interview➝ preparation – remind yourself of goals of the interview➝ arrival – introduction of 2nd person➝ thank the host ➝ settle down➝ introduction of what the interview is about, length➝ inform about anonymity of data, voluntary nature (end at any time)➝ ask permission for audio (start recording), pictures/video➝ warm-up, e.g. with demographic data➝ interview - listen➝ wrap-up, stop recording (but not listening), pack-up➝ give a token gift (keep listening) and leave➝ note down additional comments after recording stopped➝ debrief between partners discuss observations, note down, highlight points, amend questions for next
the interview➝ listen➝ let people talk➝ watch" don’t take everything people say at face value note down what you see around you and when being demonstrated something. This might contradict what people are saying.
basic methods➝ interview where the action happens➝ avoid a ﬁxed set of questions➝ focus on goals ﬁrst, tasks second➝ avoid making the user a designer➝ avoid discussions about technology➝ avoid giving advice (as the expert)➝ remind people they are not being tested or evaluated➝ encourage story telling➝ ask for a show and tell ➝ avoid leading questions
where the action happens➝ keep your eyes open➝ don t snoop around without permission but if you see something that might be interesting ask to discuss it (be nosy!)
focus on topics, not ﬁxed set of questions➝ goals – what makes a good day? a bad day?➝ opportunity – what currently wastes your time?goal oriented questions➝ priortities – what is most important to you?➝ information – what helps you make decisions?➝ frequency - what part of the product do you use most?➝ preference – what doquestions about the product/activity?system-oriented you love/hate➝ failure - how do you work around problems?➝ process – what do you do ﬁrst? and after that?➝ occurrence – how oftenquestionsworkﬂow-oriented do you do this? ➝ exception – what is typical what is unusual➝ aspiration – what do you see yourself doing in 5 years➝ avoidance – what would you prefer not to do/ procratinate on?attitude-oriented questions➝ motivation - what do you enjoy most about your private lifestyle? What do you always tackle ﬁrst? Cooper 2007
focus on topics, not ﬁxed set of questions➝ goals – what makes a good day? a bad day?➝ opportunity – what currently wastes your time?➝ priortities – what is most important to you?➝ information – what helps you make decisions?➝ frequency - what part of the product do you use most?➝ preference – what do you love/hate about the product/activity?➝ failure - how do you work around problems?➝ process – what do you do ﬁrst? and after that?➝ occurrence – how often do you do this? ➝ exception – what is typical what is unusual➝ aspiration – what do you see yourself doing in 5 years➝ avoidance – what would you prefer not to do/ procratinate on?➝ motivation - what do you enjoy most about your private lifestyle? What do you always tackle ﬁrst? Cooper 2007
goals ﬁrst, task second➝ try to understand the why and how➝ what motivates the behaviours of individuals in different roles?➝ understanding the task is important and needs to be recorded but tasks will be restructured to better match user goals in the design solution
avoid making the user a designer➝ guide the interviewee towards examining problems and away from expressing solutions➝ if it happens possible transitions are " What problem would that solve for you? " Why would that be a good solution?
avoid technological discussions➝ don t treat them as a programmer or engineer➝ for technical products steer away from product- related discussion (allow domain-related discussion)➝ do not attempt to solve their problems during the interview, observe➝ to steer away from it: How would that help you?
encourage storytelling➝ how they use an existing product➝ the different contexts, places, people, occasions➝ what they think of it➝ where they go with it➝ encourage stories that talk about typical cases and also exceptional ones➝ encourage to replay a past situation (explaining the context) in which e.g. the mobile was used to synchronize with someone, observe and take notes, e.g.: ➝ middle-aged user takes off bifocal glasses, puts them on the table and squints at the small buttons… tries several times to open the last SMS, curses… mumbles…
show and tell➝ ask for a grand tour of artefacts ➝ domain-related ➝ software interfaces ➝ paper systems ➝ work environment➝ pay attention to how they are described➝ ask many clariﬁcation questions➝ take pictures/video
show and tellPaul, 57 Renate, 65 Manfred, 75 Olaf, 65Christel, 71 Magali, 15 Martine, 55 Fillippo, 44
avoid leading questions➝ Would feature X help you➝ You like X, don t you? ➝ Do you think you d use X if it were available?➝ ask for qualiﬁcations when people talk not about themselves and but about others e.g. we, everybody, nobody, some people.
don’t worry➝ peoplelike to talk about themselves➝ and appreciate listeners
practice runs➝ produce script➝ role play➝ practice runs