PxS'12 - week 2 interviewing

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PxS'12 - week 2 interviewing

  1. 1. EPFL, spring 2012 - week 2!data collection - interviewing
  2. 2. overview➝  candidates➝  basic methods➝  interview structure➝  produce a script➝  watch➝  practice run I➝  practice run II
  3. 3. identifying candidates➝  what different sorts of people might use this product?➝  how might needs and behaviour differ?➝  what ranges of behaviour and types of environment need to be explored?➝  if at all possible, do not use students➝  If not possible, at least not IT students
  4. 4. preparation➝  note pad, forms and pens➝  script/protocol of questions and topics➝  digital or video camera, voice recorder (check or replace batteries)‫‏‬➝  extension cables (if you re using a laptop)‫‏‬➝  little gift/reward➝  being on time➝  address/telephone numbers
  5. 5. structure of interview➝  preparation – remind yourself of goals of the interview➝  arrival – introduction of 2nd person➝  thank the host ➝  settle down➝  introduction of what the interview is about, length➝  inform about anonymity of data, voluntary nature (end at any time)➝  ask permission for audio (start recording), pictures/video➝  warm-up, e.g. with demographic data➝  interview - listen➝  wrap-up, stop recording (but not listening), pack-up➝  give a token gift (keep listening) and leave➝  note down additional comments after recording stopped➝  debrief between partners discuss observations, note down, highlight points, amend questions for next
  6. 6. the interview➝  listen➝  let people talk➝  watch" don’t take everything people say at face value note down what you see around you and when being demonstrated something. This might contradict what people are saying.
  7. 7. basic methods➝  interview where the action happens➝  avoid a fixed set of questions➝  focus on goals first, tasks second➝  avoid making the user a designer➝  avoid discussions about technology➝  avoid giving advice (as the expert)➝  remind people they are not being tested or evaluated➝  encourage story telling➝  ask for a show and tell ➝  avoid leading questions
  8. 8. where the action happens➝  keep your eyes open➝  don t snoop around without permission but if you see something that might be interesting ask to discuss it (be nosy!)‫‏‬
  9. 9. focus on topics, not fixed set of questions➝  goals – what makes a good day? a bad day?➝  opportunity – what currently wastes your time?goal oriented questions➝  priortities – what is most important to you?➝  information – what helps you make decisions?➝  frequency - what part of the product do you use most?➝  preference – what doquestions about the product/activity?system-oriented you love/hate➝  failure - how do you work around problems?➝  process – what do you do first? and after that?➝  occurrence – how oftenquestionsworkflow-oriented do you do this? ➝  exception – what is typical what is unusual➝  aspiration – what do you see yourself doing in 5 years➝  avoidance – what would you prefer not to do/ procratinate on?attitude-oriented questions➝  motivation - what do you enjoy most about your private lifestyle? What do you always tackle first? Cooper 2007
  10. 10. focus on topics, not fixed set of questions➝  goals – what makes a good day? a bad day?➝  opportunity – what currently wastes your time?➝  priortities – what is most important to you?➝  information – what helps you make decisions?➝  frequency - what part of the product do you use most?➝  preference – what do you love/hate about the product/activity?➝  failure - how do you work around problems?➝  process – what do you do first? and after that?➝  occurrence – how often do you do this? ➝  exception – what is typical what is unusual➝  aspiration – what do you see yourself doing in 5 years➝  avoidance – what would you prefer not to do/ procratinate on?➝  motivation - what do you enjoy most about your private lifestyle? What do you always tackle first? Cooper 2007
  11. 11. goals first, task second➝  try to understand the why and how➝  what motivates the behaviours of individuals in different roles?➝  understanding the task is important and needs to be recorded but tasks will be restructured to better match user goals in the design solution
  12. 12. avoid making the user a designer➝  guide the interviewee towards examining problems and away from expressing solutions➝  if it happens possible transitions are " What problem would that solve for you? " Why would that be a good solution?
  13. 13. avoid technological discussions➝  don t treat them as a programmer or engineer➝  for technical products steer away from product- related discussion (allow domain-related discussion)➝  do not attempt to solve their problems during the interview, observe➝  to steer away from it: How would that help you?
  14. 14. encourage storytelling➝  how they use an existing product➝  the different contexts, places, people, occasions➝  what they think of it➝  where they go with it➝  encourage stories that talk about typical cases and also exceptional ones➝  encourage to replay a past situation (explaining the context) in which e.g. the mobile was used to synchronize with someone, observe and take notes, e.g.: ➝  middle-aged user takes off bifocal glasses, puts them on the table and squints at the small buttons… tries several times to open the last SMS, curses… mumbles…
  15. 15. show and tell➝  ask for a grand tour of artefacts ➝  domain-related ➝  software interfaces ➝  paper systems ➝  work environment➝  pay attention to how they are described➝  ask many clarification questions➝  take pictures/video
  16. 16. show and tellPaul, 57 Renate, 65 Manfred, 75 Olaf, 65Christel, 71 Magali, 15 Martine, 55 Fillippo, 44
  17. 17. avoid leading questions➝  Would feature X help you➝  You like X, don t you? ➝  Do you think you d use X if it were available?➝  ask for qualifications when people talk not about themselves and but about others e.g. we, everybody, nobody, some people.
  18. 18. don’t worry➝  peoplelike to talk about themselves➝  and appreciate listeners
  19. 19. practice runs➝  produce script➝  role play➝  practice runs

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