Lebanon is a small mountainous country on the Mediterranean coast . It is located in the Middle East, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Syria and Israel. Its geographic co-ordinates are 33 50 N and 35 50 E.
There are many popular river and streams in Lebanon.
The Beqaa Valley is watered by two rivers that rise near Baalbeck and the Litani flowing south into the hill region of the southern Beqaa Valley, where it makes a quick turn to the west and is afterward called the Al Qasmiyah River. The only permanent lake is Buhayrat al Qirawn, about ten kilometers east of Jazzine.
Another major feature of Lebanese geography is the alternation of low lands and high lands that run parallel with a north-to-south direction. There are four strips running lengthwise between the Mediterranean Sea and Syria: the coastal strip, western Lebanon, the central plateau, and eastern Lebanon.
Beqaa Valley is a fertile valley in east Lebanon. It is Lebanon’s most important farming region, and a major Shia population center in Lebanon. The valley is important because it makes up 40 percent of Lebanon's arable land. The northern end of the valley, with its light rainfall and less fertile soils, is used as cropping land by rural nomads but mostly migrants from the Syrian Desert. Farther south, more fertile soils support crops such as wheat, corn, cotton, and vegetables, with vineyards and orchards centered around Zahle. Also, because the Beqaa Valley has such a big history, it has become extremely popular and has gained Lebanon's tourism.
Topography in Lebanon has greatly affected the country's history in that virtually the whole landscape is a series of superb natural fortresses from which revolutionary activities can cause the maintenance of control by a national government an intermittent and costly affair.
Lebanon has a Mediterranean climate characterized by a long, hot, and dry summer, and cool, rainy winter. Fall is a transitional season with a gradual lowering of temperature and little rain; spring occurs when the winter rains cause the vegetation to revive. Topographical difference creates narrow adjustments of the basic climatic pattern. Along the coast, summers are hot and humid, with little or no rain. Heavy dews form, which are beneficial to agriculture. The daily range of temperature is not wide, although temperatures may reach above 38° C in the daytime and below 16° C at night. Winter is the rainy season, with major rain falling after December. The amount of rainfall varies greatly from one year to another. Occasionally, there are frosts during the winter, and about once every fifteen years a light powdering of snow falls as far South of Beirut.
Lebanon was heavily forested in ancient and medieval times, and its timber was exported for building and shipbuilding. The natural plants, however, has been grazed, burned, and cut for so long that little of it is redeveloped. What survives is a wild Mediterranean vegetation of brush and low trees, mostly oaks, pines, cypresses, firs, junipers, and carobs.
Few large wild animals survive in Lebanon, though bears are occasionally seen in the mountains. Among the smaller animals, deer, wildcats, hedgehogs, squirrels, martens, dormice, and hares are found. Numerous migrant birds from Africa and Europe visit Lebanon. Flamingos, pelicans, cormorants, ducks, herons, and snipes frequent the marshes; eagles, buzzards, kites, falcons, and hawks inhabit the mountains; and owls, kingfishers, cuckoos, and woodpeckers are common.
A Fir Tree in Lebanon
History of Lebanon Lebanese Civil War Discovery of Byblos French Mandate Independence Arab-Israeli War Lebanese Civil War Rafiq Hariri Demonst-rations Lebanon-Israel War 5000 BC 1918 1941 1948 1975-1990 2005 2005 2006 Archaeologists have discovered in Byblos, which is considered to be the oldest continuously-inhabited city in the world. Lebanon was part of the Ottoman Empire for over 400 years, in a region known as Greater Syria, until 1918 when the area became a part of the French Mandate of Syria following World War I. On November 26, 1941 General Georges Catroux announced that Lebanon would become independent under the authority of the Free French government. Lebanon joined its fellow Arab states and invaded Israel during the 1948 Arab-Israeli War. The Lebanese-Israeli border remained closed, but quiet, until after the Six Day War in 1967. The Lebanese Civil War lasted fifteen years. It ended in 1990 with the signing of the Taif Agreement and parts of Lebanon were left in ruins . During the civil war, the Palestine Liberation Organization used Lebanon to launch attacks against Israel. Lebanon was twice invaded and occupied by the Israel Defense Forces . On February 14, 2005 former Prime Minister Rafiq Hariri was assassinated in a car bomb explosion near the Saint George Bay in Beirut. On March 14, 2005, groups of people gathered in Martyrs' Square in Lebanon. Protesters marched demanding the truth about Hariri's murder and independence from Syrian presence in Lebanon . The 2006 Lebanon War, was a 34-day military conflict in Lebanon and northern Israel. The principal parties were Hezbollah paramilitary forces and the Israeli military. The conflict started on 12 July 2006, and continued until a United Nations-brokered ceasefire went into effect on 14 August 2006 .
Lebanon celebrate many traditions and celebrations, such as:
Christmas: Lebanon is the only mid eastern country that celebrates Christmas as an official holiday. Lebanese Christmas takes place on the 25th of December. Most people spend the morning visiting friends and entertaining them in their turn. For the Christmas meal, entire families often gather together, usually at the home of the eldest male relative.
Saint Barbara: It is celebrated on the 3rd of December. As a preparation to the memory of Saint Barbara the next day, and in the evening kids dress up in different costumes and go from house to house singing traditional songs of this occasion. This celebrations is mostly enjoyed by young children.
Mask worn on Saint Barbara What Most Lebanese eat at Christmas lunch. “Shawirma Chicken”
Lebanon joined the League of Arab States as a charter member in 1945. Nature and Structure of Government:
The constitution grants the people the right to change their government. However, from the mid-1970s until the parliamentary elections in 1992, civil war precluded the exercise of political rights. According to the constitution, direct elections must be held for the parliament every 4 years. The last parliament election was in 2005. The Parliament, in turn, elects a President every 6 years to a single term. The President is not eligible for re-election .
Leaders: Chief of State: President Ilyas Harawi (since 24 November1989); Head of Government: Prime Minister Rafiq Al Hariri, but sadly was recently assassinated on the fourth of February.
Lebanon's need on foreign powers is quite a normal situation in the country's history, where the neighbor, Syria, now has the upper hand. Inside the country, Christians have relatively more power than their percentage of the Lebanese population should allow them. But the Muslims are awakening politically, and have increased their turnout in national elections after the civil war. The constitution of Lebanon is dividing power between what it has defined as the country's three religious groups, the Shiias, the Sunnas and the Maronite Christians. The president is always a Maronite Christian, the prime minister a Sunni Muslim, while the speaker of the National Assembly a Shii Muslim. This has left the Christians the most powerful group politically, with the Shiis as the least influential.
Lebanon’s Politics play an important part in keep Lebanon together. After the major war in 1993, Hariri began “Horizon 2000” which ended up being an $18 million program to help rebuild Lebanon. ‘
With the return of Prime Minister Hariri to office in August 2000, the government once more focused on resuming reconstruction efforts by securing foreign aid, mainly from European and Arab countries. In 2000, the Kuwaiti government agreed to deposit $100 million at the Lebanese Central Bank to help stabilize the Lebanese pound. Hariri is also expected to proceed with economic reforms, especially the privatization of state-owned enterprises.
Lebanon’s economy has many important economic factors such as:
Trade : The Port of Beirut plays an important role in Lebanon's commercial activities. After World War II, Beirut became the most important Arab port on the Eastern Mediterranean serving the Arab world. During a conflict, the Port of Beirut almost closed down. Work has been completed on the reconstruction of the Duty Free Zone at the Port of Beirut to restore its pre-war facility and a project for the healing and expansion of the Port of Beirut is happening.
Industry : In 1995, the industrial sector (mainly production of cement, furniture, paper, detergents, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, batteries, garments and processed foods) accounted for 29.17 per cent. of GDP, an increase from 15.9 per cent. of GDP in 1972. Virtually all industry is privately owned.
Agriculture : Approximately one third of the Republic is arable.
The most fertile areas are located along the coastal strip and
in the Bekaa valley. The diversity of the Republic's countryside
and climate allows farming of a wide variety of vegetables,
fruits and industrial crops. Agriculture contributes
approximately 26% to the Republic's GDP.
A farm in Lebanon
Why Trade, Agriculture and Industry important in Lebanon’s Economy?
In the previous slide, I chose to write about trade, industry and agriculture because those three are an the most important aspect of Lebanon’s economy. The economy in Lebanon includes:
After reading how important each economic factor is to Lebanon, I have noticed that the three I have chose were the most important because they all have the largest GDP. Also, I chose to write about trade because it had a long history and background and it has caused many countries around the world to communicate with Lebanon especially the Arab countries.
For Industry, I chose it because it was the most important economic factor in 1972. I thought this was important because it was one of the reasons why Lebanon has become what it is today.
The last topic I chose was agriculture because of my personal experience. I have been going to Lebanon for every holiday and while you driving after every three minutes, you will see a man with a store selling fruits and vegetables store. Many poor or unfortunate people rely on agriculture to live or get money so I new that agriculture played a big role in their life.
The location of Lebanon has many benefits such as, its mild climate and natural beauty, consisting of snow-capped mountains, valleys and the Mediterranean Sea. Apart from its privileged geographical and natural situation, Lebanon benefits from qualified and experienced human resources in the tourism industry. Lebanon joins its natural beauty, and its historical sites.
While you are in Lebanon you can see remains from Phoenicians, Canaanite, and Egyptians era, as you can see the mountains, the cedars.
Lebanese cities are among the famous names in ancient history, such as Saidon, Sour, Jbeil and Trablus. Until the current days, ruins are still resisting the ages, and are standing still to show the greatness of the people that lived in this holy land.
Society : Lebanon does not have a joyful or good society. For many years now, many Lebanese do not respect different cultures and religions. For example the Sinna’s and Shiia's are always against each other. Also, Muslim’s and Christians are always protesting about their own opinions. This has caused arguments and war in the country.
Places: Many houses and building in Lebanon are still destroyed when they were bombed in 1980’s. Also, there are a lot of demonstrations going on because the Lebanese are putting bombs which causes many houses or areas to burn.
Environment: From all the bombs, smoke has come out which has harmed the environment in Lebanon. Territories are still full of smoke and ashes from previous wars and people have still not cleaned it up. On the other hand, some areas are full with grass and greenery which help the environment and animals.
IMPROVE LEBANON’S GLOBAL AWARENES:
To improve their society, people have to make mixed communities which can help unite them together
To improve Lebanon’s places, they have to have more army men around to make sure no bombs or harmful weapons. Also, the government can rebuild all of the burnt houses to make sure that the unfortunate Lebanese live in a safer environment.
To improve Lebanon’s environment, the government can build more trees and plants. Another option is that they make a special group that cleans out the ashes and dirt. This can help clean up the country and make a it a much more beautiful place.
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11 Dec 2007. "Geography of Lebanon." Wikipedia . 29.12.07. GNU Free Documentation Liscence. <http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/08/USGS_CMG_InfoBank_Atlas,_Lebanon_regions.jpg/300px-USGS_CMG_InfoBank_Atlas,_Lebanon_regions.jpg>.
11 Dec 2007. "The Killing." jamestown . <http://www.jamestown.org/images/photos/Hariri.jpg>.
Mansour, 14 Dec 2007. "Saint Barbara." asia.geocities . Saint Mark`. <http://asia.geocities.com/faywall/51/FeyrouzBack50.jpg>.
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