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Land Use Changes Associated to Highways
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Land Use Changes Associated to Highways

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This presentation summarizes the paper published in the proceedings of the 14th HKSTS International Conference. Transportation and Geography held in Hong Kong in December 2009. …

This presentation summarizes the paper published in the proceedings of the 14th HKSTS International Conference. Transportation and Geography held in Hong Kong in December 2009.

In our proposal to help clarify which are the changes more related to highway construction, our aim is to analyse two areas in the same broad region (thus minimising social and cultural interferences), with the same data sources, and during the same period of time (further avoiding the distortion of different economic trends).

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  • I’ll start this presentation with a brief introduction to the key elements of the relationship between land use and transport. Then I’ll follow with a proposal to identify the changes in the land use pattern that occur with the presence of a highway before introducing the study areas in the United Kingdom. I’ll finish with some conclusions after the analysis and some ideas for further research
  • Accessibility, as the capacity to offer a number of opportunities to interact, and reciprocity are the key elements to understand this relationship. Land use changes occur when transport infrastructures provide a change in accessibility; and at the same time transport infrastructures are built to satisfy the transport demand caused by a particular land use pattern.
  • There is plenty of literature about how and how much transport infrastructures impact on the territory. One of the main difficulties in to distinguish which changes are clearly related to highways, and which ones are due to other factors. There is, though, an agreement that highways do have an influence on the spatial distribution of population and activities, which the basis of this study.
  • We have made a post-analysis of two close study areas using a set of multiple variables as an attempt to overcome some of the obstacles of the pre-post analysis: A post-analysis of two cases allows the comparison during the same period of time, which in turn helps minimize the distortion caused by different phases of the economic cycle, and it also facilitates appropriate data availability, which is particularly interesting for older highways. The analysis consists of the comparison between two case studies, both of them related to road junctions, although these roads would be highways only in one of the cases. Therefore, it would be easier to make a better distinction between changes associated to highways and other changes. Long term analysis of multiple variables is needed because land use changes and trends require a large period of time to occur in a significant way. With the use of mapping and statistics tools we will be able to differentiate processes in the core and peripheral area, to see if the highway affects the spatial pattern
  • The comparison is made at the local-to-subregional level between a city with highway connections, like the one to the northwest, and another city whose main transport connections are made by trunk roads, to the south-east. Cities should be further enough from each other so development could potentially take place in both of them.
  • Taking into account our analysis objectives, the availability of the data and our wish to facilitate further comparisons with other study areas, we have taken census years since 1981 as fixed dates of the timeline at which data must be referred.
  • To be more precise, our aim is to measure land use changes by using potentially available data such as: Physical land use changes through the use of land use maps, aerial and satellite imagery and/or planning applications Changes on people location Changes on dwelling location and their characteristics, such as the proportion of apartments or houses Changes in activity location and the industry of employment
  • The selection of the study area requires, on the one hand, the presence of a city located close to a motorway junction, and on the other hand, a city containing a crossing of trunk roads, so that in both of them transport has a potentially similar role. The Doncaster Metropolitan Borough and the Lincoln Policy Area respectively, meet these requirements. They are broadly located in the same part of the United Kingdom, about 65 km away from each other
  • Despite their different socioeconomic backgrounds, both cities are clear crossroads that now face the challenge of regeneration after the severe coal and industry crisis . Doncaster, to the north-west, comprises the whole Metropolitan Borough of Doncaster, which is one of the sub-regional centres of the Yorkshire and the Humber Region. The whole Borough covers over 56,000 hectares and has a population of near 300,000 persons in 2001. The intersection between the M18 motorway (Southwest – Northeast, built in 1970’s) and A1 (M) motorway (North – South, built in 1961) falls within its boundaries, to the south of the main urban area. The city of Doncaster is the main urban area of the Borough and is surrounded by a dozen market and coalfield towns, and about 50 small villages. The study area for Lincoln comprises all the wards included within the Lincoln Policy Area, with the total area being over 72,000 hectares and a population of over 150,000 persons in 2001. The A46 and A15 trunk roads intersect in Lincoln, as do two more A roads: the A158, coming from the East and the A57, from the West. The city of Lincoln is also the main urban centre of its respective area, with the rest of the settlements performing dormitory or local services functions. Lincoln City, contrary to Doncaster, concentrates most of the urban functions of its catchment area.
  • There are land use maps of the UK for years 1990 and 2000, but they cannot be compared to each other, and photos or images from satellites were not available at a reasonable price and scale, so we decided to registry physical land use changes through the analysis of major planning applications that had been approved in the mentioned census years. We also got some of the data from regular census tables which are similar to other countries, and to compliment the land use analysis we used a database that contains information about the commercial deals. As our aim is to distinguish if there is a different spatial pattern, we used the most spatially disaggregated data available from each data source, using a GIS to geocode it all and proceed with the analysis. Finally, we made some interviews to regional and local agents so we could have a better framework for the analysis.
  • Population and household statistics show the different pattern of each study area, emphasizing both Doncaster’s decentralization (just over 1/3 of the population and households are located in the core area) and Lincoln’s centralization (near 50 per cent of the population and households are within Lincoln city). There are also differences in the type of dwelling, with a a higher proportion of flats in Lincoln city (13.2 per cent of households are flats) than in Doncaster city (6.7 per cent).
  • The analysis of the major planning applications that were approved in the census years reveals the higher decentralization process that have occurred in Doncaster. Here you can see how in 1981 there is a concentration of planning applications for new buildings or change of use in the core area. This concentration is higher in the case of Lincoln, as it is the demand for new buildings.
  • In 2001, the situation has changed towards a more decentralized pattern. In Doncaster we cannot almost appreciate where the city centre is, only the higher presence of applications for change of use in the centre allows an approximation. However, Lincoln city centre maintains its dominance over the surrounding towns.
  • The higher concentration of applications for change of use inside the city centre matches with the higher proportion of commercial deals that occurs in Lincoln centre, whereas in Doncaster service activities are mainly located in the city centre and also in Mexborough (clearly influenced by near, and railway-connected, Sheffield). On the contrary, industrial activities are more significant towards the north of Doncaster city, in localities placed next to a motorway or railway, and almost inexistent in Lincoln.
  • Data related to the industry of employment shows the evolution from a mining and industry based structure in Doncaster to a new service and transportation framework. Similarly, Lincoln has changed from an economy based on industry and the primary sector, to an employment structure where distribution and catering and other services are the main activities.
  • The spatial patterns of each area have been influenced by different factors in a way that it seems difficult to identify the exact role of transport infrastructure with only statistical data. Some interviews were carried out on local agents to reach a better understanding of each area’s development. According to Andrew Gates, Policy and Partnerships Officer of Doncaster Metropolitan Borough, the motorway crossing is now the key element in Doncaster’s economy, which is focussing on transportation and logistics. However, there is a lack of properly skilled people that reduces the potential development of the area. On the contrary, Zoe Staton, Principal Planning Officer of City of Lincoln Council, states that firms prefer locations nearer to motorways, but then they realize that there are not facilities for their staff there. Therefore, the strategy of Lincoln city is to offer some areas for compact development with facilities nearby, both for residential and activity use.
  • Literature review has shown that transport infrastructures have a different impact depending on the increase in the accessibility rate of the area, making peripheral, but not-isolated, areas the most susceptible ones to obtaining higher benefits. Both study areas have shown that they are aware of the importance of transport for their economy, but development also depends on their resources and the way they are able to manage them. At the local scale, highways are a factor for decentralization of both activities and population. This tendency is also influenced by local planning policies and the catchment area relationship with the main urban area. The distinction between the highway influence and these factors is the most difficult, and not yet fully achieved, task. The case study shows evidence that urban development and population tend to locate in the main city where there is a lack of highways to connect the city centre to other localities. There is also a higher proportion of flats and apartments, and a more compact development when there is a lack of highways.
  • This study, which is part of a broader investigation, has also shown the need for some improvements in the methodology and data sources, which will be dealt with in further research. As far as the methodology is concerned, the most important issue to be addressed is to place the starting point at the time when highways were built in the study area that contain this element, which will help to minimise background characteristics that condition further evolution. It is also important to keep choosing study areas with a similar background but far enough away from each other so that a presence of a highway in one of them does not influence development of the second area. With regard to data sources, an effort is being made to favour comparability between different places and data availability but boundary changes are a constant in United Kingdom Census data at the ward level, which makes comparison difficult over a long time period.
  • Thank you for your attention
  • Transcript

    • 1. LAND USE CHANGES ASSOCIATED TO HIGHWAYS Henar Salas-Olmedo Soledad Nogués Esther González-González UNIVERSITY OF CANTABRIA GEURBAN – Urban and Spatial Planning Research Group
    • 2. UNIVERSITY OF CANTABRIA GEURBAN – Urban and Spatial Research Group 1. The Land Use and Transport Relationship 2. How To Identify Changes Associated To Highways 3. Case Study: Doncaster and Lincoln (UK) 4. Conclusions and Further Research
    • 3. 1. The Land Use and Transport Relationship Transport Land Use ACCESSIBILITY
    • 4. 1. The Land Use and Transport Relationship Highways Land Use SHAPES requires
    • 5. 2. How To Identify Changes Associated To Highways Same timeline Different study areas Long term post-analysis Highway connected Trunk crossroad Multiple variables Land use changes Population Trends Households Activities Core-Periphery spatial pattern differences Highways Land Use SHAPES
    • 6. Different study areas Highway connected Trunk crossroad Highways Land Use SHAPES
    • 7. 2. How To Identify Changes Associated To Highways Same timeline Long term post-analysis Data availability Data comparability Long term Census years 1981-1991-2001 Highways Land Use SHAPES
    • 8. Multiple variables Land use changes Population Trends Households Activities 2. How To Identify Changes Associated To Highways Highways Land Use SHAPES Topic Sources Land Use Changes Land use maps Aerial and satellite imagery Planning applications Population trends Resident counts Households Household counts Type of dwelling counts Activities Commercial deals Industry of Employment
    • 9. 3. Case Study: Doncaster and Lincoln (UK) London
    • 10. One of the Sub-regional centres of the region 56,000 Ha. 286,866 persons The city of Doncaster is surrounded by some 12 market and coalfield towns, and about 50 small villages . LINCOLN POLICY AREA One of the Principal Urban Areas of the region 72,000 Ha. 64,443 persons The city of Lincoln is surrounded by settlements performing dormitory or local services functions . METROPOLITAN BOROUGH OF DONCASTER
    • 11. Case Study: Doncaster and Lincoln (UK) Multiple variables Land use changes Population Trends Households Activities Input data Highways Land Use SHAPES Variable Source Spatial Unit Approved Planning applications Registry of the corresponding Local Authority, 1981, 1991 and 2001 Postcode, or street or settlement Residents ONS. Census Data, 1981-2001 Ward Households ONS. Census Data, 1981-2001 Ward Type of dwelling ONS. Census Data, 2001 Ward Industry of Employment ONS. Census Data, 1981-2001 Ward Commercial deals Focus Dataset 1981-2001 Postcode
    • 12. DONCASTER 1/3 of the population and households are located in the core area 6.1 per cent of flats The city centre has increased its services and retail activities but it has not been able to attract or retain population, who can easily drive to the core area LINCOLN Near 50 per cent of the population and households are within Lincoln city 13.2 per cent of households are flats Lincoln city centre has been able to attract more people than its surroundings
    • 13. Facts and figures 3. Case Study: Doncaster and Lincoln (UK) 1981 Doncaster Lincoln
    • 14. DONCASTER Planning applications (PA) have a dispersed pattern CITY CENTRE 26.13 per cent of PA 18.92 per cent of PA to erect new buildings LINCOLN Highly concentrated spatial pattern of planning applications CITY CENTRE 41.53 per cent of PA 35.20 per cent of PA to erect new buildings 3. Case Study: Doncaster and Lincoln (UK) 2001 Doncaster Lincoln
    • 15. DONCASTER Service activities concentrated in the city centre and Mexborough Deals related to industrial activities are placed near motorways and railways LINCOLN Higher proportion of commercial deals inside the city centre Almost inexistent deals related to industrial activities Mexborough
    • 16. DONCASTER Evolution from a mining and industry based structure to a new service and transportation framework LINCOLN From an economy based on industry and the primary sector, to an employment structure where distribution, and catering and other services are the main activities.
    • 17. Qualitative knowledge “ The motorway crossing is now the key element in Doncaster’s economy, which is focusing on transportation and logistics . However, there is a lack of properly skilled people that reduces the potential development of the area.” Andrew Gates Policy and Partnerships Officer of Doncaster Metropolitan Borough “ The strategy of Lincoln city is to offer some areas for compact development with facilities nearby, both for residential and activity use”. Zoe Staton Principal Planning Officer of City of Lincoln Council Interviews
    • 18. 4. Conclusions and Further Research Transport is important for regional economy in both cases, but development also depends on their resources and the way they are able to manage them. At the local scale, highways are a factor for decentralization of both activities and population. This tendency is also influenced by local planning policies and the catchment area relationship with the main urban area Highways encourage car travelling , which reduces centralization and favours out-of-the-city development Conclusions
    • 19. 4. Conclusions and Further Research Placing the starting point at the time when highways were built in the study area that contain this element will help to minimise background characteristics that condition further evolution An effort is being made to favour comparability between different places and data availability but boundary changes are a constant in United Kingdom Census data at the ward level, which makes comparison difficult over a long time period. Further research
    • 20. Thank you Henar Salas-Olmedo, Soledad Nogués and Esther González-González Dpt. Geography, Urban and Spatial Planning School of Civil Engineering UNIVERSITY OF CANTABRIA - SPAIN www.grupospdi.unican.es/geurban [email_address]

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