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    • History of Linux
    • What is Linux?
      • It is an operating system known for being developed as an open-source software meaning that the underlying source code can be used, modified and redistributed commercially and non-commercially under the GNU General Public License (GPL).
      • It is popularly used for servers primarily for its low cost to set-up being under the GNU GPL.
      • Is a UNIX-like OS
    • History
      • In June 1971,  R ichard  M atthew  S tallman joined MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory as a programmer where he gained popularity with the hacker community and came to be known by his now popular name  RMS .
      • At that time, all the programmers used to share their code freely among each other cutting across various institutions
    • Richard Matthew Stallman
    • History
      • So the companies developing the code refused to share the code with their clients and began restricting copying and redistribution of their software by copyrighting it.
    • History
      • In response to this trend, Stallman, who believed in the principle that software has to be free always, founded the Free Software Foundation and in 1985, published the GNU Manifesto.
      • This manifesto outlined his motivation for creating a free OS called GNU, which would be compatible with Unix.
      • He along with a group of like minded programmers started work in developing the tools needed to make a complete OS 
    • History
      • In the same year (1985), a professor by name Andy Tanenbaum wrote a Unix like Operating system from scratch for the Intel i386 platform.
      • He named it Minix.
    • Andy Tanenbaum
    • History
      • In 1989, Stallman released the first program independent GNU General Public Licence now popularly known as GPL or copyleft.
      • Now the only thing that GNU lacked was a completely free OS kernel
    • History
      • In 1990, A finnish student by name Linus Torvalds studying in the University of Helsinki came into contact with Andy Tanenbaum's OS, Minix.
      • Linus wanted to upgrade Minix by putting in more features and improvements.
      • But he was prohibited by Tanenbaum to do so.
      • Then Linus decided to write his own kernel and released it under GPL.
      • This kernel is now popularly known as Linux
    • Linus Torvalds
    • Tux the penguin: Linux’s Dear Logo
      • The logo of Linux is a penguin
      • His cute logo has a very interesting history
      • Initially no logo was selected for Linux.
      History of Tux
    • Tux
      • Once Linus went to the southern hemisphere on a vacation
      • There he encountered a penguin
      • As he tried to pat it, the penguin bit his hand. 
      • This amusing incident led to the selection of a penguin as the logo of Linux sometime later.
    • Linus Speak
      • “ If you want to travel around the world and be invited to speak at a lot of different places, just write a Unix operating system ”
    • Linux File System Basics
      • Linux files are stored in a single rooted, hierarchical file system
        • Data files are stored in directories (folders)
        • Directories may be nested as deep as needed
      / etc home usr passwd inittab neale scully marty a b Directories User home directories Data files root
    • The Current Directory
      • One directory is designated the current working directory
        • Use pwd to find out where you are
      letter doc/letter ./doc/letter /home/neale/doc/letter / etc home usr passwd inittab neale scully marty a doc Current working directory
    • Some Special File Names
      • Some file names are special:
        • / The root directory (not to be confused with the root user)
        • . The current directory
        • .. The parent (previous) directory
        • ~ My home directory
      • Examples:
        • ./a same as a
        • ../jane/x go up one level then look in directory jane for x
    • Special Files
      • /home - all users’ home directories are stored here
      • /bin , /usr/bin - system commands
      • /sbin , /usr/sbin - commands used by sysadmins
      • /etc - all sorts of configuration files
      • /var - logs, spool directories etc.
      • /dev - device files
      • /proc - special system files
    • Common Commands
      • pwd - print (display) the working directory
      • cd < dir> - change the current working directory to dir
      • ls - list the files in the current working directory
      • ls -l - list the files in the current working directory in long format
    • Distribution of Linux
      • Linux distributions (often called distros for short) consist of a large collection of software applications such as word processors, spreadsheets, media players and database applications built on a Linux kernel.
      • The top 3 DISTROS
      • Red hat Fedora 12
      • Opensuse 11.2
      • Conecal Ubuntu 9.10
    • Distribution of Linux
      • Other Distros:
        • Mandriva
        • CentOS
        • Knoppix (first Live CD)
        • Pardus
        • Gentoo
    • Linux Environment
      • There are 2 types of desktop environment for LINUX. GNOME and KDE
      • The difference between GNOME and KDE are mainly cosmetic. The main difference is the toolkit used to develop them. KDE was developed using Qt while GNOME was developed using GTK+.
      • Both are Open Source meaning it can be freely modified and redistributed. Examples of other environments: LXDE, EDE, Mezzo, Etoile, UDE, Sugar, OpenWindows, CDE
    • Debian
    • openSUSE
    • Fedora
    • Mandriva
    • Thank you!