Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply



Published on

Published in: Technology
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total Views
On Slideshare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

No notes for slide


  • 1. History of Linux
  • 2. What is Linux?
    • It is an operating system known for being developed as an open-source software meaning that the underlying source code can be used, modified and redistributed commercially and non-commercially under the GNU General Public License (GPL).
    • It is popularly used for servers primarily for its low cost to set-up being under the GNU GPL.
    • Is a UNIX-like OS
  • 3. History
    • In June 1971,  R ichard  M atthew  S tallman joined MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory as a programmer where he gained popularity with the hacker community and came to be known by his now popular name  RMS .
    • At that time, all the programmers used to share their code freely among each other cutting across various institutions
  • 4. Richard Matthew Stallman
  • 5. History
    • So the companies developing the code refused to share the code with their clients and began restricting copying and redistribution of their software by copyrighting it.
  • 6. History
    • In response to this trend, Stallman, who believed in the principle that software has to be free always, founded the Free Software Foundation and in 1985, published the GNU Manifesto.
    • This manifesto outlined his motivation for creating a free OS called GNU, which would be compatible with Unix.
    • He along with a group of like minded programmers started work in developing the tools needed to make a complete OS 
  • 7. History
    • In the same year (1985), a professor by name Andy Tanenbaum wrote a Unix like Operating system from scratch for the Intel i386 platform.
    • He named it Minix.
  • 8. Andy Tanenbaum
  • 9. History
    • In 1989, Stallman released the first program independent GNU General Public Licence now popularly known as GPL or copyleft.
    • Now the only thing that GNU lacked was a completely free OS kernel
  • 10. History
    • In 1990, A finnish student by name Linus Torvalds studying in the University of Helsinki came into contact with Andy Tanenbaum's OS, Minix.
    • Linus wanted to upgrade Minix by putting in more features and improvements.
    • But he was prohibited by Tanenbaum to do so.
    • Then Linus decided to write his own kernel and released it under GPL.
    • This kernel is now popularly known as Linux
  • 11. Linus Torvalds
  • 12. Tux the penguin: Linux’s Dear Logo
  • 13.
    • The logo of Linux is a penguin
    • His cute logo has a very interesting history
    • Initially no logo was selected for Linux.
    History of Tux
  • 14. Tux
    • Once Linus went to the southern hemisphere on a vacation
    • There he encountered a penguin
    • As he tried to pat it, the penguin bit his hand. 
    • This amusing incident led to the selection of a penguin as the logo of Linux sometime later.
  • 15. Linus Speak
    • “ If you want to travel around the world and be invited to speak at a lot of different places, just write a Unix operating system ”
  • 16. Linux File System Basics
    • Linux files are stored in a single rooted, hierarchical file system
      • Data files are stored in directories (folders)
      • Directories may be nested as deep as needed
    / etc home usr passwd inittab neale scully marty a b Directories User home directories Data files root
  • 17. The Current Directory
    • One directory is designated the current working directory
      • Use pwd to find out where you are
    letter doc/letter ./doc/letter /home/neale/doc/letter / etc home usr passwd inittab neale scully marty a doc Current working directory
  • 18. Some Special File Names
    • Some file names are special:
      • / The root directory (not to be confused with the root user)
      • . The current directory
      • .. The parent (previous) directory
      • ~ My home directory
    • Examples:
      • ./a same as a
      • ../jane/x go up one level then look in directory jane for x
  • 19. Special Files
    • /home - all users’ home directories are stored here
    • /bin , /usr/bin - system commands
    • /sbin , /usr/sbin - commands used by sysadmins
    • /etc - all sorts of configuration files
    • /var - logs, spool directories etc.
    • /dev - device files
    • /proc - special system files
  • 20. Common Commands
    • pwd - print (display) the working directory
    • cd < dir> - change the current working directory to dir
    • ls - list the files in the current working directory
    • ls -l - list the files in the current working directory in long format
  • 21. Distribution of Linux
    • Linux distributions (often called distros for short) consist of a large collection of software applications such as word processors, spreadsheets, media players and database applications built on a Linux kernel.
    • The top 3 DISTROS
    • Red hat Fedora 12
    • Opensuse 11.2
    • Conecal Ubuntu 9.10
  • 22. Distribution of Linux
    • Other Distros:
      • Mandriva
      • CentOS
      • Knoppix (first Live CD)
      • Pardus
      • Gentoo
  • 23. Linux Environment
    • There are 2 types of desktop environment for LINUX. GNOME and KDE
    • The difference between GNOME and KDE are mainly cosmetic. The main difference is the toolkit used to develop them. KDE was developed using Qt while GNOME was developed using GTK+.
    • Both are Open Source meaning it can be freely modified and redistributed. Examples of other environments: LXDE, EDE, Mezzo, Etoile, UDE, Sugar, OpenWindows, CDE
  • 24. Debian
  • 25. openSUSE
  • 26. Fedora
  • 27. Mandriva
  • 28. Thank you!