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  • History of Linux
  • What is Linux?
    • It is an operating system known for being developed as an open-source software meaning that the underlying source code can be used, modified and redistributed commercially and non-commercially under the GNU General Public License (GPL).
    • It is popularly used for servers primarily for its low cost to set-up being under the GNU GPL.
    • Is a UNIX-like OS
  • History
    • In June 1971,  R ichard  M atthew  S tallman joined MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory as a programmer where he gained popularity with the hacker community and came to be known by his now popular name  RMS .
    • At that time, all the programmers used to share their code freely among each other cutting across various institutions
  • Richard Matthew Stallman
  • History
    • So the companies developing the code refused to share the code with their clients and began restricting copying and redistribution of their software by copyrighting it.
  • History
    • In response to this trend, Stallman, who believed in the principle that software has to be free always, founded the Free Software Foundation and in 1985, published the GNU Manifesto.
    • This manifesto outlined his motivation for creating a free OS called GNU, which would be compatible with Unix.
    • He along with a group of like minded programmers started work in developing the tools needed to make a complete OS 
  • History
    • In the same year (1985), a professor by name Andy Tanenbaum wrote a Unix like Operating system from scratch for the Intel i386 platform.
    • He named it Minix.
  • Andy Tanenbaum
  • History
    • In 1989, Stallman released the first program independent GNU General Public Licence now popularly known as GPL or copyleft.
    • Now the only thing that GNU lacked was a completely free OS kernel
  • History
    • In 1990, A finnish student by name Linus Torvalds studying in the University of Helsinki came into contact with Andy Tanenbaum's OS, Minix.
    • Linus wanted to upgrade Minix by putting in more features and improvements.
    • But he was prohibited by Tanenbaum to do so.
    • Then Linus decided to write his own kernel and released it under GPL.
    • This kernel is now popularly known as Linux
  • Linus Torvalds
  • Tux the penguin: Linux’s Dear Logo
    • The logo of Linux is a penguin
    • His cute logo has a very interesting history
    • Initially no logo was selected for Linux.
    History of Tux
  • Tux
    • Once Linus went to the southern hemisphere on a vacation
    • There he encountered a penguin
    • As he tried to pat it, the penguin bit his hand. 
    • This amusing incident led to the selection of a penguin as the logo of Linux sometime later.
  • Linus Speak
    • “ If you want to travel around the world and be invited to speak at a lot of different places, just write a Unix operating system ”
  • Linux File System Basics
    • Linux files are stored in a single rooted, hierarchical file system
      • Data files are stored in directories (folders)
      • Directories may be nested as deep as needed
    / etc home usr passwd inittab neale scully marty a b Directories User home directories Data files root
  • The Current Directory
    • One directory is designated the current working directory
      • Use pwd to find out where you are
    letter doc/letter ./doc/letter /home/neale/doc/letter / etc home usr passwd inittab neale scully marty a doc Current working directory
  • Some Special File Names
    • Some file names are special:
      • / The root directory (not to be confused with the root user)
      • . The current directory
      • .. The parent (previous) directory
      • ~ My home directory
    • Examples:
      • ./a same as a
      • ../jane/x go up one level then look in directory jane for x
  • Special Files
    • /home - all users’ home directories are stored here
    • /bin , /usr/bin - system commands
    • /sbin , /usr/sbin - commands used by sysadmins
    • /etc - all sorts of configuration files
    • /var - logs, spool directories etc.
    • /dev - device files
    • /proc - special system files
  • Common Commands
    • pwd - print (display) the working directory
    • cd < dir> - change the current working directory to dir
    • ls - list the files in the current working directory
    • ls -l - list the files in the current working directory in long format
  • Distribution of Linux
    • Linux distributions (often called distros for short) consist of a large collection of software applications such as word processors, spreadsheets, media players and database applications built on a Linux kernel.
    • The top 3 DISTROS
    • Red hat Fedora 12
    • Opensuse 11.2
    • Conecal Ubuntu 9.10
  • Distribution of Linux
    • Other Distros:
      • Mandriva
      • CentOS
      • Knoppix (first Live CD)
      • Pardus
      • Gentoo
  • Linux Environment
    • There are 2 types of desktop environment for LINUX. GNOME and KDE
    • The difference between GNOME and KDE are mainly cosmetic. The main difference is the toolkit used to develop them. KDE was developed using Qt while GNOME was developed using GTK+.
    • Both are Open Source meaning it can be freely modified and redistributed. Examples of other environments: LXDE, EDE, Mezzo, Etoile, UDE, Sugar, OpenWindows, CDE
  • Debian
  • openSUSE
  • Fedora
  • Mandriva
  • Thank you!