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  1. 1. History of Linux
  2. 2. What is Linux? <ul><li>It is an operating system known for being developed as an open-source software meaning that the underlying source code can be used, modified and redistributed commercially and non-commercially under the GNU General Public License (GPL). </li></ul><ul><li>It is popularly used for servers primarily for its low cost to set-up being under the GNU GPL. </li></ul><ul><li>Is a UNIX-like OS </li></ul>
  3. 3. History <ul><li>In June 1971,  R ichard  M atthew  S tallman joined MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory as a programmer where he gained popularity with the hacker community and came to be known by his now popular name  RMS . </li></ul><ul><li>At that time, all the programmers used to share their code freely among each other cutting across various institutions </li></ul>
  4. 4. Richard Matthew Stallman
  5. 5. History <ul><li>So the companies developing the code refused to share the code with their clients and began restricting copying and redistribution of their software by copyrighting it. </li></ul>
  6. 6. History <ul><li>In response to this trend, Stallman, who believed in the principle that software has to be free always, founded the Free Software Foundation and in 1985, published the GNU Manifesto. </li></ul><ul><li>This manifesto outlined his motivation for creating a free OS called GNU, which would be compatible with Unix. </li></ul><ul><li>He along with a group of like minded programmers started work in developing the tools needed to make a complete OS  </li></ul>
  7. 7. History <ul><li>In the same year (1985), a professor by name Andy Tanenbaum wrote a Unix like Operating system from scratch for the Intel i386 platform. </li></ul><ul><li>He named it Minix. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Andy Tanenbaum
  9. 9. History <ul><li>In 1989, Stallman released the first program independent GNU General Public Licence now popularly known as GPL or copyleft. </li></ul><ul><li>Now the only thing that GNU lacked was a completely free OS kernel </li></ul>
  10. 10. History <ul><li>In 1990, A finnish student by name Linus Torvalds studying in the University of Helsinki came into contact with Andy Tanenbaum's OS, Minix. </li></ul><ul><li>Linus wanted to upgrade Minix by putting in more features and improvements. </li></ul><ul><li>But he was prohibited by Tanenbaum to do so. </li></ul><ul><li>Then Linus decided to write his own kernel and released it under GPL. </li></ul><ul><li>This kernel is now popularly known as Linux </li></ul>
  11. 11. Linus Torvalds
  12. 12. Tux the penguin: Linux’s Dear Logo
  13. 13. <ul><li>The logo of Linux is a penguin </li></ul><ul><li>His cute logo has a very interesting history </li></ul><ul><li>Initially no logo was selected for Linux. </li></ul>History of Tux
  14. 14. Tux <ul><li>Once Linus went to the southern hemisphere on a vacation </li></ul><ul><li>There he encountered a penguin </li></ul><ul><li>As he tried to pat it, the penguin bit his hand.  </li></ul><ul><li>This amusing incident led to the selection of a penguin as the logo of Linux sometime later. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Linus Speak <ul><li>“ If you want to travel around the world and be invited to speak at a lot of different places, just write a Unix operating system ” </li></ul>
  16. 16. Linux File System Basics <ul><li>Linux files are stored in a single rooted, hierarchical file system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data files are stored in directories (folders) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Directories may be nested as deep as needed </li></ul></ul>/ etc home usr passwd inittab neale scully marty a b Directories User home directories Data files root
  17. 17. The Current Directory <ul><li>One directory is designated the current working directory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use pwd to find out where you are </li></ul></ul>letter doc/letter ./doc/letter /home/neale/doc/letter / etc home usr passwd inittab neale scully marty a doc Current working directory
  18. 18. Some Special File Names <ul><li>Some file names are special: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>/ The root directory (not to be confused with the root user) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>. The current directory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.. The parent (previous) directory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>~ My home directory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>./a same as a </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>../jane/x go up one level then look in directory jane for x </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Special Files <ul><li>/home - all users’ home directories are stored here </li></ul><ul><li>/bin , /usr/bin - system commands </li></ul><ul><li>/sbin , /usr/sbin - commands used by sysadmins </li></ul><ul><li>/etc - all sorts of configuration files </li></ul><ul><li>/var - logs, spool directories etc. </li></ul><ul><li>/dev - device files </li></ul><ul><li>/proc - special system files </li></ul>
  20. 20. Common Commands <ul><li>pwd - print (display) the working directory </li></ul><ul><li>cd < dir> - change the current working directory to dir </li></ul><ul><li>ls - list the files in the current working directory </li></ul><ul><li>ls -l - list the files in the current working directory in long format </li></ul>
  21. 21. Distribution of Linux <ul><li>Linux distributions (often called distros for short) consist of a large collection of software applications such as word processors, spreadsheets, media players and database applications built on a Linux kernel. </li></ul><ul><li>The top 3 DISTROS </li></ul><ul><li>Red hat Fedora 12 </li></ul><ul><li>Opensuse 11.2 </li></ul><ul><li>Conecal Ubuntu 9.10 </li></ul>
  22. 22. Distribution of Linux <ul><li>Other Distros: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mandriva </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CentOS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knoppix (first Live CD) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pardus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gentoo </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Linux Environment <ul><li>There are 2 types of desktop environment for LINUX. GNOME and KDE </li></ul><ul><li>The difference between GNOME and KDE are mainly cosmetic. The main difference is the toolkit used to develop them. KDE was developed using Qt while GNOME was developed using GTK+. </li></ul><ul><li>Both are Open Source meaning it can be freely modified and redistributed. Examples of other environments: LXDE, EDE, Mezzo, Etoile, UDE, Sugar, OpenWindows, CDE </li></ul>
  24. 24. Debian
  25. 25. openSUSE
  26. 26. Fedora
  27. 27. Mandriva
  28. 28. Thank you!