Attitudes• Tendency to evaluate stimuli with some degree of favor or disfavor• 3 components of an attitude o Affective o Behavioral o Cognitive
Theory of Planned Behavior• Change specific attitudes toward a behavior• Emphasizes subjective norms
Persuasion• The deliberate attempt to change attitudes• Components of persuasion o Source – speakers more persuasive when credible o Message – fear appeals, content/information o Attitude strength – stronger attitudes harder to change
Persuasion• Elaboration Likelihood Model o Use central route to change attitudes when: • Recipient attitude strength is strong • Recipient motivated to think about message arguments o Using distractions (glitzy campaigns, jingles) to impede rational/conscious processing causes annoyance
Persuasion• Elaboration Likelihood Model o Use peripheral route to change attitudes when: • Recipient not likely to engage in high-effort cognitive thought processing (“superficial processing”) • Useful when attitude is weak o Recipient will not carefully consider the pros/cons of issue or message
Persuasion• Requests that shift from small to large:• “Foot-in-the-Door” o Small request first get compliance then larger request• “Low-Balling” o Reasonable request first get compliance reveal hidden costly details (i.e., mistaken price suddenly discovered)
Persuasion• Requests that shift from large to small:• “Door-in-the-Face” o Unreasonable first request immediate smaller request• “That’s-Not-All” o Large request discount/bonus immediately follows
Other Types of Influence• Scarcity – Rare things are highly valued (Home Shopping network, “Limited Time Only”/“Supplies Limited” sales)• Reciprocity – First the source gives you something. Once you accept, may feel obligated to give something back• Comparison rule – When others stop and stare, so do you (“salting the collection plate”)
The Self• Cognitive Dissonance Theory o Perceived discrepancy between an attitude and a behavior creates psychological tension/anxiety o Individual motivated to either change the attitude, behavior, or perception of inconsistent information• Festinger & Carlsmith (1959) o Monotonous task experiment ($1 vs. $20)
The Self• Festinger & Carlsmith (1959) o Participants performed boring motor coordination task for 30 minutes o Subjects given either $1 or $20 to tell next subject the (boring) experiment was fun o Those paid $20 to lie evaluated the study as much less favorable than those only paid $1 • Why?
The Self• Festinger & Carlsmith (1959) o In $20 condition, dissonance (lying about a boring task) was weaker – subjects knew why they lied o In $1 condition, dissonance was higher – subjects could not justify their behavior on external grounds (only $1) • One option to reduce dissonance was to modify attitude toward the task – “It was kind of interesting.”
The Self• Halo effect o A person considered good (or bad) in one category is likely to be similarly evaluated in other categories o Dissonance avoidance? • Attributing someone as good at one thing and bad at another would make an overall evaluation difficult
The Self• Fundamental Attribution Error (Ross, 1977) o Attribute events which happen to other people to their internal states (mood, personality, motivations) o Attribute events involving ourselves to external influences o Especially true when we know little about the other person
The Self• Mere Exposure Effect (Zajonc, 1968) o The more we are exposed to something, the more we come to like it o “Familiarity breeds liking” o There is some benefit to simply being near someone you’re interested in
Conformity• Zimbardo’s (1971) Stanford Prison Experiment o 2 groups o “Prisoners” detained by California police on a Saturday morning, deloused, chained, and jailed o “Guards” wore uniforms, given billy clubs, whistles, and instructed to maintain order in the prison o Experiment cancelled after only a few days as guards became progressively abusive
Conformity• Milgram’s Obedience Experiments (1963) o Participants told study was about the effect of punishment on learning o Confederate was the “Learner” in other room, participant was the “Teacher” who administered the shocks o Shocking apparatus operated with 15v (mild) to 450v (lethal) o The more mistakes the “Learner” made, the higher the shock the participant/“Teacher” was asked to give
Conformity• Results: o 65% of participants “killed” the victim o What determined such obedience to authority? o Participant heard by victim but not seen o Prestigious location (Yale laboratory) o High social status of “expert” authority figure o Authority figure present to push participant to continue o When participants in same room, only 30% lethally shocked victim
Groups• Social facilitation o Individual performance (esp. competitive tasks) is altered due to the presence of others Performance improves on simple or familiar tasks Performance may not improve on complex or new tasks
Groups• Social loafing o Individual effort decreases as size of group increases o Influenced by: - Diffusion of responsibility - Decreased evaluation apprehension - Group productivity illusion (“They’re doing fine”) - Level of identification with the group
Groups• Deindividuation o In a crowd, people: - Become less self-aware + feel anonymous - Become more impulsive, less rational and more suggestible - Behave in more extreme ways
Groups• Stereotypes o Generalizations about the "typical" characteristics of individuals or members of a group (can be + or -) o Ex: “Someone who wears glasses is intelligent”• Prejudice o Unreasonable feelings (negative attitudes) regarding others’ racial/ethnic, sexual, political, or religious group status• Discrimination o Behavior (action) toward others based on negative attitudes
Bystander Effect• Latane and Darley (1968) study o Participants told to discuss problems faced by students in a high pressure urban environment o Discussions took place over intercoms to maintain “the absolute importance of anonymity” o Participants believed they were talking to 1, 2, or 5 other people
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