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Modules 32-35 PowerPoint Slides

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  • 1. Psychological Disorders
  • 2. Mental Illness• Abnormal psychology (“psychopathology”)• Diagnosis o Observing patient’s symptoms and inferring disorder o Symptoms appear in clusters called syndromes• Prognosis o Refers to prediction about the course of identified disorder over time
  • 3. Mental Illness• Neurotic disorders o Primary symptoms include anxiety or defenses to ward off anxiety (phobias, OCD, PTSD) o Symptoms may cause distress or impair functioning but generally allow for social functioning• Psychotic disorders o Includes more severe or “serious” mental disorders o Thoughts and actions no longer meet the demands of reality (schizophrenia, dissociative disorders)
  • 4. Mental Illness• Theoretical models of psychopathology o Biomedical/biopsychosocial perspective o Psychodynamic perspective o Behavioral perspective o Cognitive perspective o Systems perspective
  • 5. Biological Perspective• Emphasizes the physical and biological bases of behavior• Examines pathology within the brain o Abnormality stems from disturbances in brain activity, neurotransmitter problems, and/or chemical imbalances• Strongly influenced by neuroscience o MRI and PET scans re: schizophrenia
  • 6. Psychodynamic Perspective• Abnormal behavior results from: a) Unresolved psychological conflicts in early childhood b) Conflict between selfish desires of Id and the demands of society/personal conscience of Superego• Emphasizes attacking defense mechanisms + provoking a catharsis
  • 7. Behavioral Perspective• Behaviors learned through conditioning and society can provide deviant/maladaptive models that children imitate• Overcoming issues occurs by providing positive learning experiences, healthy models, and rewarding positive behavioro Note: only some mental disorders neatly fit this model (i.e., Little Albert)
  • 8. Cognitive Perspective• Abnormal behavior results from distorted/irrational thinking that leads to maladaptive behavior• Focuses on the role of patient interpretations and expectations (thoughts) in generating/sustaining emotion• Offers useful understanding of depression o “Automatic thought process” – depression result of thinking negative/depressing thoughts about life’s experiences
  • 9. Systems Perspective• Looks for the root of an individual’s problem behavior within a broader social context (i.e., the family)• Abnormality stems from dysfunctional group relations within the family• Focus of counseling treatment becomes the family system (not the problem or symptomatic family member)
  • 10. Mental Illness• DSM-IV o Classifies signs and symptoms into syndromes • Signs = observable phenomena the patient exhibits • Symptoms = what patients reports to health care professional o Uses a multi-axial/multidimensional approach to diagnose mental illness along 5 dimensions o Diagnostic classification allows for description, future course prediction, and treatment
  • 11. DSM-IVAxis I: Clinical Syndromes - Signs and symptoms that cause distress (states) II: Developmental Disorders - Personality/developmental disorders (traits) III: Physical Conditions - Medical conditions (if any) IV: Severity of Psychosocial Pressures - Psychosocial/environmental problems V: Highest Level of Functioning - Global assessment of functioning
  • 12. Mood Disorders• Depression o Psychoanalytic – Reaction to loss coupled with suppressed/stifled anger o Behaviorism – Lack of positive reinforcement o Cognitive – Negative self-schemas that are global AND stable; failures are magnified while successes are minimized o Biological – Neurotransmitter deficiencies/chemical imbalances
  • 13. Mood Disorders• Treating depression o Therapy o Antidepressants/SSRIs (Paxil, Zoloft, Prozac) o Electro-convulsive/electro-shock therapy • Intentional induction of brain seizure • Immediate improvement but can cause memory loss • Researchers exploring less traumatic ways to alter electric activity in brain (i.e., Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation?)
  • 14. Mood Disorders• Bipolar disorder o “Manic depressive disorder” o Alternating episodes of mania and depression • Mania = Extreme euphoria, racing thoughts, hyperactivity, little need for sleep • Low incidence rate (0.5–1.6%) but high suicide rate (10–20%) o Treatment • Mood stabilizers (Lithium, Valproate)
  • 15. Anxiety Disorders• Characterized by intense feelings of distress, anxiety, or apprehension• Anxiety problematic when feelings become distressing to the point it interferes with daily life• Generalized Anxiety Disorder, phobias, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
  • 16. Anxiety Disorders• Phobias o Characterized by intense irrational fear o Individual often aware the fear is groundless but will continue to experience the phobia nonetheless o Types of phobias • Simple phobia (of a specific object like spiders) • Social phobia (fear of public situations) o Agoraphobia – fear of being in open places and unable to escape (usually crowds)
  • 17. Anxiety Disorders• Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) o Extremely persistent obsession (unwelcome thoughts) and compulsions (unwelcome behavior)• Several varieties of OCD • Arrangers/Cleaners • Counters • Checkers • Clutterers/Hoarders
  • 18. Anxiety Disorders• Treating anxiety o “Systematic desensitization” o Benzodiazepines/tranquilizers (Valium, Xanax) • Problems/concerns: o Dependency o Doesn’t necessarily treat underlying anxiety issue(s) o Many adverse side effects o Strong cross-activity with other depressants (alcohol)
  • 19. Schizophrenia• Symptoms o Disturbances of thought/attention o Perceptual disturbances (louder noise, more intense color) o Language disturbances (‘word salad’ – “why’s Wise wise?”) o Loss of attentional focus o Neologism – make up words that sound logical (“She is prastigitious”) o Associational chaining
  • 20. Schizophrenia• Symptoms (con’t) o Affective disturbances (flat affect in inappropriate situations) o Withdrawal from reality/complete catatonia o Hallucinations (“see the spies coming”, hear things) o Delusions or beliefs inconsistent with reality …of thoughts/influence (others’ brainwaves can influence them) …of persecution (convinced people are coming for them) …of grandeur (false beliefs they are greater than they really are) …of paranoia (high suspicion, constantly being watched)
  • 21. Schizophrenia• 2 types of onset a) Acute - Patient endures a stressor, followed by hallucinations - Better chance for treatment (address the stressor) b) Chronic - Slow, gradual deterioration of the individual - Actual cause unknown and therefore unclear what treatment option is best
  • 22. Schizophrenia• Major types o Paranoid o Disorganized o Catatonic o Undifferentiated o Residual
  • 23. Schizophrenia• Causes o Biological considerations • Appears to have a genetic link (i.e., runs in families) • Identical twin = ~50% probability o Social causes • Genetics alone not sufficient cause for schizophrenia • Low SES?
  • 24. Schizophrenia• Treatment(?) o Anti-psychotic medications • Thorazine – not a perfect drug! o Causes dyskinesia o Tolerance issues o Is “zombification” a cure? • Respiridone?
  • 25. Dissociative Disorders• Dissociative reactions o Characterized by disruptions in consciousness, memory, or sense of identity (“dissociated”) o Psychogenic amnesia, “fugue”• Dissociative Identity Disorder o “Multiple Personality Disorder” o At least two separate/distinct personalities exist within the same individual
  • 26. Personality Disorders• Antisocial personality disorder o “Without a conscience”, “sociopath”, “psychopath” o Characterized as those who easily exploit or harm others without guilt or remorse o Slightly more common in men (3%) vs. women (1%) o Violent and non-violent differentiation
  • 27. Personality Disorders• Narcissistic personality disorder o Extreme preoccupation with the self and self-promotion o Symptoms • Disregard for the feelings of others • Grandiosity • Obsessive self-interest • Pursuit of primarily selfish goals • Often demand/expect constant attention and admiration
  • 28. Therapy• Psychotherapy/Psychoanalysis (Freud) o Disorders stem from conflicts between Id, Superego, and Ego o Treatment involves communication between patient and a therapist, either individually or in a group o Make the unconscious conscious
  • 29. Therapy• Humanistic o Client-centered therapy (Rogers) • Assumes problems emerge when concept of self is incongruent with actual experiences • Therapist establishes unconditional positive regard and acceptance • “Empty chair technique”
  • 30. Therapy• Cognitive-behavioral o Thoughts determine behavior, thus distorted thinking leads to “maladaptive schemas” o Cognitive restructuring and behavior modification • Exposure techniques o Systematic desensitization o Aversive conditioning o Flooding o Modeling