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  • 1. Memory
  • 2. Memory• Amount of previously learned material that has been retained• Involves (1) encoding, (2) storage, and (3)retrieval• Memory is a net, not a bucket• Memory = retention
  • 3. Standard Model of Memory
  • 4. Memory• Sensory registers o Encoding of information retrieved through senses o Holds information about a stimulus only a few seconds at best o Iconic (visual) memory o Echoic (auditory) memory o Haptic (cutaneous) memory
  • 5. Memory• Short-term memory (STM) o STM takes over when information in sensory memory transferred to consciousness/awareness o Limited capacity o STM memories easy to access and retrieve
  • 6. 1 4 9 1 6 2 5 3 6 4 9 6 4 8 1
  • 7. 1 4 9 16 25 36 49 64 81
  • 8. How is information stored in STM?1) Primacy effect – information occurring first is remembered better than information occurring later2) Recency effect – information presented last is sometimes remembered better because not as much time has passed3) Serial position effect – information most likely to be remembered is what comes first and and last, while what is most likely to be forgotten is whatever is crowded in the middle
  • 9. How is information stored in STM?4) Frequency effect – rehearsal, rehearsal, rehearsal5) Distinctiveness – any distinctive information stands out from other information around it and is remembered better 6) Associations – associating/attaching information to other information
  • 10. Memory• Long-term memory (LTM) o Enduring o May last a lifetime o Unlimited capacity? o LTM memories harder to access/retrieve
  • 11. Memory• Subcategories of LTM o Declarative memory = Memories for facts, life events, information about environment • Semantic memory = Factual knowledge about world (names, dates, #s) • Episodic memory = Tied to specific events, situations (“flashbulb memories”)
  • 12. Memory• Subcategories of LTM (con’t) o Implicit memory = Memories expressed in behavior but do not require conscious recollection • Procedural memory = “How to” knowledge of procedures or skills (ride a bike, tie a shoe, drive a car) o Prospective memory = Remembering things that need to be done in the future (“remembering to remember”)
  • 13. Forgetting• Passive decay o Memory loss associated with lack of use o Can occur in LTM• Encoding failure o Information never consolidated beyond initial sensory register stage
  • 14. Forgetting• Retrieval failure o Difficulty accessing LTM o “Tip of the tongue” phenomenon• Repression o Unconscious motive to forget an emotionally traumatic memory o Pain/trauma of some experience creates a mental block preventing retrieval of that memory
  • 15. Forgetting• Retrograde amnesia o Inability to recall memories of the past (The Bourne Identity) o Can form new LTM• Anterograde amnesia o Inability to form new LTM (Memento) o New events contained in STM are not transferred to LTM memory
  • 16. Forgetting• Causes of amnesia o Damage to hippocampus o Acute stress o Neurodegenerative causes • Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s
  • 17. Forgetting
  • 18. Memory• Improving memory o Mnemonics • Adding additional cues for retrieval • Acronyms = PEMDAS, GRE, Roy G. Bv • “Geography” = George Eagle’s Old Grandmother Rode A Pig Home Yesterday o Eidetic images • Pairing semantic memories w/visual cues o Method of loci
  • 19. Memory• Best practices for improving memory o Spaced practice o Sleeping right after learning o Mood congruence o Environmental restructuring