Learning• Change in behavior due to experience with environment• Basic reflex between stimulus and response• Associative learning o Classical conditioning o Operant conditioning• Non-Associative learning o Habituation o Sensitization
Associative Learning• Classical conditioning o Pavlov’s dogs - Measured amount of saliva produced by presenting dogs with meat powder - When food dispenser made a sound to deliver food, the dogs salivated before it was delivered - Dogs learned to associate the sound with delivery of food
Associative Learning• Classical conditioning o Acquisition and extinction o Stimulus generalization o Stimulus discrimination
Associative Learning• Classical conditioning o Little Albert
Associative Learning• Operant conditioning o Learning to operate on the environment to produce a certain change that leads to a reward o Behavior is strengthened if it is reinforced and weakened if it is punished/not reinforced o Reinforcement is dependent on organism’s behavior
Associative Learning• Operant conditioning o Pigeon learns to touch a lighted key for reinforcement (Skinner, 1938)
Associative Learning• Operant conditioning o Thorndike’s Law of Effect - If a consequence is pleasant, the behavior will become more frequent in the future - If a consequence is unpleasant, the behavior becomes less likely to occur in the future o In classical conditioning, the controlling stimulus comes before a behavior – in operant conditioning, the controlling stimulus comes after a behavior
Associative Learning• Operant conditioning o Thorndike’s Puzzle Box
Associative Learning• Reinforcement o Positive reinforcement = presentation of a pleasant stimulus o Negative reinforcement = removal of an unpleasant stimulus - Escape/Avoidance learning• Punishment o Presentation of an aversive stimulus (spanking a child) o “Bring a negative”• Omission o Terminate a pleasant stimulus (withholding a paycheck) o “Stop a positive”
Associative Learning• Schedules of reinforcement o Fixed ratio o Variable ratio o Fixed interval o Variable interval
Non-Associative Learning• Habituation o Decreased strength of a response after repeated presentations of a stimulus• Sensitization o Repeated stimuli creates higher sensitivity• Modeling o Observing another’s behavior and then imitating that behavior
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