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Modules 14 and 15 PowerPoint Slides Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Sensation and Perception
  • 2. Sensation• Process by which body gathers information about environment• Connects us to the world• Sensation generally occurs in the sense organs – vision (detects light waves) – olifaction (sense of smell) – gustation (sense of taste)
  • 3. Perception• Process by which the brain organizes and interprets sensory information (“sensation PLUS perception”)• Perception occurs in the brain• 3 basic principles o adaptive o active o no one-on-one correspondence between physical and psychological reality
  • 4. Perception• Top-down processing o “Conceptually-driven processing” o Take information already existing in the mind to interpret environment• Bottom-up processing o “Data-driven processing” o Take stimuli from the environment and make attempts to determine its meaning
  • 5. Sensation• Sensory receptors – Eyes, ears, nose, etc. detect physical energy (light/sound/smell)• Transduction – Translates physical energy into neural signals• Absolute threshold – Each system’s minimal amount of energy required to activate it• Difference threshold – Each system’s minimal amount of energy required to detect change from one level of stimulus to another – Just-noticeable difference (Weber’s Law)
  • 6. Stroop Effect• In this experiment, say the color of the word (not what the word says)• Example: For the word RED you should say “Red”. For the word RED you should say “Yellow“• As soon as the words appear on your screen, read the list as fast as you can
  • 7. Stroop Effect• In this experiment, look at a picture of an animal and say the name of the animal. Do NOT read the word placed on the picture.• For example: You should say "Cow" because the animal in the picture is a cow.• You should sat “Cat” because the animal in the picture is a cat.
  • 8. Vision• Allows for the detection of movement, light, depth perception• Transduction – impulses from optic nerve carry visual information from retina to optic chiasm; neural messages then travel to thalamus and into the visual cortex
  • 9. Vision• Motion perception o Rods in retina sensitive to motion activate neurons in the visual cortex o 2 systems for processing movement - Eye stationary as object moves - Eye moves to maintain object at same place on the retina
  • 10. Vision• Photoreceptors o Cones - Highest concentration in the fovea - Require light to be activated - Color vision/trichromatic theory (“photopic vision”) - High visual acuity o Rods - Highest concentration in the retina - Night vision (“scoptic vision”) - Low visual acuity - High sensitivity (esp. motion detection)
  • 11. Vision• Color blindness • Inability to distinguish colors • “Disease” is linked to the X chromosome, thus males more likely than females to be color blind • Most common condition is red-green color blindness (difficulty distinguishing red and green)
  • 12. Hearing• Transduction o Outer ear collects physical stimuli (sound waves) o Inner ear carries movements via waves of fluid (in ear drum) that generate neural signals o Signals sent to thalamus then to temporal lobe
  • 13. Hearing• Volume – “loudness” determined by the height of sound wave (amplitude)• Pitch – refers to the frequency of the sound wave (low B flat/high C tone)
  • 14. Touch• Protects body from injury, helps identify objects, maintain body temperature• 4 basic skin sensors (heat, cold, pain, pressure)• Touch sensations differ throughout the body• Transduction o Sensory neurons in skin send impulses to spinal cord or communicate with interneurons (that in turn stimulate motor neurons)
  • 15. Taste• Refers to four basic tastes (sweet, sour, salty, bitter) and protects us from injecting toxic substances• Transduction o Occurs in the taste buds o Physical stimulus (soluble chemicals) activate taste receptor neurons which carry information to thalamus and primary cortex to help identify taste
  • 16. Smell• Detect danger (e.g., smoke, spoiled food) and/or recognize familiar odors• Transduction o Physical stimulus (air molecules) enter nasal cavity through nose o Receptors in olfactory epithelium pass information through the olfactory bulb to the primary cortex