Unit 7 State, Local, and International Government
I. Levels of Government
A. Splitting Powers
- Foreign and interstate commerce]
B. Different Levels
- Federal (national) Washington DC
- Municipalities (Cities, boroughs, townships)
C. State Government
1. Executive Branch
- Governor – Ed Rendell (D)
- Governors are distrusted because of the Royal governors of colonial days.
- Allowed two terms, each four years in length.
- Elected in Gubernatorial elections in even, non-leap years.
- Commander-in Chief of National Guard
- State of the State address
2. Legislative Branch
- General Assembly – bicameral legislature
- Only half are elected at once
- Lt. Governor is President of Senate
3. Judicial Branch
- State Supreme Court in Harrisburg
- Elected for 10 year terms
D. Local Government
- Larger than cities and townships.
- Philadelphia and Allegheny (Pittsburgh) are most populated.
- Warren, Venango, and Crawford make up TASD.
- Executive and Legislative Branch are combined.
- c). There must be commissioners from both parties.
- Prothonotary – clerk, record keeper.
- Commissioners and other officials sit on committees to set rules and services for county.
- d). Child and Youth Services
- Service depends on population.
- Roads, water and sewage, property and income taxes.
- Divided into three classes by size.
- May appoint a manager &officers.
- Smaller with less services.
- Supervisors run township like county commissioners.
- They also are workers for townships.
3. School District
- 1834 – First free public schools organized by state.
- Municipalities ran schools due to center of population.
- Today organized into 501 districts.
- Biggest school districts are still run by cities (Philadelphia and Pittsburgh)
- Elected – every 4 years in odd numbered years, only half at a time.
- a). President Donna Popieski
- c.) Secretary/Treasurer can be member or employee.
- School board meeting once a month.
- Organize into committees during work sessions.
- Critiques: Not necessarily professionals or experienced educators.
- g. Administrators – they hire district officers
- Superintendent – Karen Jez
- Between $15 and 20 million budget.
- Most funds come from property taxes.
- Some come from state and federal grants.
II. International Government
- President and legislature
- Receive their offices through election
- Religious Supreme Leader and the Guardian Council supervise them.
- No one or party can run for office without approval from the religious officials.
- They have veto power over the rest of the government.
- Religious laws under the Sahri’a prohibit immoral dress for women, inappropriate sexual relations, gaining unfair profit, and other actions.
- Punishable by amputation of limbs, adulterers and homosexuals can be whipped, beheaded, or crushed by boulders.
- People choose the president and legislature and there are some checks over religious leaders, Iran is a theocratic republic.
B. Saudi Arabia
- A hereditary monarch rules over this Middle Easter nation-state
- Crown controls all oil wealth, construction, and local communities.
- King does allow the existence of religious police who roam the country looking for violators of Holy Quran
- Schools must use the official religious text for education
- Discussion of other religions in a favorable manner is forbidden.
- Citizens and foreigners must follow the Sahri’a.
- All citizens must be Islamic. Since the religious police are subject to the king, it is referred to as a theocratic monarchy.
- Totalitarian Dictatorship 1950-1970 under Mao Zedong
- Communist Totalitarianism (1970 – Present)
- Central Party leads from Beijing
- Local Party controls regions.
- Complete loyalty of military
- Elections do occur for party leaders.
- Legislative elections are rigged, other parties are puppets of Communists.
- Large social welfare system does not reach rural areas.
- Industrialization has advanced cities with some capitalism.
- Very little freedom of speech, press, assembly, petition, or religion.
- Protest in Tiananmen Square in 1989 was crushed by army.
D. United Kingdom
- Constitutional Monarchy – Parliamentary Democracy
- First-past-the post elections occur where winner gets plurality of vote.
- Prime Minister – Toney Blair (HG)
- She appoints the PM from the majority party of the lower House of Commons.
- PM appoints minister to run departments.
- Upper House of Lords acts as Supreme Court, nothing more.
- Labour (similar to Democrats)
- Conservatives (Similar to Republicans)
- Many social services including health care and tuition.
- The Fifth Republic is a presidential democratic republic.
- National Assembly –represent specific communities.
- Senate elected by electoral college.
- President (HS) elected for 5 year term is head of state and appoints Prime Minister.
- Pres. may dissolve National Assembly
- French Socialist Party (Democrats)
- Rally for the Republic (Republican)
- Nationalists – pro-French only!
- Parliamentary democratic republic.
- Lower Bundestag – parties get membership = to % of the vote they receive (proportional).
- Parties with less than 5% of the vote do not get seats.
- They choose a Chancellor – head of government.
- Upper Bundesrat – Federal council, members elected from each state.
- Convention chooses president (head of state)
- Christian-Democrats (religious conservatives)
- Social Democrats (like our Democrats)
- Free Democrats (limited government)
- Coalition government – parties join together to rule.