Unit 7


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Unit 7

  1. 1. Unit 7 State, Local, and International Government
  2. 2. I. Levels of Government
  3. 3. A. Splitting Powers <ul><ul><li>Federal State Powers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Powers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concurrent Powers </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Federal Powers – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Foreign and interstate commerce] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Declare War </li></ul></ul><ul><li>State Powers- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transportation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Concurrent Powers- Taxes </li></ul>
  5. 5. B. Different Levels <ul><li>Federal (national) Washington DC </li></ul><ul><li>State (50), Harrisburg </li></ul><ul><li>Local </li></ul><ul><ul><li>County (67) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Municipalities (Cities, boroughs, townships) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>School Districts (501) </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. C. State Government
  7. 7. 1. Executive Branch <ul><li>Governor – Ed Rendell (D) </li></ul><ul><li>Governors are distrusted because of the Royal governors of colonial days. </li></ul><ul><li>Allowed two terms, each four years in length. </li></ul><ul><li>Elected in Gubernatorial elections in even, non-leap years. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>e. Powers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Veto </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commander-in Chief of National Guard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State of the State address </li></ul></ul><ul><li>f. Departments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PLCB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Penn DOT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State Police </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PDE </li></ul></ul><ul><li>g. Other executives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lt. Governor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Treasurer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Auditor General </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attorney General </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. 2. Legislative Branch <ul><li>General Assembly – bicameral legislature </li></ul><ul><li>House of Representatives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 year terms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All elected at same time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elect a Speaker </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Senate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4 year terms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only half are elected at once </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lt. Governor is President of Senate </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. 3. Judicial Branch <ul><li>State Supreme Court in Harrisburg </li></ul><ul><li>7 justices </li></ul><ul><li>Elected for 10 year terms </li></ul>
  11. 11. D. Local Government
  12. 12. 1. County <ul><li>Larger than cities and townships. </li></ul><ul><li>Philadelphia and Allegheny (Pittsburgh) are most populated. </li></ul><ul><li>Warren, Venango, and Crawford make up TASD. </li></ul><ul><li>Executive and Legislative Branch are combined. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Officials: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Commissioners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a). 3 are elected. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>b.) They choose a chair. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>c). There must be commissioners from both parties. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sheriff </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Treasurer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prothonotary – clerk, record keeper. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commissioners and other officials sit on committees to set rules and services for county. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><ul><li>Departments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a). Housing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>b). Aging </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>c). Assessment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>d). Child and Youth Services </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Judicial Branch </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Court of Common Pleas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Service depends on population. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Family matters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Criminal law </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Civil law </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Estate disputes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Juvenile Court </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. 2. Municipality <ul><li>Roads, water and sewage, property and income taxes. </li></ul><ul><li>Cities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Divided into three classes by size. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elect a mayor & council. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May appoint a manager &officers. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Boroughs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Same gov’t as city </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smaller with less services. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Township. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supervisors run township like county commissioners. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They also are workers for townships. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. 3. School District <ul><li>1834 – First free public schools organized by state. </li></ul><ul><li>Municipalities ran schools due to center of population. </li></ul><ul><li>Agrarian calendar. </li></ul><ul><li>Today organized into 501 districts. </li></ul><ul><li>Biggest school districts are still run by cities (Philadelphia and Pittsburgh) </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>f. School Board </li></ul><ul><ul><li>9 members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elected – every 4 years in odd numbered years, only half at a time. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-pay </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They choose officers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a). President Donna Popieski </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>b.) VP – William Love </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>c.) Secretary/Treasurer can be member or employee. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>School board meeting once a month. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organize into committees during work sessions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Critiques: Not necessarily professionals or experienced educators. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>g. Administrators – they hire district officers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Superintendent – Karen Jez </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As. Sup. Terry Kerr </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>h. TASD </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1869 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2,412 students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>About 15,000 citizens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Between $15 and 20 million budget. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most funds come from property taxes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some come from state and federal grants. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. II. International Government
  20. 20. A. Iran <ul><li>President and legislature </li></ul><ul><li>Receive their offices through election </li></ul><ul><li>Religious Supreme Leader and the Guardian Council supervise them. </li></ul><ul><li>No one or party can run for office without approval from the religious officials. </li></ul><ul><li>They have veto power over the rest of the government. </li></ul><ul><li>Religious laws under the Sahri’a prohibit immoral dress for women, inappropriate sexual relations, gaining unfair profit, and other actions. </li></ul><ul><li>Punishable by amputation of limbs, adulterers and homosexuals can be whipped, beheaded, or crushed by boulders. </li></ul><ul><li>People choose the president and legislature and there are some checks over religious leaders, Iran is a theocratic republic. </li></ul>
  21. 21. B. Saudi Arabia <ul><li>A hereditary monarch rules over this Middle Easter nation-state </li></ul><ul><li>Crown controls all oil wealth, construction, and local communities. </li></ul><ul><li>King does allow the existence of religious police who roam the country looking for violators of Holy Quran </li></ul><ul><li>Schools must use the official religious text for education </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion of other religions in a favorable manner is forbidden. </li></ul><ul><li>Citizens and foreigners must follow the Sahri’a. </li></ul><ul><li>All citizens must be Islamic. Since the religious police are subject to the king, it is referred to as a theocratic monarchy. </li></ul>
  22. 22. C. China <ul><li>Totalitarian Dictatorship 1950-1970 under Mao Zedong </li></ul><ul><li>Communist Totalitarianism (1970 – Present) </li></ul><ul><li>Central Party leads from Beijing </li></ul><ul><li>Local Party controls regions. </li></ul><ul><li>Complete loyalty of military </li></ul><ul><li>Elections do occur for party leaders. </li></ul><ul><li>Legislative elections are rigged, other parties are puppets of Communists. </li></ul><ul><li>Large social welfare system does not reach rural areas. </li></ul><ul><li>Industrialization has advanced cities with some capitalism. </li></ul><ul><li>Government is secretive. </li></ul><ul><li>Very little freedom of speech, press, assembly, petition, or religion. </li></ul><ul><li>Protest in Tiananmen Square in 1989 was crushed by army. </li></ul>
  23. 23. D. United Kingdom <ul><li>Constitutional Monarchy – Parliamentary Democracy </li></ul><ul><li>First-past-the post elections occur where winner gets plurality of vote. </li></ul><ul><li>Prime Minister – Toney Blair (HG) </li></ul><ul><li>Queen Elizabeth II (HS) </li></ul><ul><li>She appoints the PM from the majority party of the lower House of Commons. </li></ul><ul><li>PM appoints minister to run departments. </li></ul><ul><li>Upper House of Lords acts as Supreme Court, nothing more. </li></ul><ul><li>Major parties: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Labour (similar to Democrats) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Liberal Democrats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conservatives (Similar to Republicans) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Many social services including health care and tuition. </li></ul>
  24. 24. E. France <ul><li>The Fifth Republic is a presidential democratic republic. </li></ul><ul><li>Bicameral legislature. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>National Assembly –represent specific communities. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Senate elected by electoral college. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>President (HS) elected for 5 year term is head of state and appoints Prime Minister. </li></ul><ul><li>Pres. may dissolve National Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Prime Minister is (HG). </li></ul><ul><li>French Socialist Party (Democrats) </li></ul><ul><li>Rally for the Republic (Republican) </li></ul><ul><li>Nationalists – pro-French only! </li></ul>
  25. 25. F. Germany <ul><li>Federal system. </li></ul><ul><li>Parliamentary democratic republic. </li></ul><ul><li>1949 Constitution </li></ul><ul><li>Bicameral legislature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower Bundestag – parties get membership = to % of the vote they receive (proportional). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parties with less than 5% of the vote do not get seats. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They choose a Chancellor – head of government. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Upper Bundesrat – Federal council, members elected from each state. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Convention chooses president (head of state) </li></ul><ul><li>Christian-Democrats (religious conservatives) </li></ul><ul><li>Social Democrats (like our Democrats) </li></ul><ul><li>Free Democrats (limited government) </li></ul><ul><li>Green Party </li></ul><ul><li>Coalition government – parties join together to rule. </li></ul>