Unit 6 – politics in america academic


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Unit 6 – politics in america academic

  1. 1. Unit 6 – Politics in America
  2. 2. I. Parties
  3. 3. A. The Meaning of Party <ul><li>1. Political Party: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A “team seeking control of governing by gaining office in an election.” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Parties can be thought of in three parts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Electorate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In government </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>3. Tasks of the Parties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Linkage Institution: channels which people’s concerns become political issues. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pick Candidates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Run Campaigns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Give Cues to Voters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Articulate Policies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coordinate Policymaking </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. B. The Party Organizations <ul><li>Local Parties </li></ul><ul><li>The 50 State Party Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Closed primaries: voters must be registered with their party vote in the spring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open primaries: voters in the nomination process of one party </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blanket primaries: voters get a list of all candidates and can vote for one name for each office, regardless of party label </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The National Party Organizations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>National Convention: party delegates meet every four years to choose a presidential ticket and party’s platform. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National Committee: keeps the party operating between conventions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National Chairperson: Responsible for day-to-day activities </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. C. Party History
  7. 7. 1. Pre-Revolution <ul><li>Loyalists – wanted to stay with England </li></ul><ul><li>Patriots – wanted to revolt </li></ul><ul><li>Neutral – did not favor with side </li></ul>2. Constitution <ul><li>Federalists – favored creation, strong, central government. </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-federalists – opposed creation, favored states. </li></ul><ul><li>Madison warned of “factions” </li></ul>
  8. 8. 3. Early Republic <ul><li>Federalists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Loose constructionists. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alexander Hamilton </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>John Marshall </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>George Washington favored them </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Democratic Republicans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strict constructionists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thomas Jefferson </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Common man should have rights </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Early Republic continued… <ul><li>Federalists lose elections to Jefferson. </li></ul><ul><li>They oppose the War of 1812 and looked like traitors. </li></ul><ul><li>The party dies. </li></ul><ul><li>Nation enters period known as “Era of Good Feelings,” cause there was only one party (D-R). </li></ul>
  10. 10. 4. Split <ul><li>Too many people that disagree run for president in 1824. </li></ul><ul><li>Speaker Henry Clay “gives” election to John Q. Adams. </li></ul><ul><li>Jackson supporters are mad and break off to form Democrats. </li></ul><ul><li>Adams supporters become Whigs. </li></ul>
  11. 11. 5. Jackson Era <ul><li>Jackson wins in 1828. </li></ul><ul><li>Supports common man. </li></ul><ul><li>Builds “party machine.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizes in cities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hires workers to promote party </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distributes pamphlets. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. 6. Slavery <ul><li>Whigs support nationalism, but are divided over slavery. </li></ul><ul><li>Party splits between North and South. </li></ul><ul><li>Northerners abolitionists join Free Soil party to make the Republicans. </li></ul><ul><li>They are able to win election 1860 with Abe Lincoln. </li></ul><ul><li>Democrats are weakened by divisions till 1930’s. </li></ul>
  13. 13. 7. Gilded Age <ul><li>After Reconstruction ends, parties become friends of monopolies and trusts. </li></ul><ul><li>Corruption, bribery, and graft are common. </li></ul><ul><li>1896 election revolved around the gold standard </li></ul>
  14. 14. 8. Progressive Era <ul><li>Socialists and Populists favor worker’s rights and opportunity for poor. </li></ul><ul><li>Democrats and Republicans make liberal ideas their own. </li></ul><ul><li>Other progressive issues: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prohibition. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women’s Suffrage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Labor Unions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conservation </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. 9. New Deal <ul><li>People are disappointed with conservative Republicans. </li></ul><ul><li>New Deal coalition is an umbrella of supporters for Dems. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Southerners (conservative) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eastern and Southern Europeans. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jews </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>African-Americans. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intelligentsia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All hope for economic intervention. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>They hold onto most of the White House 1932-1968 and most of Congress 1930-1994. </li></ul>
  16. 16. 10. Change in Politics <ul><li>a. Reagan (R) makes party more conservative. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supports a big military to end Cold War. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dislikes big taxes and government. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Makes American proud again after troubled 1970’s. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>b. Clinton (D) brings party to a central point to compete with GOP. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cut taxes for middle class. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tones down support for abortion and gays. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used military to protect people of Kosovo from persecution. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Starts welfare to work. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Balances the budget. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. D. Parties Today
  18. 18. 1. Republicans <ul><li>Family Values (Christian-Judean) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pro-life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Favor traditional marriage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Low taxes, equal for all people. </li></ul><ul><li>Small government </li></ul><ul><li>Big military </li></ul><ul><li>Isolationist (?) </li></ul><ul><li>Pro-gun </li></ul><ul><li>Midwest and South, rural areas. </li></ul>
  19. 19. 2. Democrats <ul><li>Pro-choice </li></ul><ul><li>Favor civil unions </li></ul><ul><li>Use government to create economic opportunity. </li></ul><ul><li>Civil rights. </li></ul><ul><li>Internationalists – use peace, United Nations. </li></ul><ul><li>Taxes should be progressive, heavier for the rich. </li></ul><ul><li>West Coast, Great Lakes, Northeast, urban areas. </li></ul>
  20. 20. E. Third Parties
  21. 21. 1. Ideological <ul><li>Philosophy or way of thinking that impacts many issues. </li></ul><ul><li>Communists and Socialists = Karl Marx. </li></ul><ul><li>Constitutional Party = Strict Constructionist </li></ul><ul><li>Libertarian = John Locke, Thomas Jefferson and protecting rights. </li></ul><ul><li>Reform Party = fix problematic gov’t. </li></ul>
  22. 22. 2. Economic Issues <ul><li>One specific money issue. </li></ul><ul><li>Taxpayers = low taxes </li></ul>
  23. 23. 3. Single Issue <ul><li>Only concerned about one issue. </li></ul><ul><li>Prohibition = no drinking </li></ul><ul><li>Green Party = started to fix environment, now covers more issues. </li></ul>
  24. 24. 4. Splinter Party <ul><li>Break off from large party. </li></ul><ul><li>Teddy Roosevelt’s Bull Moose Party broke away from Rep. in 1912. </li></ul><ul><li>Progressives and Dixiecrats broke away from Dems. In 1948. </li></ul>
  25. 25. L. Organization <ul><li>Party meetings at county and state level. </li></ul><ul><li>National committee decides platform and election strategy. </li></ul><ul><li>Chairperson runs committee, can be selected by president if he is in same party. </li></ul><ul><li>Conventions are every four years to nominate president. </li></ul>
  26. 26. II. Elections
  27. 27. A. Primaries <ul><li>Spring </li></ul><ul><li>Different in each state. </li></ul><ul><li>Choose candidates for party </li></ul><ul><li>In PA they are closed, you can only vote within your party. </li></ul>
  28. 28. B. General <ul><li>First Tuesday following the first Monday of November. </li></ul><ul><li>All voters select the winners for offices. </li></ul>
  29. 29. C. Presidential Elections <ul><li>Exploratory committee is set up to find out if they have a chance. </li></ul><ul><li>Candidates visit New Hampshire for first primary in January. </li></ul><ul><li>They visit Iowa for first caucuses (where party officials choose candidate). </li></ul><ul><li>They gather as many delegate votes for their convention in the summer. </li></ul><ul><li>Electoral College actually elects the President - founders wanted him chosen by the elite of the country </li></ul><ul><li>States choose the electors </li></ul><ul><li>Winner-Take-All system gives bigger emphasis to more populated states </li></ul><ul><li>State electoral vote count = # of Reps + # of Senators. </li></ul><ul><li>DC gets minimal amount (3) for a total of 538. </li></ul><ul><li>A candidate must get a majority (270) or the House gets to decide. </li></ul>
  30. 30. D. Referendums <ul><li>State voters approve or disapprove proposed legislation. </li></ul><ul><li>Often used for constitutional amendments. </li></ul>
  31. 31. E. Whether to Vote: A Citizen’s First Choice <ul><li>U.S. typically has low voter turnouts. </li></ul><ul><li>Some argue it is a rational choice to not vote. </li></ul><ul><li>Political Efficacy: The belief that one’s political participation really matters. </li></ul><ul><li>Civic Duty: The belief the in order to support democratic government, a citizen should always vote. </li></ul>
  32. 32. F. Whether to Vote: A Citizen’s First Choice <ul><li>1. Who Votes? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Education: More education = more likely to vote. Most important factor. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Age: Older = more likely to vote. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Race: Caucasian = more likely to vote. BUT, other ethnicities are higher with comparable education. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender: Female = more likely to vote. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marital Status: Married = more likely to vote. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Union Membership: Union member = more likely to vote. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Traits are cumulative - possessing several adds up. </li></ul></ul>
  33. 34. III. Civics
  34. 35. A. Civics <ul><li>Study of citizenship and the relationship between you and the community. </li></ul><ul><li>Citizenship – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ a productive, responsible, caring, and contributing member of society.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>USA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Natural born – born in USA or internationally to American citizens. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Naturalized – Foreign born person meets requirements. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a.) Permanent resident for 5 years. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>b.) Good moral character </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>c.) Read and write basic English </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>d.) Passes test on gov’t and history </li></ul></ul></ul>
  35. 36. B. Civic Responsibility <ul><li>Musts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jury duty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Selective Service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taxes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obey the law </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Voluntary: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Courteous, respect others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Community service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work, contribute to economy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vote </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledgeable of events </li></ul></ul>
  36. 37. g. Critical of government <ul><li>Declaration of Independence – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a.) Government should protect rights. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b.) People should protest if they do not. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c.) People may destroy the gov’t and create a new one. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Unalienable rights – life, liberty, and pursuit of happiness. </li></ul><ul><li>Constitution – Bill of rights (first ten amendments). </li></ul><ul><li>Teddy Roosevelt “duty to criticize the president.” </li></ul>
  37. 38. C. Historical Roots <ul><li>George Washington gave up power so his position would not be a dictatorship. </li></ul><ul><li>Founding fathers risked life to revolt in 1776 and form Constitution in 1787. </li></ul><ul><li>Men and women served in military to protect nation and keep peace in world. </li></ul><ul><li>Martin Luther King Jr. used peaceful protest or civil disobedience to right what was wrong. </li></ul>
  38. 39. IV. Media
  39. 40. A. Basics <ul><li>Mass Media: </li></ul><ul><li>Television, radio, newspapers, magazines, Internet. </li></ul><ul><li>TV top, Internet catching up </li></ul>
  40. 41. The Mass Media Today <ul><li>Media Events: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Events purposely staged for the media that nonetheless look spontaneous. Media events can be staged by almost anybody. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other items to consider: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>60% presidential campaign spending is TV ads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Image making / news management is important, especially for presidents </li></ul></ul>
  41. 42. The Development of Media Politics <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The news media wasn’t always so important. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Press Conferences: meetings of public officials with reporters - Roosevelt used many of these. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Investigative Journalism: the use of in-depth reporting to unearth scandals, scams & schemes putting reporters & politicians opposite each other. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sound Bites: Short video clips of approximately 15 seconds. </li></ul></ul>
  42. 43. Reporting the News <ul><li>Bias in the News </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many people believe the news favors one point of view over another. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generally are not very biased along liberal / conservative lines. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generally are biased towards what will draw the largest audience. </li></ul></ul>
  43. 44. Polling <ul><li>Radom samples taken </li></ul><ul><li>Quotas used </li></ul><ul><li>Predicting the universe </li></ul><ul><li>Margin of Error </li></ul><ul><li>Gallup, Pew, Zogby </li></ul>