Unit 5 judicial branch academic


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Unit 5 judicial branch academic

  1. 1. Unit 5 - Judicial Branch Academic
  2. 2. I. Basic Structure <ul><li>Established by Article III. </li></ul><ul><li>Meant to hear civil (lawsuits) and criminal law. </li></ul><ul><li>State courts have judicial system. </li></ul><ul><li>Cases flow in hierarchical system (top to bottom). </li></ul><ul><li>Some cases are heard by Supreme Court directly when they have jurisdiction. </li></ul><ul><li>Federal and state courts sometimes have concurrent jurisdiction. </li></ul>
  3. 3. G. Cases flow in hierarchical system (top to bottom). <ul><li>Federal district judges are in major cities throughout the USA in what are called inferior courts. </li></ul><ul><li>Cases may be appealed or re-heard by a US Court of appeals. </li></ul><ul><li>Cases may then be heard by the Supreme Court. </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Structure of the Federal Judicial System Figure 16.1
  5. 5. The Structure of the Federal Judicial System <ul><li>The Organization and Jurisdiction of the Courts </li></ul>
  6. 6. H. Supreme Court <ul><li>Located in D.C. </li></ul><ul><li>8 associate justices and 1 Chief Justice sit on the court. </li></ul><ul><li>Justices are appointed by the president and approved by the Senate. </li></ul><ul><li>Justices sit on the bench until resignation or death. </li></ul><ul><li>It has the final say whether the law is followed or if laws are constitutional. </li></ul>
  7. 7. 6. Making Policy <ul><ul><li>“ Rule of four” – four justices must agree to hear case </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Writ of Certiorari – request case from lower court </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Few cases are heard by the Supreme Court </li></ul></ul>Figure 16.4
  8. 8. <ul><ul><li>Lawyers may make oral argument </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Court debates case </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Whichever way the court votes will be expressed in a majority opinion. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Losing side will write a minority or dissenting opinion. </li></ul></ul>Figure 16.5
  9. 9. <ul><ul><li>Those that agree write concurring opinions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If decision of inferior court stands it is Stare decisis . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Court uses past cases or precedents to determine outcome. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strict Constructionist (original intent) vs. liberal or loose constructionist. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. II. Cases and Justices
  11. 11. A. Jay, Rutledge & Ellsworth 1790-1800 <ul><li>High turnover rate for justices. </li></ul><ul><li>Had to act as Supreme, Appeals, and District court. </li></ul><ul><li>Congress was slow to organize the judicial branch. </li></ul><ul><li>Some power was taken away with 11 th amendment (SCOTUS could not hear lawsuits against states). </li></ul>
  12. 12. B. Marshall Court (1801-1835) <ul><li>Chief Justice John Marshall </li></ul><ul><li>Federalist (loose constructionist)– strong central gov’t loosely based on constitution. </li></ul><ul><li>Marbury v. Madison established judicial review (court can declare laws unconstitutional). </li></ul><ul><li>Federal law is greater than state law. </li></ul><ul><li>Contracts must be honored. </li></ul>
  13. 13. C. Taney Court (1836-1864) <ul><li>Passive court, believed Congress and the White House instituted policy and little interference occurred. </li></ul><ul><li>Strict constructionist (only do what the constitution says) dominated the Court. </li></ul><ul><li>Dredd Scott v. Sanford = </li></ul><ul><ul><li>President Buchanan thought the case would solve slavery. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Justices were slaveholders, few were not. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blacks could not sue for freedom, especially slaves. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Missouri Compromise unconstitutional because it took away citizens in the territories right to own property. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Property rights cannot be taken away according to the Constitution. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. D. Chase, Waite 1864-1888 <ul><li>Chief Justice Chase oversaw Johnson’s impeachment trial. </li></ul><ul><li>Civil Rights laws ruled unconstitutional because discrimination is a protected individual right. </li></ul><ul><li>Laws regulating business that impacted the public ruled constitutional. </li></ul>
  15. 15. E. Fuller 1888-1910 <ul><li>Plessey v. Ferguson </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Over segregation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plessey sues because he is not allowed to ride in white passenger car by rail. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Court declares segregation is okay as long as it is “separate yet equal.” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Jim Crow laws would stay for another 60 years. </li></ul><ul><li>Ignorance of 14 th and 15 th amendments continued. </li></ul>
  16. 16. F. White and Taft Courts 1910 - 1930 <ul><li>Pro-business, just like many politicians of the time. </li></ul><ul><li>Former President Taft becomes Chief Justice for awhile. </li></ul><ul><li>Opposed to FDR’s New Deal because it interferes with property and business rights of the Constitution. </li></ul><ul><li>Rules many laws unconstitutional… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimum wage. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limiting hours. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Child labor laws. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. G. Hughes, Stone and Vinson Courts 1930-1953 <ul><li>Court filled with Democrats during FDR’s term. </li></ul><ul><li>FDR tries to speed up the process by adding more justices, Congress refuses. </li></ul><ul><li>Two justices switch to vote for New Deal, “Just in time to save the nine.” </li></ul><ul><li>Japanese sue to get out of internment – Korematsu v. USA </li></ul><ul><li>Court rules in times of war gov’t can do things for “safety and security. </li></ul>
  18. 18. H. Warren Court (1953-68) <ul><li>Gov. Earl Warren of CA becomes new Chief Justice as informal reward for getting CA to vote for Eisenhower </li></ul><ul><li>Brown v. Board of Education. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brown had to walk to inferior colored school. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Divided 4-4 at first until Warren convinces them to desegregate. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Order to desegregate has no timeline, takes twenty years. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rights of the accused. </li></ul><ul><li>Counsel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Speedy Trial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jury </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cross-examination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Your own witnesses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Habeas Corpus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reaffirmed under Miranda v. Arizona. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Many conservatives want to impeach Warren </li></ul><ul><li>Griswold v. Connecticut </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>State has aging population. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They make birth control illegal. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Court decides that is a private matter between doctor and woman. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. I. Burger Court (1969-86) <ul><li>Nixon attempts to make court conservative with Burger’s appointment. </li></ul><ul><li>Too many Democrats are still on court including Thurgood Marshall, first black. </li></ul><ul><li>Court had determined there is a loose right to privacy because the gov’t has to… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Get a warrant to search </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pay to seize property </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acknowledge right to ownership </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reproductive Rights </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Roe v. Wade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Abortion illegal in most states </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Another private matter according to court (1973). </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. J. Rehnquist Court (1986-2001) <ul><li>Despite a 7-2 Republican advantage, the court remains “activist.” </li></ul><ul><li>Conservatives believe legislature should make laws, we should not rely on courts. </li></ul><ul><li>Texas v. Johnson clears way for flag burning under freedom of speech. </li></ul><ul><li>Sodomy laws unconstitutional under right to privacy. </li></ul><ul><li>Separation of church and state continued, even in cases where prayer is voluntary. </li></ul><ul><li>Parts of Internet Safety Law are ruled unconstitutional because it blocks free speech. </li></ul><ul><li>Hustler v. Farewell clears even vulgar speech if it is political. </li></ul><ul><li>Limitations are allowed on the last tri-semester of abortion </li></ul>
  21. 21. J. Roberts Court <ul><li>John Roberts assumes court under Bush. </li></ul><ul><li>Obama appoints first Latina woman, Justice Sotomayor </li></ul><ul><li>Future cases include the right to privacy </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><ul><li>Judicial restraint: judges should not make radical and sweeping decisions and should not attempt to change the law </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Judicial activism: judges should influence policy and culture based on their interpretation of the law. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Both in extreme forms are avoided by presidents and screened by the Senate. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. III. Crimes, Sources and Protections of Law
  24. 24. A. Crime and Criminal Law <ul><li>Violating the law. </li></ul><ul><li>Ignorant of the law. </li></ul><ul><li>Punishable. </li></ul><ul><li>Misdemeanors – minor crime punishable by… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Short prison term </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Felony </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Serious Crime </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prison for at least 1 year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Death </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. B. Civil Law (suing) <ul><li>Your responsibilities to others. </li></ul><ul><li>Just compensation is due. </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial/contract: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Buyer does not pay </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seller does not provide </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Negligence: Suffered a loss due to someone else’s carelessness and not your own. </li></ul><ul><li>Libel (write)/slander (say): maliciously and knowingly state something. </li></ul><ul><li>Titles to land: eminent domain : right of a governing body to take property for public use with just compensation </li></ul><ul><li>family matters (children or marriage) </li></ul>
  26. 26. C. Sources of Law (where we get it) <ul><li>Constitution – Supreme law of the land. </li></ul><ul><li>Statutory – law made by legislature </li></ul><ul><li>Case – Set by precedents or traditions of courts. </li></ul><ul><li>Common – cultural traits, accepted behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Administrative – laws made by agencies of the government. </li></ul>
  27. 27. D. Civil Rights and Liberties <ul><li>Civil Rights = positive acts the government protects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 st amendment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Speech </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Press </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Libel – written, malicious lie </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Slander – spoken, malicious lie </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sedition – crime of attempting to overthrow the government. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Symbolic speech protected. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assembly – guarantee of association. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Petition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Religion – Free exercise clause and establishment clause. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 nd amendment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>14 th amendment = due process for people of all races </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>De jure segregation is unconstitutional </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Affirmative action is used, quotas are illegal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rights apply if you are jus soli or jus sanguinis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Liberties = protections against government acts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4 th amendment – warrants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>8 th amendment – cruel and unusual punishment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Discrimination </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exists for a wide variety of groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constitutional rights ignored until mid-20 th century </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>De jure segregation existed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>De facto segregation still exists. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sexual discrimination limited under Title IX, 14 amendment applies to all. </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. E. Examples <ul><li>Due Process (14 th ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gideon v. Wainwright </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Miranda v. Arizona </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Equal Protection, Civil Rights, & Affirmative Action </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plessy v. Ferguson </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brown v. Board </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bob Jones University v. USA (1983)– interracial marriage – tax exempt status, no </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Free Speech </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Schneck v. USA (1919)– urged men to avoid the draft, yes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Texas v. Johnson – symbolic speech, flag burning protected. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Privacy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Griswold v. Connecticut </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Roe v. Wade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lawrence v. Texas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Freedom of Religion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Engel v. Vitale (1962) – recite non-denominational prayer, no </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abington School District v. Schempp (1963) – Bible readings, no </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lemon v. Kurtzman (1971) – public funding for religious schools, -no…if used to sponsor or spread religion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Freedom of Press </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NY Times v. USA (1971) – publication of Pentagon Papers, yes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jacobellis v. Ohio (1964) – R rated move banned, no “I’ll know it when I see it.” Potter Stewart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tinker v. Demoines (1969)- Armbands to protest Vietnam, yes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Miller v. California (1973)- advertisements for adult books, no. Cannot offend average individual, contain vulgar references, no political or artistic nature. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Search and Seizure – Mapp v. Ohio </li></ul>
  29. 29. IV. Investigation and Trial Procedure
  30. 30. A. Investigation <ul><li>Police search for evidence, research suspects. </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fingerprinting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Palm printing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DNA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Voiceprints </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CSI – expensive and not always available </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Suspects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Closest friends, families statistically best bet. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Questioning – cannot hold without warrant for more than 24 hours. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May refuse to answer questions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Polygraph – unreliable in court. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Due process must be followed. </li></ul><ul><li>Procedural due process are methods used (how). </li></ul><ul><li>Substantive due process are the policies they follow (what). </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence gained illegally falls under the exclusionary rule, it cannot be used. </li></ul>
  31. 31. B. Accused and Rights <ul><li>Must know reason for being arrested (habeas corpus). </li></ul><ul><li>Must be arrested using warrant or probable cause. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex post facto laws are illegal (making past crimes illegal) </li></ul><ul><li>People cannot be punished without a trail for previous actions (Bill of Attainder) </li></ul><ul><li>The prosecutor can being an indictment before a grand jury (16-23 people) which will decide if you can be charged with a serious crime. </li></ul><ul><li>You cannot be tried twice (double jeopardy) </li></ul><ul><li>You may waive your right to jury trial and have a bench trial instead. </li></ul>
  32. 32. C. Opening Statement <ul><li>Suspect is arrested, Miranda Rights are read. </li></ul><ul><li>Arraigned, and bail is set. </li></ul><ul><li>Right to jury can be waived for bench trial. </li></ul><ul><li>Summary of position at beginning. </li></ul><ul><li>First statement is given by those that initiate the case. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Criminal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Government (district attorney or prosecutor) makes indictment. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Must prove beyond a reasonable doubt. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Civil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plaintiff </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Must provide a preponderance of evidence (greater amount). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Defense or defendant then presents. </li></ul>
  33. 33. D. Examination <ul><li>First the initiator presents evidence. </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence can be… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct – witness, forensics, confession, weapon. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Circumstantial – opinion, connection between defendant and crime with no physical proof. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>They are not allowed to ask leading questions (guide the witness). </li></ul><ul><li>Defense can issue an objection and stop the question. </li></ul><ul><li>Judge can sustain (agree) or overrule (disagree). </li></ul><ul><li>Defense may cross-examine. </li></ul>
  34. 34. E. Examination continued <ul><li>Defense may treat witnesses as hostile (treat them harshly to break them). </li></ul><ul><li>Moral turpitude may be questioned (if the person is honest and decent enough). </li></ul><ul><li>The gov’t/plaintiff may then rest and the defense calls their witnesses or evidence. </li></ul>
  35. 35. F. Conclusion <ul><li>Both sides give closing arguments. </li></ul><ul><li>Judge gives the jury a charge or reminder of their duties. </li></ul><ul><li>Jury deliberates until there is a unanimous (criminal) or majority (civil) verdict. </li></ul><ul><li>They may be sequestered (asked to stay in hotel until decision is made). </li></ul><ul><li>If no decision is made, then there is a hung jury. </li></ul><ul><li>A mistrial is declared and the case has to be retried. </li></ul>