Unit 4 – Legislative Branch –  Congress What are the different parts and terms of Congress?
BASICS OF CONGRESS
Congress (legislative) <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Coin Money, Declare War, Provide for army/navy, tax, borrow. </li></ul></ul></u...
House of Representatives <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Appropriation  bills must be introduced here. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></...
Senate <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Elected by state legislatures </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Six yea...
Senator Bob Casey Jr. (D-PA)  Senator Pat Toomey (R-PA) Rep. Glenn “GT” Thompson (R-PA) Your Congressmen
Structure <ul><li>House of Representatives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>435 members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speaker of House  ...
Floor Leaders <ul><li>Parties elect leaders to plan topics they will push. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Whips” = deputies that enfo...
Business <ul><li>Each house has a rule book. </li></ul><ul><li>Bills are developed on behalf of  constituents , lobbyists,...
Committees <ul><li>Led by a  chairperson  – senior member of majority party. </li></ul><ul><li>They decide what bills to r...
How a Bill becomes a Law <ul><li>Congressman creates bill. </li></ul><ul><li>Reviewed, then killed or moved. </li></ul><ul...
HOW CONGRESS DEVELOPED
History of the Congress 1789-1850 <ul><li>Meets first time in NYC in 1789. </li></ul><ul><li>Hires clerks, sets up procedu...
<ul><li>1824 – Speaker Henry Clay helps Congress choose John Q. Adams to be president over Jackson. </li></ul><ul><li>Jack...
Civil War and Reconstruction <ul><li>1856 – Kansas-Nebraska Act (popular sovereignty) presented by Sen. Douglas (hopes to ...
Twentieth Century Congress <ul><li>Isolationists led charge against League of Nations. </li></ul><ul><li>New Deal Democrat...
Modern Day <ul><li>Republicans take back Congress in 1994. </li></ul><ul><li>Newt Gingrich (R-GA) and Bob Dole (R-KS) decl...
BENEFITS AND PROBLEMS OF CONGRESS
Problems <ul><li>Can stall important legislation. </li></ul><ul><li>Lobbyists use cash contributions to campaigns and trip...
Interpretation <ul><li>Some powers are actually  expressed. </li></ul><ul><li>Others are  implied or inherent , which are ...
Benefits <ul><li>Keep in touch with  constituents .  </li></ul><ul><li>Franking privilege . </li></ul><ul><li>Broad powers...
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Unit 4 general

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Unit 4 general

  1. 1. Unit 4 – Legislative Branch – Congress What are the different parts and terms of Congress?
  2. 2. BASICS OF CONGRESS
  3. 3. Congress (legislative) <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Coin Money, Declare War, Provide for army/navy, tax, borrow. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Commerce Power </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Censures own members. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uses oversight function to check executive branch. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Makes the law. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In charge of naturalizing new citizens. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. House of Representatives <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Appropriation bills must be introduced here. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Population, number of members reapportioned every 10 yrs. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Elected every two years. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Districts are large = only upper class could run for office. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gets to impeach </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Senate <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Elected by state legislatures </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Six year terms </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Only 1/3 of Senate up for election at a time </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Advice and consent to the President. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Senator Bob Casey Jr. (D-PA) Senator Pat Toomey (R-PA) Rep. Glenn “GT” Thompson (R-PA) Your Congressmen
  7. 7. Structure <ul><li>House of Representatives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>435 members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speaker of House keeps order. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>John Boehner (R-OH) is elected by majority. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Senate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>100 members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vice President is Pres. of Senate and casts tie breaking votes – Joe Biden </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>President Pro Tempore takes over occasionally – sr. member of majority party. Senator Inouye </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Majority Leader holds real power – Harry Reid (D-NV) </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Floor Leaders <ul><li>Parties elect leaders to plan topics they will push. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Whips” = deputies that enforce partisanship </li></ul><ul><li>People divide into party caucuses </li></ul><ul><li>Party with the most people = majority & least = minority. </li></ul><ul><li>Majority leader decides issues they will vote on and how to set up committees. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Business <ul><li>Each house has a rule book. </li></ul><ul><li>Bills are developed on behalf of constituents , lobbyists, party, or president. </li></ul><ul><li>Bills are placed on a calendar for passage. </li></ul><ul><li>Bills become laws and have to be passed by both houses. </li></ul><ul><li>Resolutions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>laws for the constitution. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Or declarations. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Committees <ul><li>Led by a chairperson – senior member of majority party. </li></ul><ul><li>They decide what bills to review, when to meet, and what hearings to hold. </li></ul><ul><li>Each committee focuses on a specific topic like the military or science. </li></ul><ul><li>Most bills “die” in committee. </li></ul>
  11. 11. How a Bill becomes a Law <ul><li>Congressman creates bill. </li></ul><ul><li>Reviewed, then killed or moved. </li></ul><ul><li>Goes to committee. </li></ul><ul><li>Floor Debate occurs – decided by Majority Leaders. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>House is limited to 1 hour per party. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Senate may speak indefinitely (filibuster). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conference committee makes identical bill </li></ul><ul><li>President can… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Signs into law. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Law without signature – ignores bill while in session. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Veto – Dies or goes back Congress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pocket Veto – ignore it out of session - dies. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. HOW CONGRESS DEVELOPED
  13. 13. History of the Congress 1789-1850 <ul><li>Meets first time in NYC in 1789. </li></ul><ul><li>Hires clerks, sets up procedure. </li></ul><ul><li>1802 – Judiciary Act shapes courts. </li></ul><ul><li>1812 – Declaration of War passed against Britain. </li></ul><ul><li>1820 – Missouri Compromise – by Henry Clay </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Missouri -slave state. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maine -free state. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The 36 – 30 line divides the nation between slave and free. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slaveholder John Calhoun, abolitionist Daniel Webster supports. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>1824 – Speaker Henry Clay helps Congress choose John Q. Adams to be president over Jackson. </li></ul><ul><li>Jackson becomes president next & fights Congress to be strongest branch. </li></ul><ul><li>1834 – Jackson is censured by Congress. </li></ul><ul><li>1836 – Gag rule is placed so no one can talk about slavery. </li></ul><ul><li>Compromise of 1850 passed. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sick Henry Clay designs it, Daniel Webster speaks on his behalf. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>California becomes free state </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Popular sovereignty allowed in Utah and New Mexico. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Texas paid for lost land. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slave trade abolished in DC. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fugitive Slave Act forces Northerners to help capture slaves. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Civil War and Reconstruction <ul><li>1856 – Kansas-Nebraska Act (popular sovereignty) presented by Sen. Douglas (hopes to be prez). </li></ul><ul><li>1856 – Rep. Preston Brooks beats Sen. Charles Sumner with cane for insulting South. </li></ul><ul><li>1861-65 Lincoln gets his way </li></ul><ul><li>Post war –Johnson is impeached by House, not removed by Senate. </li></ul><ul><li>Radical Republicans run nation, reconstruct the South. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Twentieth Century Congress <ul><li>Isolationists led charge against League of Nations. </li></ul><ul><li>New Deal Democrats took charge of Congress, support FDR. </li></ul><ul><li>Un-American Activities Committees investigate Communists. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nixon gains fame in House, but McCarthy is eventually censured . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pork barrel spending skyrockets, especially w/ transportation bill in the 1950’s. </li></ul><ul><li>House investigates Watergate scandal, leads to investigation of Nixon. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Modern Day <ul><li>Republicans take back Congress in 1994. </li></ul><ul><li>Newt Gingrich (R-GA) and Bob Dole (R-KS) declare a “Contract with America.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Balance the budget </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower taxes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Term limits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Equal to executive branch </li></ul></ul><ul><li>House impeaches over Monica Lewinsky affair perjury. </li></ul><ul><li>Nancy Pelosi (D-CA) first woman Speaker. </li></ul><ul><li>Current Speaker is John Boehner (R-OH). </li></ul>
  18. 18. BENEFITS AND PROBLEMS OF CONGRESS
  19. 19. Problems <ul><li>Can stall important legislation. </li></ul><ul><li>Lobbyists use cash contributions to campaigns and trips, to “convince” Congressmen to vote their way. </li></ul><ul><li>Congressmen use pork barrel projects or earmarks (spending money for votes). </li></ul><ul><li>Projects are sometimes wasteful </li></ul><ul><li>Unrestricted spending = large debt. </li></ul><ul><li>Gerrymandering may occur. </li></ul><ul><li>Incumbents (people in office) have resources, likely to win re-election. </li></ul><ul><li>Two houses (one in DC, @ home) </li></ul><ul><li>Lots of travel, little time for family or relaxation </li></ul><ul><li>Can claim eminent domain . </li></ul>
  20. 20. Interpretation <ul><li>Some powers are actually expressed. </li></ul><ul><li>Others are implied or inherent , which are debatable. </li></ul><ul><li>Loose / strict constructionists have always argued about Constitution. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Benefits <ul><li>Keep in touch with constituents . </li></ul><ul><li>Franking privilege . </li></ul><ul><li>Broad powers are given by the Necessary and Proper Clause. </li></ul><ul><li>$174,000 salary </li></ul>
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