Unit 2 Creating the United States
1.  Colonial America
A.  Salutary Neglect <ul><li>Economic benefits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Colonies run themselves (and pay for it) </li></ul></...
B. Colonial Examples <ul><li>Pennsylvania </li></ul><ul><ul><li>21 yr + white men who paid taxes could vote. </li></ul></u...
<ul><li>Massachusetts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plymouth Bay Colony </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Originally headed to Virgin...
2.  Declaration of Independence
A. Cause for Break <ul><li>French and Indian War </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1754-1763 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>French/Indians...
<ul><li>Who won the war? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>British - our military. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Americans- our militia. ...
<ul><li>vi.  Sugar Act 1764 – 1 st  enforced. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smugglers tried in Naval Court </li></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
B. Break Occurs <ul><li>Stamp Act Congress 65’ – delegates wrote protest to London. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Englishman’s rig...
<ul><li>Boston Massacre, Tea Party. </li></ul><ul><li>Sons of Liberty had organized boycotts. </li></ul><ul><li>Coercive A...
C.  Violence Occurs <ul><li>April, 1775 – Battles of Lexington and Concord. </li></ul><ul><li>Second Continental Congress ...
III.  Articles of Confederation  <ul><ul><li>A.  Alliance of States </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Created in 1777 and ado...
4.  State Constitution <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most states adopted a list of duties of the government </li></ul></ul></ul></ul...
B.  Trouble with the Articles <ul><ul><ul><li>1.  Economic hardships faced the nation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul>...
2.  Nationalists Arise <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wanted to restrain unpredictable behavior of states. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><...
3.  Weaknesses of Articles of Confederation <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One vote for each states. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul...
4.  Annapolis Convention - 1786 <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Only five states sent delegates. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul>...
C.  Shays’ Rebellion <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Daniel Shays the war veteran, led a revolt over unpaid bills and taxes.  </li></u...
IV.  Constitution of the United States of America
A.  Constitutional Convention <ul><ul><ul><li>May – September 1787 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Meetings kept secre...
B.  James Madison <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Father of Constitution </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stu...
C.  Debate would ensue throughout convention <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Federalists wanted new, central government </li></ul></ul...
D.  Big vs. Small States <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Virginia Plan- legislature proportional to population </li></ul></ul></ul...
E.  Connecticut or Great Compromise <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bicameral legislature </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><u...
F.  Slaves to be counted or not? <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Southerners want slaves counted so representation to House would ...
G.  Ratification <ul><ul><ul><li>9/13 states needed to ratify. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Federalist papers writt...
H.  Federalists Convince the States <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Federalists had a plan, were organized. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><...
I.  Parts of the Constitution <ul><li>Legislative </li></ul><ul><li>Executive </li></ul><ul><li>Judicial </li></ul><ul><li...
J.  Bill of Rights - Added to appease the Anti-Federalists that freedoms would be protected. <ul><li>Freedom of expression...
i.  Freedom of expression <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Religion </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Speech </...
<ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Militia and right to bear arms* </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No quarterin...
<ul><li>v.  Cannot testify against oneself, no double jeopardy, natural rights cannot be taken without due process of law,...
<ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Speedy & public trial, accused, right to examine and provide witnesses, right to counsel. </li></u...
<ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rights not in the Constitution are allowed. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>...
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  1. 1. Unit 2 Creating the United States
  2. 2. 1. Colonial America
  3. 3. A. Salutary Neglect <ul><li>Economic benefits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Colonies run themselves (and pay for it) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Little time or money required of England. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Colonial Charters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Joint-Stock – Business owned. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Royal – controlled by crown. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proprietary – Controlled by person or group. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. B. Colonial Examples <ul><li>Pennsylvania </li></ul><ul><ul><li>21 yr + white men who paid taxes could vote. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Representatives had 1 year terms. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many rights given by proprietor (William Penn) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Virginia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Originally Jamestown Colony. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Joint-stock charter by Virginia Company. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First elected legislature – House of Burgess. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Massachusetts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plymouth Bay Colony </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Originally headed to Virginia, but blown off course. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mayflower Compact signed establishing a right of the majority to rule. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Massachusetts Bay Colony </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Headquarter in Boston. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many locally elected officials. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eventually joined with Plymouth. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. 2. Declaration of Independence
  7. 7. A. Cause for Break <ul><li>French and Indian War </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1754-1763 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>French/Indians and British (Americans) attempt to take Ohio River Valley. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>British Prime Minister William Pitt takes out loans and heavily taxes English to win war. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>British win. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Proclamation of 1763 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Peace with Natives. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OR Valley is placed under military control. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Americans – no moving west. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Who won the war? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>British - our military. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Americans- our militia. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>British want Americans to shoulder burden of debt. </li></ul><ul><li>New taxes & laws to help the Americans take care of the military & debt. </li></ul>A. Cause for Break
  9. 9. <ul><li>vi. Sugar Act 1764 – 1 st enforced. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smugglers tried in Naval Court </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NO JURY </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Quartering Act 65’– colonists provide food & housing for troops. </li></ul><ul><li>Stamp Act 65’ – paper products must be stamped (costs $). </li></ul>A. Cause for Break
  10. 10. B. Break Occurs <ul><li>Stamp Act Congress 65’ – delegates wrote protest to London. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Englishman’s rights crushed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No taxation without representation. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Boycotts of British products. </li></ul><ul><li>Tax collectors tarred and feathered. </li></ul><ul><li>66’ Parliament repeals Stamp Act </li></ul><ul><li>Declaratory Act – British can do what ever we want. </li></ul><ul><li>Townshend Act – tax on tea: 67’. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Boston Massacre, Tea Party. </li></ul><ul><li>Sons of Liberty had organized boycotts. </li></ul><ul><li>Coercive Acts – passed in anger to Boston. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Closed port at Boston. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eliminates most self-government of MA. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quebec Act – gives Ohio to the French-Canadians! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>x. First Continental Congress – Cont. boycotts, asks colonists to arm, sends Declaration of Resolves to plead Englishman’s rights. </li></ul>B. Break Occurs
  12. 12. C. Violence Occurs <ul><li>April, 1775 – Battles of Lexington and Concord. </li></ul><ul><li>Second Continental Congress Meets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Olive Branch Petition by John Dickinson asks for peace from king. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>King George III wants rebellion crushed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Declaration of Independence is written by Thomas Jefferson. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inspired by Enlightenment – John Locke’s ideas of basic rights (life, liberty, property). </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. III. Articles of Confederation <ul><ul><li>A. Alliance of States </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Created in 1777 and adopted by the Continental Congress </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Established a national government in 1781. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Legislative branch only. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No executive </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>State courts only </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. 4. State Constitution <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most states adopted a list of duties of the government </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most states also adopted a “bill of rights.” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. B. Trouble with the Articles <ul><ul><ul><li>1. Economic hardships faced the nation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>America had $50 million debt. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Continued to print worthless money. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many failed to pay back money owed to wealthy. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wealthy complained average citizens had too much power. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. 2. Nationalists Arise <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wanted to restrain unpredictable behavior of states. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Feared lack of national courts and economic policy. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wrote to newspapers. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Included: </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>George Washington </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>James Madison </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Alexander Hamilton </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Feared America’s culture of challenging authority. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>European and Roman Republics had failed. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Believed America should be a world model. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. 3. Weaknesses of Articles of Confederation <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One vote for each states. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Congress can’t collect taxes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Congress can't regulate commerce. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Amendments = unanimous approval. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>9/13 majority to pass laws. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Firm league of friendship.” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. 4. Annapolis Convention - 1786 <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Only five states sent delegates. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Agreed on meeting the next year. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. C. Shays’ Rebellion <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Daniel Shays the war veteran, led a revolt over unpaid bills and taxes. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rebellion put down. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prominent Americans saw need for order. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. IV. Constitution of the United States of America
  21. 21. A. Constitutional Convention <ul><ul><ul><li>May – September 1787 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Meetings kept secretive. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>55 delegates - educated </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. B. James Madison <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Father of Constitution </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Studied gov’t </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Believed people were selfish. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Government controls lust for power. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>James Madison
  23. 23. C. Debate would ensue throughout convention <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Federalists wanted new, central government </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anti-federalists wanted Articles with strong state governments </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Federalists won. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. D. Big vs. Small States <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Virginia Plan- legislature proportional to population </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>New Jersey Plan – every state gets and equal vote. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. E. Connecticut or Great Compromise <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bicameral legislature </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lower House –Representatives by population </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Upper House – 2 Senators from each state </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. F. Slaves to be counted or not? <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Southerners want slaves counted so representation to House would be greater </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Northerners opposed </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Three-Fifths Compromise : 3/5 counted were counted. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. G. Ratification <ul><ul><ul><li>9/13 states needed to ratify. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Federalist papers written to persuade New Yorkers to ratify. </li></ul></ul></ul>Patrick Henry
  28. 28. H. Federalists Convince the States <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Federalists had a plan, were organized. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>George Washington, national hero, backed Constitution. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 29. I. Parts of the Constitution <ul><li>Legislative </li></ul><ul><li>Executive </li></ul><ul><li>Judicial </li></ul><ul><li>States recognize each other </li></ul><ul><li>Amending </li></ul><ul><li>Supremacy </li></ul><ul><li>Ratification </li></ul>
  30. 30. J. Bill of Rights - Added to appease the Anti-Federalists that freedoms would be protected. <ul><li>Freedom of expression (Speech, Press, Assembly, Petition, Religion) </li></ul><ul><li>Bear arms </li></ul><ul><li>No quartering of troops </li></ul><ul><li>Warrants </li></ul><ul><li>Remain silent </li></ul><ul><li>Speedy/public trial, witnesses </li></ul><ul><li>Jury </li></ul><ul><li>Cruel & unusual </li></ul><ul><li>Rights not named </li></ul><ul><li>Unnamed powers to states </li></ul>
  31. 31. i. Freedom of expression <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Religion </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Speech </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Press </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assembly </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Petition </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Militia and right to bear arms* </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No quartering of soldiers during peace. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Search and seizure – warrants required. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>v. Cannot testify against oneself, no double jeopardy, natural rights cannot be taken without due process of law, property cannot be taken without payment. </li></ul>
  34. 34. <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Speedy & public trial, accused, right to examine and provide witnesses, right to counsel. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trial by jury. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No excessive fines, bail, or cruel and unusual punishment. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rights not in the Constitution are allowed. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Powers not in the Constitution are for the states. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
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