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Unit 2 general

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  • 1. Unit 2 Creating the United States
  • 2. 1. Colonial America
  • 3. A. Salutary Neglect
    • Economic benefits
      • Colonies run themselves (and pay for it)
      • Little time or money required of England.
    • Colonial Charters
      • Joint-Stock – Business owned.
      • Royal – controlled by crown.
      • Proprietary – Controlled by person or group.
  • 4. B. Colonial Examples
    • Pennsylvania
      • 21 yr + white men who paid taxes could vote.
      • Representatives had 1 year terms.
      • Many rights given by proprietor (William Penn)
    • Virginia
      • Originally Jamestown Colony.
      • Joint-stock charter by Virginia Company.
      • First elected legislature – House of Burgess.
  • 5.
    • Massachusetts
      • Plymouth Bay Colony
        • Originally headed to Virginia, but blown off course.
        • Mayflower Compact signed establishing a right of the majority to rule.
      • Massachusetts Bay Colony
        • Headquarter in Boston.
        • Many locally elected officials.
        • Eventually joined with Plymouth.
  • 6. 2. Declaration of Independence
  • 7. A. Cause for Break
    • French and Indian War
      • 1754-1763
      • French/Indians and British (Americans) attempt to take Ohio River Valley.
      • British Prime Minister William Pitt takes out loans and heavily taxes English to win war.
      • British win.
    • Proclamation of 1763
      • Peace with Natives.
      • OR Valley is placed under military control.
      • Americans – no moving west.
  • 8.
    • Who won the war?
      • British - our military.
      • Americans- our militia.
    • British want Americans to shoulder burden of debt.
    • New taxes & laws to help the Americans take care of the military & debt.
    A. Cause for Break
  • 9.
    • vi. Sugar Act 1764 – 1 st enforced.
      • Smugglers tried in Naval Court
      • NO JURY
    • Quartering Act 65’– colonists provide food & housing for troops.
    • Stamp Act 65’ – paper products must be stamped (costs $).
    A. Cause for Break
  • 10. B. Break Occurs
    • Stamp Act Congress 65’ – delegates wrote protest to London.
      • Englishman’s rights crushed.
      • No taxation without representation.
    • Boycotts of British products.
    • Tax collectors tarred and feathered.
    • 66’ Parliament repeals Stamp Act
    • Declaratory Act – British can do what ever we want.
    • Townshend Act – tax on tea: 67’.
  • 11.
    • Boston Massacre, Tea Party.
    • Sons of Liberty had organized boycotts.
    • Coercive Acts – passed in anger to Boston.
      • Closed port at Boston.
      • Eliminates most self-government of MA.
      • Quebec Act – gives Ohio to the French-Canadians!
    • x. First Continental Congress – Cont. boycotts, asks colonists to arm, sends Declaration of Resolves to plead Englishman’s rights.
    B. Break Occurs
  • 12. C. Violence Occurs
    • April, 1775 – Battles of Lexington and Concord.
    • Second Continental Congress Meets
      • Olive Branch Petition by John Dickinson asks for peace from king.
      • King George III wants rebellion crushed.
      • Declaration of Independence is written by Thomas Jefferson.
      • Inspired by Enlightenment – John Locke’s ideas of basic rights (life, liberty, property).
  • 13. III. Articles of Confederation
      • A. Alliance of States
        • Created in 1777 and adopted by the Continental Congress
        • Established a national government in 1781.
        • Legislative branch only.
          • No executive
          • State courts only
  • 14. 4. State Constitution
          • Most states adopted a list of duties of the government
          • Most states also adopted a “bill of rights.”
  • 15. B. Trouble with the Articles
        • 1. Economic hardships faced the nation
          • America had $50 million debt.
          • Continued to print worthless money.
          • Many failed to pay back money owed to wealthy.
          • Wealthy complained average citizens had too much power.
  • 16. 2. Nationalists Arise
          • Wanted to restrain unpredictable behavior of states.
          • Feared lack of national courts and economic policy.
          • Wrote to newspapers.
          • Included:
            • George Washington
            • James Madison
            • Alexander Hamilton
          • Feared America’s culture of challenging authority.
          • European and Roman Republics had failed.
          • Believed America should be a world model.
  • 17. 3. Weaknesses of Articles of Confederation
          • One vote for each states.
          • Congress can’t collect taxes
          • Congress can't regulate commerce.
          • Amendments = unanimous approval.
          • 9/13 majority to pass laws.
          • “ Firm league of friendship.”
  • 18. 4. Annapolis Convention - 1786
          • Only five states sent delegates.
          • Agreed on meeting the next year.
  • 19. C. Shays’ Rebellion
          • Daniel Shays the war veteran, led a revolt over unpaid bills and taxes.
          • Rebellion put down.
          • Prominent Americans saw need for order.
  • 20. IV. Constitution of the United States of America
  • 21. A. Constitutional Convention
        • May – September 1787
        • Meetings kept secretive.
        • 55 delegates - educated
  • 22. B. James Madison
            • Father of Constitution
            • Studied gov’t
            • Believed people were selfish.
            • Government controls lust for power.
    James Madison
  • 23. C. Debate would ensue throughout convention
          • Federalists wanted new, central government
          • Anti-federalists wanted Articles with strong state governments
          • Federalists won.
  • 24. D. Big vs. Small States
            • Virginia Plan- legislature proportional to population
            • New Jersey Plan – every state gets and equal vote.
  • 25. E. Connecticut or Great Compromise
            • Bicameral legislature
            • Lower House –Representatives by population
            • Upper House – 2 Senators from each state
  • 26. F. Slaves to be counted or not?
            • Southerners want slaves counted so representation to House would be greater
            • Northerners opposed
            • Three-Fifths Compromise : 3/5 counted were counted.
  • 27. G. Ratification
        • 9/13 states needed to ratify.
        • Federalist papers written to persuade New Yorkers to ratify.
    Patrick Henry
  • 28. H. Federalists Convince the States
          • Federalists had a plan, were organized.
          • George Washington, national hero, backed Constitution.
  • 29. I. Parts of the Constitution
    • Legislative
    • Executive
    • Judicial
    • States recognize each other
    • Amending
    • Supremacy
    • Ratification
  • 30. J. Bill of Rights - Added to appease the Anti-Federalists that freedoms would be protected.
    • Freedom of expression (Speech, Press, Assembly, Petition, Religion)
    • Bear arms
    • No quartering of troops
    • Warrants
    • Remain silent
    • Speedy/public trial, witnesses
    • Jury
    • Cruel & unusual
    • Rights not named
    • Unnamed powers to states
  • 31. i. Freedom of expression
            • Religion
            • Speech
            • Press
            • Assembly
            • Petition
  • 32.
            • Militia and right to bear arms*
            • No quartering of soldiers during peace.
            • Search and seizure – warrants required.
  • 33.
    • v. Cannot testify against oneself, no double jeopardy, natural rights cannot be taken without due process of law, property cannot be taken without payment.
  • 34.
            • Speedy & public trial, accused, right to examine and provide witnesses, right to counsel.
            • Trial by jury.
            • No excessive fines, bail, or cruel and unusual punishment.
  • 35.
            • Rights not in the Constitution are allowed.
            • Powers not in the Constitution are for the states.