Unit 2

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Unit 2

  1. 1. Unit 2 Creating the United States
  2. 2. I. Colonial America
  3. 3. A. Salutary Neglect <ul><li>Economic benefits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Colonies run themselves (and pay for it) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Little time or money required of England. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Colonial Charters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Joint-Stock – Business owned. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Royal – controlled by crown. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proprietary – Controlled by person or group. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. B. Colonial Examples <ul><li>Pennsylvania </li></ul><ul><ul><li>21 yr + white men who paid taxes could vote. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Representatives had 1 year terms. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unicameral legislature. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many rights given by proprietor (William Penn) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Virginia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Originally Jamestown Colony. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Joint-stock charter by Virginia Company. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First elected legislature – House of Burgess. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Massachusetts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plymouth Bay Colony </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Originally headed to Virginia, but blown off course. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mayflower Compact signed establishing a right of the majority to rule. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Massachusetts Bay Colony </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Headquarter in Boston. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many locally elected officials. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Taxes paid to church. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eventually joined with Plymouth. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. II. Declaration of Independence
  7. 7. C. Proclamation of 1763 <ul><li>BR made peace with NA. </li></ul><ul><li>All land west of the Appalachia forbidden to colonization. </li></ul><ul><li>Under British military control. </li></ul><ul><li>Colonists were angered by this action. </li></ul>
  8. 8. D. Tightening Control <ul><li>Mercantilists wanted more gold and silver in London. </li></ul><ul><li>War was expensive & Americans benefited from victory. </li></ul><ul><li>Taxing colonists would bring money back to London and pay for war. </li></ul><ul><li>PM George Grenville proposes new taxes. </li></ul>
  9. 9. E. Taxes <ul><li>Sugar Act 1764 – 1 st enforced. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smugglers tried in Admiralty Court </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NO JURY </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Quartering Act 65’– colonists provide food & housing for troops. </li></ul><ul><li>Stamp Act 65’ – paper products must have stamped (costs $). </li></ul>
  10. 10. F. Americans Protest <ul><li>Stamp Act Congress 65’ – delegates wrote protest to London. </li></ul><ul><li>Englishman’s rights crushed. </li></ul><ul><li>No taxation without representation. </li></ul><ul><li>Boycotts of British products. </li></ul><ul><li>Tax collectors tarred and feathered. </li></ul><ul><li>66’ Parliament repeals Stamp Act </li></ul><ul><li>Declaratory Act – We can do what ever we want. </li></ul>
  11. 11. G. Tea <ul><li>Finance Minister Charles Townshend takes control. </li></ul><ul><li>‘67 Townshend Tea Tax – would pay governors and judges. Lead, paper, paint, glass taxed too. </li></ul><ul><li>Tea smugglers reign. </li></ul><ul><li>Britain sends troops to stop them. </li></ul>
  12. 12. H. Boston Massacre <ul><li>Sixty Bostonians surround 10 redcoats (3/5/70). </li></ul><ul><li>One side claims snowballs, soldiers say they were clubbed. </li></ul><ul><li>Troops fire and there are 11 casualties. </li></ul><ul><li>John Adams defends troops. </li></ul><ul><li>Two are branded for manslaughter and released. </li></ul>
  13. 13. I. Boston Tea Party <ul><li>British East India Company – bankruptcy </li></ul><ul><li>London allows company to have monopoly over America. </li></ul><ul><li>Americans pay low price, but tax is kept. </li></ul><ul><li>Tea burned or turned back at ports. </li></ul><ul><li>(12/16/73) Disguised as Indians, Bostonians throw tea into harbor. </li></ul>
  14. 14. J. Resistance Before Fight <ul><li>Committees of Correspondence started by Samuel Adams – Patriotic writing fans flames. </li></ul><ul><li>Sons of Liberty had organized boycotts. </li></ul><ul><li>Coercive Acts – passed in anger to Boston. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Closed port at Boston. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eliminates most self-government of MA. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strengthens Quartering Act. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quebec Act – gives Ohio to the French-Canadians! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>First Continental Congress – Cont. boycotts, asks colonists to arm, sends Declaration of Resolves to plead Englishman’s rights. </li></ul>
  15. 15. K. Second Continental Congress <ul><li>Ben Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, John Hancock, Patrick Henry, Richard Henry Lee, John Dickinson, John, and Sam Adams. </li></ul><ul><li>Meet (5/75) . Deeply Divided. </li></ul><ul><li>(11/75) King George III rejects Olive Branch Petition. </li></ul><ul><li>(6/76) Appoints Committee to write Declaration of Independence. </li></ul>
  16. 16. L. Olive Branch Petition <ul><li>Written by Dickinson. </li></ul><ul><li>Loyalty to the King expressed. </li></ul><ul><li>Asked King to stall fight until solution found. </li></ul><ul><li>Last attempt before Declaration. </li></ul><ul><li>George III believed the rebels could be quickly crushed. </li></ul>
  17. 17. M. Common Sense <ul><li>Thomas Paine writes this pamphlet in (1/1776) </li></ul><ul><li>Makes reading simple for public. </li></ul><ul><li>500,000 copies sold in 1 year. </li></ul><ul><li>Explained: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monarchy wrong. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colonies must govern. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Independence must be fought for. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. N. Authors of Declaration <ul><li>Thomas Jefferson father of Independence. </li></ul><ul><li>John Adams, Robert Livingston, Roger Sherman, & Ben Franklin. </li></ul><ul><li>Jefferson was influenced by Enlightenment. </li></ul>
  19. 19. O. Influences <ul><li>James Harrington’s Oceana: Strong executive bad, influence of landowners good. </li></ul><ul><li>John Locke’s Second Treatise On Government : Divine Right of Kings is wrong. Government exists to protect people. </li></ul>
  20. 20. P. Sections <ul><li>Introduction or Preamble. </li></ul><ul><li>Locke’s idea of “Natural or Inalienable Rights.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Existed for humans. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not given by king. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Humans formed government to protect rights. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wrongs committed by king. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Q. Adopted <ul><li>Delegates voted on July 4 th 1776. </li></ul><ul><li>Defined basic principles of American government. </li></ul><ul><li>Some states were hesitant, especially those that still enjoyed self-government. </li></ul>
  22. 22. III. Articles of Confederation <ul><ul><li>A. Alliance of States </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Created in 1777 and adopted by the Continental Congress </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Established a national government in 1781. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Legislative branch only. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No executive </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>State courts only </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>States sent as many delegates as they wanted </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>States only received one vote </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. 4. State Constitution <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most states adopted a list of duties of the government </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most states also adopted a “bill of rights.” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pennsylvania had the most democratic government. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>21 yr + white men who paid taxes could vote. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Representatives had 1 year terms. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unicameral legislature. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. B. Trouble with the Articles <ul><ul><ul><li>1. Economic hardships faced the nation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>America had $50 million debt. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Continued to print worthless money. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many failed to pay back money owed to wealthy. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wealthy complained average citizens had too much power. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. 2. Nationalists Arise <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wanted to restrain unpredictable behavior of states. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Feared lack of national courts and economic policy. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Expressed concerns in newspapers. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Included: </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>George Washington </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>James Madison </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Alexander Hamilton </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Benjamin Franklin </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Feared America’s culture of challenging authority. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>European and Roman Republics had failed. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Believed America should be a world model. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. 3. Weaknesses of Articles of Confederation <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One vote for each states, no matter what size </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Congress cannot collect taxes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Congress was powerless to regulate foreign and interstate commerce. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No separate executive branch to enforce law. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No national court to interpret law. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Amendment only possible with unanimous approval. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>9/13 majorities needed to pass laws. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Firm league of friendship.” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. 4. Annapolis Convention - 1786 <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Only five states sent delegates. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Agreed on meeting the next year. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. C. Shays’ Rebellion <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Daniel Shays the war veteran, led a revolt over unpaid bills and taxes. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rebellion put down. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prominent Americans saw need for order. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>

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