A. Monarchys Early Limitations.1. France develops into an absolute rule, based on “divine right of kings.”2. King John of England attempts the same, but a revolt leads to theMagna Carta (1215) which protects the rights of lower nobles andtowns.3. King Henry VIII tries to regain power by taking charge of the Church ofEngland when the Pope will not grant a divorce. He does get approvalfrom Parliament.4. His Protestant son, Edward VI dies young.5. His Catholic daughter Mary I tries to bring the nation back to Rome.6. When she dies, her Protestant sister, Elizabeth I has to unite the nation.7. In order to do so, she must win the favour of Parliament.8. Gets them to pass legislation to provide a unified Church of England.
B. Dissention and War1. James (of the Stuart family)- believed in Divine right of kings2. Hated to ask Parliament for the money to finance his war plans.3. Left a bad relationship between monarchy and Parliament.4. His son Charles assumed the thrown, had a Catholic wife.5. Parliament was divided between House of Commons and Lords.6. Continually fought with Parliament, dismissed them many times.7. Needed money for land grabs in France and to quell rebellions in Scotland.8. When Parliament is recalled, they ask him to sign the Petition of Rights.a. No taxes without Parliament’s consent.b. King could not life habeas corpus.c. No housing or troops without consent of owners.d. No martial law in peacetime.9. Two groups evolve:a. Puritan Roundheads (supporters of the House of Commons).b. Royalist Cavaliers.10. The two sides fought in the English Civil War.
C. Constitutionalism Results…1. England erupts into Civil War (1642 -1651) when Charles I dismisses Parliament for not raising taxes.2. Puritan Parliament revolts and demands concessions from King.3. Puritan Roundheads win and Oliver Cromwell is new brutal leader (their side won thanks to his brilliant militarystrategy).4. Charles I is decapitated.5. People decide Puritan rule is too rough.6. Charles II is brought back to rule, but powers are limited.a. Grant a general pardon to those who had killed his father.b. Not question religion.c. Pay a standing army (stabilizing force)d. Let all land confiscated or sold during the Commonwealth be decided by Parliament.7. His brother James II rules and many believe he is a closet Catholic.8. Parliament invites Protestant cousin Mary and her husband to rule.9. James II flees with virtually no violence in what is known as the “Glorious Revolution.”
C. Constitutionalism results continued10. William and Mary agree to the English Bill of Rights.a. Parliament control of taxes.b. The right to petition the king.c. No standing army was to be used against the people.d. Protestants had the right to bear arms.e. Freedom of Speech and Debates.f. Freedom to elect members of Parliament.g. All future monarchs had to be Protestant.11. Monarchy and House of Lords continually lost power fromthis point.