Colonial governments


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  • Colonial governments given power by charters: Proprietary—one or more individuals controlled the colony Company Royal The monarch had the sole power to grant charters
  • Privy Council—a group of royal advisors that set English policy in the colonies; allowed most colonies to run their own affairs Governors—served as head of government; most assisted by and advisory council; monarch selected governor and councilmen in royal colonies; proprietors did so in proprietary colonies; CT elected governor; job of governor to carry out policies set by crown
  • Assemblies: elected to help make laws Based on Parliament Bicameral —law making body made up of two houses
  • Privy council: ensured all laws complied with royal policy
  • Virginia Assembly: established at Jamestown in 1619; first colonial legislature in North America Two Houses: Council of State: Selected by governor’s advisory council and the Virginia Company House of Burgesses—elected by colonists Disagreement: assemblies would refuse to pay salaries
  • Town Meeting—center of New England politics; decided on local issues—paying for schools, ownership and use of unsettled lands; selected town officials; met at least once a year South—lived too far away from one another—decisions made at the county level Middle colonies—combination of town and county meetings in local governments
  • Colonists used courts whenever possible to control local affairs—Example: a Massachusetts court would uphold Puritan ideas
  • Zenger found not guilty
  • 1685: James II becomes King of England—believed northern colonies had become too independent—wanted them more connected with England (more united effort against Indian war—Wikipedia)
  • 1686: James II united Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, and Rhode Island under a single government—the Dominion on New England Sir Edmund Andros appointed governor of Dominion Dominion government: Replaced original charters—no assemblies 1688: Andros limited town meetings 1687: Andros arrested individuals protesting tax policies
  • James II attempts to restore Catholicism—becomes very unpopular Parliament asks Mary (James’s daughter) and William of Orange (ruler of the Netherlands) to come to England and rule
  • Fall 1688: William & army land in England, James flees to France Not bloodless…minor battles
  • 1689: upon hearing of the fall of James II, New England residents removed Andros from power, sent him to England, and formed new assemblies William & Mary reissued charters to colonies English Bill of Rights reduced power of the monarch, gave more power to Parliament—shift to representative government
  • Colonial governments

    1. 1. Life in the English Colonies Forms of Government
    2. 2. Colonial Governments <ul><li>Charters: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proprietary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Company </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Royal </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Colonial Governments <ul><li>Privy Council </li></ul><ul><li>Governors </li></ul>
    4. 4. Colonial Assemblies <ul><li>Parliament: England’s national legislature </li></ul><ul><li>Bicameral —law making body made up of two houses </li></ul>
    5. 5. Parliament House of Commons House of Lords
    6. 6. Congress House of Representatives Senate
    7. 7. Colonial Assemblies <ul><li>Powers: raise taxes, organize governments, control military </li></ul><ul><li>Governor & Advisory Council: had to approve all laws </li></ul>
    8. 8. Colonial Assemblies <ul><li>Virginia Assembly (1619): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Council of State </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>House of Burgesses </li></ul></ul>Debate in the House of Burgesses
    9. 9. Colonial Assemblies <ul><li>New England: Town Meetings </li></ul><ul><li>Southern Colonies </li></ul><ul><li>Middle Colonies </li></ul>
    10. 10. Colonial Courts <ul><li>Influenced by royal officials </li></ul><ul><li>Supported local interests & ideas </li></ul>
    11. 11. Colonial Courts <ul><li>1733: John Peter Zenger criticizes NY governor </li></ul><ul><li>Libel —false statements that damage a person’s reputation </li></ul>
    12. 12. Colonial Courts <ul><li>Andrew Hamilton: Zenger can publish whatever he wants so long as it is true—even if it is damaging ! </li></ul>Zenger’s Newspaper
    13. 13. Colonial Courts <ul><li>Chief Justice: “Nothing can be worse to any government than to have people attempt to create distrust of it.” </li></ul><ul><li>Zenger found not guilty </li></ul>
    14. 14. The Dominion of New England <ul><li>1685: James II becomes King of England </li></ul>King James II
    15. 15. The Dominion of New England <ul><li>1686: northern colonies united under single government called the Dominion of New England </li></ul><ul><li>Sir Edmund Andros named governor </li></ul>Sir Edmund Andros
    16. 16. The Glorious Revolution <ul><li>James II attempts to restore Catholicism </li></ul><ul><li>Parliament requests Mary & William come to rule England </li></ul>
    17. 17. The Glorious Revolution <ul><li>Glorious Revolution: Mary & William of Orange overthrew James II of England </li></ul>King William III Queen Mary II
    18. 18. The Glorious Revolution <ul><li>1689: colonists remove Andros from power </li></ul><ul><li>William & Mary reissue charters </li></ul><ul><li>English Bill of Rights established </li></ul>